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I r ir'i ' i i r ^ l l ' wiMt l i tfViJIfifi " l iT l liili r Bi l iii 'i i T ii^ T i " ii ' 


VHilliam Bascom, Dirertor 

Museum of Anthropcogy 

University of California 

Berkeley 4, California 










/-L^. / 











BY Til ft. , 

REV. 0. E. VIDAL, M. A. 







The Yoruba Country, lying between the 2° and 6° W. 
long, and 6° and 10° N. lat., and due north of the Bight 
of Benin, has been, for more than a quarter of a century, 
the chief seat of the African slave-trade. Many Negroes, 
and, amongst them, Mr. Crowther, now a Clergyman of 
the Church of England, the compiler of the following 
work, were re-captured from Brazilian slavers by the 
cruisers of the British squadron, and landed at Sierra 
Leone, where they received a Christian education in the 
schools of the Church Missionary Society. No less than 
3000 of these involuntary emigrants have since returned 
to the land of their birth ; and it has also pleased God 
to bless the labours of the Society's Missionaries in the 
chief town, Abbeokuta, to the establishment of a flourish- 
ing Mission amongst the Aborigines, commenced August 
3, 1846, and now numbering several hundred converts. 

A Christian literature became at once a desideratum 
for this rising Christian community. This want Mr. 
Crowther is at present supplying. A Yoruba Primer, 
the Gospel according to St. Luke, the Acts of the Apo- 
stles, St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans, the Epistles of St. 
James and St. Peter, and selections of the Book of Com- 

( iv ) 

nioii Prayer, embracing all the more important parts of 
it, except the Psalms, Epistles, and Gospels, are already 
published, and may, most of them, be obtained at the 
Society's House. A new and improved edition of Mr. 
-Crow tiler's Yoruba Grammar is now in the press, havinsj 
just received his revision and corrections. And it is 
hoped that the present work, containing near 3000 
vocables, may do much toward settling a rich and eupho- 
nous language, spoken, probably, by 3,000,000 of the Afri- 
can race, but till within the last ten years never re- 
duced to writing. The materials were collected by Mr. 
Crowther since his return to his native land, and the pro- 
verbial and idiomatic sayings interspersed throughout the 
book were taken down by him from the lips of his coun- 
trymen in the course of common conversation. They are 
here introduced to illustrate the genius of the language ; 
but they are no less valuable ethnologically, as elucida- 
ting many of the characteristics of the national mind of 
this very interesting people. 

We refer the reader to the valuable details on both 
these points contained in the very able article with which 
this work is enriched, from the pen of one of the best liv- 
ing scholars in African languages — the Bishop Designate 
of Sierra Leone, whose first act upon entering on his new 
see will be thus associated with a measure for the dif- 
fusion amongst the Yorubans, in their own tongue, of that 
Sacred Word which will be at once the standard and the 
subject of all his ministrations among them. 

The system of phonography employed in the Vocabu- 

( V ) 

lary — which also contains the analysis or derivation of 
each several word — is that adopted by this Society in its 
" Rules for reducing unwritten languages to alphabetical 
writing in Roman characters, with reference especially to 
the languages spoken in Africa," appended to the Church 
Missionary Report for 1848-49, in which '^ it has not been 
attempted to form a perfect phonetic system, but one 
which practical experience suggests as the most expe- 
dient under all the circumstances of the case." A sum- 
mary of it, as far as it bears on the present subject, will 
be found at p. (40). 

The work is now sent forth with the prayerful hope 
that it may do much, in God's hand, towards facilitating 
the progress of the Gospel in a land which has peculiar 
claims on the efforts and sympathies of England. 

Church Missionary House, 
April 12, 1852. 





REV. O. E. VI DAL, M.A. 


It is with much diffidence that I venture to lay before 
the public the following scanty remarks on the distin- 
guishing peculiarities of the Yoruba language. My 
design has been, to illustrate a few of its leading fea- 
tures, in the hope of aw'akening an interest in the 
subject, and of giving a stimulus to further investigation. 
The full appreciation of the character and genius of a 
language demands a longer and more familiar acquaint- 
ance with it than has yet fallen to the lot of Europeans 
in the case of the Yoruba. And where the analogies wdth 
kindred or cognate dialects are as yet undiscovered, this 
difficulty is incomparably greater than it is where those 
analogies are traceable. In taking up, for example, 
such a language as the Sicuana, supposing the learner to 
have formed a previous acquaintance with the Kafir, the 
analogous system of prefixes strikes him at the very first 
entrance on his studies, and suggests inquiries as to fur- 
ther analogies, which approve themselves to his mind as 
probable; so that he does not pursue his researches at 
random. But the very reverse of this is the case where 
such analogies are w^anting : there he is, as it were, feel- 
ing his way in the dark, without the advantage of know- 
ing even what to seek for. Such is the difficulty wdiich 
we have to encounter in the study of the Yoruba. How^- 
ever beautiful or perfect its vocabulary or construction 
may be, we are left to feel after its perfections, and to 
light upon them one by one, as if by chance, from the 
want of those known affinities with other tongues which 
should be the clue to guide us through the labyrinth. 

( 2 ) 

Failing, however, those analogies vvliich would enable us 
to connect the Yoruba with its kindred dialects, and so, 
by direct inference, to lay down its position amongst the 
languages of Africa, we may still, from the very want 
of those analogies, come at a negative conclusion, and 
exclude it from one and another of those ethnological 
families whose characteristic features are prominent and 
defined, and so perhaps eventually, after a series of ex- 
clusions, arrive at a satisfactory result, from which there 
will be no escaping. But at present our knowledge of 
African philology is so scanty, that it were utterly im- 
possible to continue our negative process so far. The 
utmost that I can attempt in the remarks I now have to 
offer is to lay the foundation of this series of exclusions, 
thus marking out one or two of the grand families of the 
Hamitic stock, to which the Yoruba cannot be referred, 
and in this manner limiting to some extent the area over 
which we must search for its affinities. 

The first peculiarity of the Yoruba language to which 
I shall refer, is, the complete and regular system of pre- 
fixes by which substantives are formed. This is a pro- 
minent feature in the language, and renders it susceptible 
of increase to an indefinite extent. The original idea 
contained in the simple verb may be modified in a 
variety of ways, and carried through numerous relations, 
without periphrasis, by the mere addition of prefixes, in 
such a regular system that it is scarcely possible to mis- 
take the meaning of the compound. 

1. We have first the radical word, expressing the sim- 
ple idea of acting or suffering ; as se, " do ;" fe, " love ;" 
MO, " know ;" lo, "go." 

2. The idea contained in this radical word assumes a 
substantive form, in which it expresses abstractedly the 
action denoted by the verb, by taking the prefix ?; 

( 3 ) 

thus, isE, " the action or act of doing ;" ife, " the act of 
loving, love ;" mo, " the act of knowing, knowledge ;" 
iLo, " the act of going." 

3. The action denoted by the verb cannot be always 
regarded in the abstract : it comes before us also in the 
concrete, when it becomes more definite, as possessing 
particular relations, so that the general idea is very much 
limited. To express this limitation, the prefix a is 
used ; as aye, " a state of living ;" afe, '^ a state of lov- 
ing," ALO, " a going." These words apply to particular 
agents at particular times, generally implying that the 
acts they describe may come to an end ; and tbey cannot 
be used convertibly with iye, ife, ilo, which denote life, 
love, going, in the abstract. Perhaps the distinction 
might be stated thus, that i denotes the act, a the fact, 
expressed in the verb. 

4. The prefix ati describes the same action as in- 
tended or commencing, and may be called the inchoative 
prefix. Thus, ATIL9, " the act of going," atife, " the 
act of loving," considered as not yet in exercise. 

5. The abstract idea of the action expressed in the verb 
may be negatived, or converted into its opposite, by the 
prefixing of a to the abstract prefix i. Thus, aimo, " un- 
knowing, ignorance/' aigbon, " want of wisdom," aigbo, 
" unbelief." 

To describe the agent of the action contained in the 
verb the following modes of formation are observed. 

G. The prefix a; as apejja, "a fisherman," from 
pejja, " a fish," AKONRiN, ^' a singer," from konrix, " to 

7. The reduplication of the verb, as pejjapejja, " a 
fisherman," konrinkonrin, " a singer." 

8. From the noun again is formed a verb of posses- 
sion, by prefixing the verb Nf, "to have," which, before 

( 4 ) 

nouns beginning with a, e, o, is changed into li, and 
drops its vowel ; thus we find, from idajo, "judgment, 
or the act of judging," nidajo, " to possess, or be in, the 
act of judging;" from almo, "ignorance," LAIM9, "to 
possess ignorance ;" from ese, " sin," lese, " to possess 
sin ;" from owo, " money," lowo, " to possess money." 

9. And hence nouns of possession are formed by pre- 
fixing a vowel to this verb, which varies according to a 
determinate rule. Where the form ni is retained, the 
prefixed vowel is : in the other cases it is the same as 
the initial vowel of the noun which denotes the thing 
possessed ; thus, onidajo, " one who judges ;" alaimo, 
" one who is ignorant;" elese, " one who has sin ;" olowo, 
"one who possesses money;" olorun, "one who pos- 
sesses, or is in, heaven." 

The following list of derivatives from se will throw 
more light u])on the above-described formation of nouns. 
SE, " sin," the original idea of the verb. 
ESE, " sin," the noun, an irregular formation. 
LESE, " to have sin," verb of possession. 
EL^sE, " one who has sin," noun of possession. 
iLESE, " the act of having sin." 
ailese, " the not having sin." 
LAiLESE, " to possess frcedom from having sin." 
ALAiLESE, " one who possesses freedom from having sin." 
So complete and perfect is this system that it admits 
of being exhibited in a tabular form, as follows : 






Verb of 

Noun of 
































There is a degree of similarity traceable in the verbal 
nouns, as they have been called, of the M pong we Ian- 

( 5 ) 

^uage. For instance, there are abstract nouns, derived 
from the verb, a<^ in Yoruba, by prefixing i ; as, from 
TONDA, " to love," iTONDA, " lovc ;" nouns of agency, 
formed by prefixing o; as, from noka, "to lie," onoki, 
"a liar;" and frequentative nouns, formed by the change 
of the final « into ini; as, from noka, "to lie," nokini, 
" much or habitual lying." * 

The very same thing is observable in the Kafir and 
Sicuana languages. Of the former, Boyce says in his 
Grammar, " The second person sing, of the imp. mood of 
the verb may be considered as the root from which the 
other words, especially the nouns, are derived. By pre- 
fixes to this part of the verb, and sometimes by a slight 
change in termination, the Kafirs form nouns verbal, 
abstract, concrete, &c., which, though never heard as 
nouns before in that form, would be readily understood 
by every Kafir who understood the meaning of the word 
from whence they are derived. '"t Archbell's account of 
Sicuana formations is given in almost the same words. ;|: 

The Kisuaheli language, also, has modes of formation 
by which substantives, as well concrete as abstract, are 
derived from verbs, or from simple nouns, as Dr. Krapf 
has fully explained in his grammar of that language, 
pp. 40 — 44.§ 

In the Mandingo, too, nouns of instrument, of quality, 
and of agency, are formed either from verbs or nouns, in 
a similar manner; but always by suffixes instead of pre- 
fixes. Indeed, the use of suffixes, where other African 
languages would employ prefixes, may be said to be a 

* Vide " A Grammar of the Mpongwe Language," by the Missionaries of 
the A. B. C. F. M. Gaboon Mission, Western Africa, § 17. p. 14. 

+ Vide "A Grammar of the Kafir Language," by W. Boyce, § IL 4. p. 6. 

I Vide "A Grammar of the Sechuana Language," by Archliell, p. 8. 

5; Vide " Outline of the Elements of the Kisuaheli Language,'' by the Rev. 
Dr. J. L. Krapf. Part IL Ch. I L § 4. 

( 6 ) 

universal rule in the ^landingo.* Dr. Latham, however, 
in his elaborate paper on African pliilolo(>;y, has an ob- 
servation, that tile value of a distinction of this kind, 
between the methods of inflexional formation in dilFerent 
languages, is of no great importance.f 

Something of the same character pervades that most 
remarkable of African dialects, the Woloif, indeed to 
such an extent, that new words, never heard before, 
might be formed from known roots, according to a recog- 
nised process, as in the Yoruba, w Inch would not fail of 
being understood. M. Dard, in his " Dictionnaire Wo- 
lofF," states this fact most unequivocally ; " Nos livres 
fran9ais," he says, " peuvent done etre traduits assez 
exactement dans le langage des negres woloiTs ; et nous 
pouvons affirmer que ces memes negres saisiront le sens 
des mots formes d'apr^s cette methode, tant ils sont 
habitues a decomposer et a composer les mots."| 

In this respect the Woloff comes nearer to the Yoruba 
than any of the other languages to which I have referred, 
without excepting even the Kafir and Sicuana. A prin- 
ciple of this kind, it is true, is of necessity to be found in 
operation in all polysyllabic tongues ; but the distin- 
guishing feature in the Yoruba is the beautiful com- 
pleteness and perfect regularity which characterize its 
formative process. 

80 far, however, as our researches have proceeded at 
present, this leading feature of the Yoruba language will 
not help us in assigning its position amongst the families 
of the llamitic stock. But there is, in relation to this 
part of our subject, a fact to be noticed, which will enable 

• Vide "A Grammar of the jMandingo Languago," by the Rev. R. M. 
Macbrair, § 19—21. 
t Vide^' The 17th Rej)ort of the British Association," p. 218. 
J Vide " Dictionnairc Woloff- Fraii^ais ct Fran^ais- Woloff/' ]jar M. Dard. 

( 7 ) 

US to take a first step in our process of exclusion. I 
mean, that with all this perfect regularity of formation 
there is a total absence of that elaborate system of clas- 
sification by means of formative prefixes, which distin- 
guishes the South-African family; which was first de- 
veloped by Boyce in his Grammar of the Kafir language,* 
and has been recently explained in a more philosophical 
manner by Dr. Krapf in his Kisuaheli works. He re- 
solves this grand peculiarity into an action of the South- 
African mind in its contemplation of nature. " The 
mind of the South African," he says, " divides, as it were, 
the whole creation into two halves, of which the one is 
governed by the principle of spontaneity of movement, 
and of creative activity, whilst the other follows the 
principle of passiveness and necessity. The South-Afri- 
can mind distinguishes the animate creation from the 
inanimate ; and, again, distinguishes in the animate 
creation rational and irrational beings, men and brutes. 
Furthermore, in the inanimate creation it distinguishes 
between life and death, as it were. In general, it would 
seem that the South-African mind, in the formation and 
cultivation of its language, was guided by the impression 
of life which pervades the whole creation in various gra- 
dations or modifications." t This mental distinction, thus 
described by Dr. Krapf, developed itself in a general 
classification of nouns substantive, by means of a system 
of formative prefixes. And the entire absence of any 
such classification in the Yoruba is fully sufficient to ex- 
clude it from that extensive family of languages which 
occupies the W'hole of Africa south of the line, and of 
which I have recently discovered the Temneh (with its 
two cognates, the Sherbro and the BiiUom) to be a branch. 

* Vide § II. 5. et passim. 

t " Outl. of El. of Kisuaheli Language." Part II. Ch. II. p. 30. 

( 8 ) 

The second striking feature of tlie Yoruba language 
which claims our notice, is, the curious euphonic system 
which regulates the concord of tlie verb and pronoun. 

Each personal pronoun in the singular number has 
three distinct forms, which cannot be used indiscrimi- 
nately, but the appropriateness of which depends ex- 
clusively upon the vowel sound of the verb with which 
they are in construction. That vowel sound affects the 
vowel of the pronoun, altering it so as to make it of the 
same kind or quantity. The first, indeed, of the three 
forms just alluded to is a sort of general form, being 
the original and full form of the pronoun ; but the use of 
the two latter is wholly regulated by the vowel sound of 
the verb. 

For this purpose the vowels of the Yoruba language 
are apparently made to form two separate classes, accord- 
ing to the closeness or openness of their sound ; thus — 
Close vowels ... o e i i u u 
Open vowels ... o e a a 

Then, according to the close or open sound of the 
vowel which occurs in the governing verb, the pronoun 
assumes the close or open o. The full forms of the three 
personal pronouns are, emi, iwo, on. The forms which 
they assume before the first class of vowels are, mo, o, 6 ; 
and before the second, mo, o, o . The third personal pro- 
noun, 6, 9, is marked w ith the acute accent, to show that 
the distinction between the second and third consists in the 
latter being enunciated with an elevation of the voice. 
The Yoruba language abounds in these intonations. It is 
observable, also, that the negative particle is subject to 
the same changes, its original form being ki, before close 
vowels Ko, and before open, ko. This system of muta- 
tions, which I would call the Vocalic Euphony System, 
may be exhibited in the following table : — 

( 9 ) 

NI, MBE, SE, &C. 

I '2 



Neg. Part. 






There is a still further developement of this system in 
the case of the 3d pers. pronoun, when used objectively. 
It consists in that case of a single vowel-sound, which 
varies not only according to the class of the vowel in the 
verb, but according to its individual sound ; so that it 
possesses no less than seven forms, whose use is not op- 
tional, but regulated by the verb : thus — 


3d Pers. Obj 

SA . 














This system, thougli appearing only in the single in- 
stance of the concord between the verb and the pronoun 
(unless indeed we include the formation of nouns of pos- 
session, already described, which is strictly parallel,) is 
still observable as proving the existence of that princi- 
ple, which seems everywhere to pervade the African 
mind, of making the sound an artificial vehicle of the 
sense, so that the words which, in a sentence, have a cer- 
tain relation to each other, may be known to have that 
relation by their similarity of sound. This principle 
gives to the languages of Africa an external superficial 
character ; scarcely less so, though of a totally dillerent 
kind, than that which is manifested by the monosyllabic 
languages, where position is the only guide to the mutual 

( 10 ) 

relation which obtains between the component parts of a 

I have observed that the appearance of this principle 
of euphonic concord seems to connect the Yoruba with 
the langua,^es of Africa generally. I must add, however, 
that it affords us no clue to the position which this 
language holds amongst them, except it be negatively, 
by pointing out to what classes it does not belong. The 
simple fact, that in the Yoruba the euphonic changes 
affect tlie vowel-sound alone, whilst in those systems which 
prevail so generally throughout Africa the concord is 
effected by consonantal changes, furnishes us with a very 
marked distinction, sufficient to exclude this language 
from the other classes in which the euphonic principle 
is found; although the existence of the principle in 
any shape may still be regarded as a connecting link, in 
tracing out the larger families of human speech. 

I know of but one instance in which there is any thing 
that very closely resembles the vocalic euphony of the 
Yoruba, and that is in the concord of the verb and pro- 
noun in one tense only in the Haussa language. There 
the vowel which serves as an auxiliary to the verb varies 
according to the vowel-sound of the pronoun ; so that we 
have Ni /sAii, ka y/soii, ki /sou, ta ^soii, mu f/soH, for the 
several persons of that tense.* Here, however, we may 
observe a distinction ; for whereas, in the Haussa, the pro- 
noun influences the verb, in the Yoruba, on the contrary, 
the verb acts upon the pronoun. 

And this is the only instance of any thing very nearly 
resembling the Yoruba euphonic concord ; for there is 
no resemblance, except in the bare existence of a prin- 
ciple, between this vocalic change, and the regular har- 

* Vide " Vocabulary of the Haussa Language," by the Kev. J. F. Schon, 
p. 25. 

( 11 ) 

monious system which pervades and directs the whole 
construction of that vast family in the south, to whicli 
the appropriate name of the Alliteral Class has been 
applied. The known dialects of that great class have 
been divided into four separate families, the Congo, the 
Damara, the Sicuana, and the Kafir, to which may now 
be added at least tw^o others, the Kisuaheli and the 
Temneh. Their general resemblance to each other in 
point of construction clearly proves them all to belong 
to one stock ; whilst the dissimilarity existing between 
them and the Yoruba, in the particular we are now con- 
sidering, will confirm us in the conclusion to which we 
have been already led by the total want in the latter of 
that system of classification by prefixes which pervades 
and distinguishes the former. 

There is, however, one other very remarkable language, 
long known to Europeans on the West Coast, which ex- 
hibits the peculiarity of the euphonic concord ; I mean, 
the WolofF. But here it only presents itself in the single 
instance of that most unique and efTective particle to 
which Roger gives the title of " le signe de position,"* 
and which, according to Dard, has seven different forms 
depending on the initial of the noun which it defines.t 
This phase of the euphonic concord, though totally un- 
connected with that of the South-African languages, 
does yet bear a nearer resemblance to that than it bears 
to the phase which we trace in the Yoruba. And hence 
I would argue, that the vocalic euphony system of the 
latter does not only exclude it from the vast alliteral 
class of the south, but also from that western family, 
whatever it may prove to be, to which the Woloff, at 
present standing alone and unconnected, distinguished as 

* Vide "Rech«rches sur la langue Ouolof," par M. le Baron Roger. 
t " Dictionnaire Woloff- Franoais et Fran^ais-Wolotf," par M. Dard. 

( 12 ) 

it is by many extraordinary peculiarities, shall eventu- 
ally be traced. 

The third feature which 1 shall notice in the Yoruba 
is one of a still more negative character than either of 
those which have preceded. It is the total absence of 
conjugation in the verb. There are, it is true, a few par- 
ticles used as auxiliary verbs, to mark distinctions of 
mood and tense ; but these, with the single exception, 
perhaps, of the future auxiliary vio, are significant in 
themselves, and consequently separable from the verb 
they are employed to modify. Thus we have le and ma, 
denoting a potential and a subjunctive mood respectively ; 
as also for the tenses, ti, past, and yio, future. But 
there is nothing that presents the appearance of inflex- 
ion : the verb always appears in its root form, which 
never varies. 

The grand peculiarity of African languages generally, 
as it respects the verb, is the extreme perfection to 
which they have carried that kind of conjugation which 
Chev. Bunsen has denominated the Semitic. By this 
name is denoted " the modification of the predicate con- 
tained in each adjective verb," to give his own definition, 
in contradistinction to what he calls the Sanscritic con- 
jugation, " which is intended to mark the modifications of 
which the copula is capable, according to time and mode 
of existence."* In the Semitic languages, these modifi- 
cations are effected by an alteration of the form of the 
original verb, either by the mere change of vowels in the 
same radical consonants, or by an addition of servile let- 
ters with a suitable change of vowels.f The seven con- 

* Vide "Seventeenth Report of the British Association," p. 282, in a paper 
on the results of the recent Egyptian researches in reference to Asiatic and 
African Ethnology, and the classification of Languages, by C. C. J. Bunsen. 

t Vide " Grammar of the Amharic Language," by the Rev. C. W. Isen- 
berg, Ch. IV. § IL 3. 


•( 13 ) 

jngations of the Hebrew, and the thirteen of the Arabic 
verb will at once occur to our minds, all formed in the 
manner above described. The Ethiopic language, strictly 
Semitic, has ten of these different forms ; whilst in the 
Amharic, which connects Semitism with Africa, Isenberg 
has exhibited no less than twenty-four variations of form 
belonging to the regular and perfect verb. Chev. Bunsen 
states that the old Egyptian shows a germ of this Semitic 
conjugation ; but the developement of that germ in the 
Coptic is not organic, being effected by an auxiliary. 
The same system prevails to some extent in the Berber ; 
so much so, that Newman says in his grammar, " From 
primitive verbs are derived others with a modified mean- 
ing, exactly on the same principle as in the Ethiopian 
and Syro-Arabian."t He subsequently mentions three 
forms of these derivative verbs : 1. The Causative, with 
respect to which he says, " This is so entirely a living 
process, that a causative verb, it would seem, may always 
safely be invented from any given verb, without risk of 
being misunderstood.":!: 2. The Passive or Neuter; and, 
3. The Reciprocal ; adding that " more derived forms 
than these exist, but cannot yet be methodized."§ As 
we proceed southward, however, to the large alliteral 
family already so often mentioned, we find this system of 
conjugation developing itself, if not more fully, at least 
with more of definiteness and regularity. To mention 
some few of the many dialects which compose that 
family, the Kafir exhibits at least eight modifications of 
the verb, the Siciiana six, the Kisuaheli seven, the 
Mpongwe eleven, and the Temneh an equal number. The 

* " Seventeenth Report of the British Association," p. 282. 
t " Vide " A Grammar of the Berber Language," p. 313. 
I Ibid. p. 314. 
^ Ibid. p. 315. 

( 14 ) 

conjuojation called by some the Objective,* by others the 
Relative,! is a peculiarity which marks all these lan- 
guages, and is not to be met with, as far as my know- 
ledge extends, in any that does not belong to this family. 
It denotes that the action described is performed rela- 
tively, for or in behalf of another. This conjugation 
does not appear in the Wololf, which, however, is re- 
markably prolific in its modifications of the verb, count- 
ing no less than eleven, and many of these peculiar to 
itself, having no place in other languages ; as, for in- 
stance, the Preparatory, the Iterative, the Diminutive, 
and the Intensive Negative conjugations ; thus serving to 
keep up that character for singularity which distinguishes 
this unique specimen of human speech. Even in the 
Mandingo there seems a slight touch ofSemitism in this 
respect, as a causative conjugation may be formed from 
the radical by an organic change ; but to the best of my 
belief, these modifications of the predicate are not car- 
ried any further in that dialect. 

And now, after taking this summary view of the prin- 
cipal families of Africa, in respect of this grand charac- 
teristic, when I add, that in the Yoruba there is not the 
slightest trace of any thing approaching to it, I think we 
shall feel constrained to admit that the total absence of 
such a distinguishing peculiarity must of necessity ex- 
clude the Yoruba from any direct relationship to the 
families possessing it. Thus we are led again, by a third 
argument, independent of the two former, to the conclu- 
sion that this language has no connexion with the alli- 
teral family of the south ; we are also strengthened in 
our former view of its complete separation from the 
WolofF; and, in addition to this, we now find that it is 

* Boycp, " Kafir Grammar" § VI. n. p. 49. 

t American Missionaries' " Mj)()ngwe Grammar," § 57 

( 15 ) 

equally far from the more strictly Semitic families of the 
northern and north-eastern portions of the African con- 

If we now turn to the map of Africa, we shall perceive 
that the area over which we must search for the affini- 
ties of the Yoruba language is very considerably di- 
minished ; that, in fact, nothing now remains to be ex- 
plored for this purpose but the tract on either side of the 
banks of the Niger, with the Guinea coast, which is en- 
closed by the course of that mysterious river, and the 
line of Mahommedan kingdoms which stretches eastward 
on either side of the inland sea of Tchad, from the Niger 
to the Nile ; the whole space being included between 
the fifth and fifteenth degrees of N. latitude, and between 
ten degrees W. and thirty degrees E. of longitude. 

There is another very striking feature in the Yoruba 
language, which I feel unwilling to pass over in this 
memoir, although, at the present stage of our knowledge 
on the subject of African philology, it will not afford any 
help in assigning to this language its proper position on 
the ethnological chart. The adverb is a part of speech 
in which we do not commonly recognise any characte- 
ristic sufficiently prominent to become a distinctive mark 
of any language, either generic or specific. But in the 
case of the Yoruba there is a most observable peculiarity 
in the use of this part of speech, wiiich must, I think, 
eventually prove to be such a distinctive mark. Speaking 
in general terms, we may say, that each individual adverb 
of qualification possesses an idiosyncrasy of its own 
which altogether incapacitates it from supplying the 
place of another. It contains within itself the idea of the 
word which it is employed to qualify, although, as to 
form and derivation, totally unconnected with tliat word. 
In this way " almost every adjective and verb has its own 

( 16 ; 

peculiar adverb to express its quality/'* or rather its de- 
gree. This peculiarity must certainly greatly increase 
the expressiveness of the language. Thus, for example, 
in sentences where we should employ the word "veiy" 
let the subject of which we were speaking be what it 
might, the Yoruban would express the same meaning 
with far more of definiteness and precision by a separate 
adverb in each case, no two of which could be used con- 
vertibly. We should say, for instance, " The tree is 
veri/ high ;" " tlie bird flies vcri/ high ;" " this cloth is 
veri/ yellow ;" " the scarlet is veri/ red ;" " the glass is 
vety dazzling." But the Yoruban would vary his adverb 
in every example ; thus " iggi ga Jiqfio ;" " eiye fo tian- 
tian;' " aso yi pon rokirokif " ododo pipa roro;" 
" awojijin ndan maratimaran" It is true, we have adverbs 
which can only be applied to certain classes of subjects, 
as the word " beautifully" can only be used concerning 
objects of sense ; but even here the tendency to general- 
ize is observable : " beautifully" belongs of course, in its 
original acceptation, only to objects of sight, as, " the 
cloth is beautifully yellow ;" but we employ it constantly 
in reference to objects of hearing, speaking of harmony 
as beautifully soft, and so on. In the Yoruba, on the 
contrary, we observe the working of a principle the very 
opposite of this generalization. Thus the word " fiofio," 
used above, can only apply to the idea of height, and 
that, too, only when the subject of which height is predi- 
cated is connected with the ground, and stands upon it ; 
for when the idea of height implies distance from the 
ground and separation from it, another distinct adverb, 
" tiantian," must be employed. So, too, the adverb " ro- 
kiroki" can only be used of a yellow colour, although the 
word itself does not mean yellow; and " roro" only of a 

* Vide " Vocabulary of the Yoruba Language," by S. Crowther, p. 29. 

( ly ) 

red, or, at least, dark colour, though the word has no such 
meaning; the fiict being, that they imply ideas connected 
with those colours respectively, and not with the category 
of colour generally. And this principle seems to per- 
vade the language ; so that, in order to speak it correctly, 
it is necessary to know not only the verb or adjective 
wliich expresses what we wish to say, but also the pe- 
culiar and appropriate adverb which denotes the degree 
or quality attaching to it. This singular feature of the 
Yoruba language is unique, and therefore I shall not 
waste time in comparing it with the adverbial systems, 
whatever they may be, of other African languages. 

The above remarks have throughout had reference to 
grammatical peculiarities. These, however, are not the 
only points deserving of notice in connexion with our 
present subject. Language is designed to give expres- 
sion to thought. Hence, by examining the particular 
class of composition to w^iich any given language has 
been especially devoted, we may trace the direction in 
which the current of thought is wont to flow amongst the 
tribe or nation in which it is vernacular, and so investi- 
gate the principal psychical peculiarities, if such there 
be, of that tribe or nation. In this view, then, we may 
say that a leading characteristic of the Yoruba language, 
deserving of a prominent place in these remarks, is to be 
found in the rich and abundant profusion of its prover- 
bial sayings. 

A glance at the Dictionary before us will suffice to 
convince us that in this respect the Yoruba is no ordi- 
nary language. It should seem that there is scarcely an 
object presented to the eye, scarcely an idea excited in 
the mind, but it is accompanied by some sententious 
aphorism, founded on a close observance of men and 
manners, and, in many cases, of a decidedly moral ten- 

( 18 ) 

dency. It is true that this concise and pointed method 
of speech is, in a degree, common to all nations amongst 
whom civilization has made but little progress ; for, as 
has been justly remarked, " proverbial expressions are 
peculiarly adapted to a rude state of society, and more 
likely to produce effect than any other ; for they profess 
not to dispute, but to command ; not to persuade, but to 
compel : they conduct men, not by circuitous argument, 
but immediately, to the approbation and practice of in- 
tegrity and virtue."* In the Yoruba, however, there is 
an extraordinary exuberance of these sententious sayings, 
not confined to any particular caste undertaking to be 
the guide of the rest ; but everywhere in the mouths of 
all, imparting a character to common conversation, and 
marking out a people of more than ordinary shrewdness, 
intelligence, and discernment. If brevity and elegance 
be regarded as the two main excellencies of a proverb, 
the Yoruban aphorisms may claim an equal rank with 
those of any other nation in ancient or modern times ; for 
besides the condensation of the discriminating sentiment 
into a small compass, which is always observable in 
them, there is, for the most part, also an almost poetical 
contrivance or construction of the parts, which marks a 
refinement of taste greater than we should naturally have 

1 believe that the number and the character of these 
proverbial sayings will almost bear us out in calling them 
the national poetry of the Yorubas. I am not aware of 
the existence among them of any heroic pieces, or war 
and hunting songs, such as those which prevail amongst 
the southern tribes, and of which Casalis has given us 

* Vide Home's " Introduction to the Scriptures," Vol. II. Part II. Book 
II. Ch. I. ^ vi. 

( ly ) 

several remarkable specimens.* The poetry of the 
Yorubas, if I may call it such, seems rather to be of the 
didactic kind, probably evincing a diiferent character of 
mind in the people ; and which cannot fail, I think, to 
remind us, both in sentiment and in style, of some of the 
poetical books of scripture. 

I would proceed to point out one or two features of 
the Yoruban proverb which are worthy of notice. 

In the first place, they are in the main metaphorical. 
Some object of sense is selected, to which the character 
intended is attributed, and some quality, or other acci- 
dent, is predicated of that object of sense, which is de- 
signed to figure the intended predicate. As an illustra- 
tion of my meaning, I may quote the proverb, 

Agbe ni ije egbin omi, 
^' A calabash receives the sediment of water," 
which is explained to mean, " An elder nmst exercise 
forbearance;" or, 


" Ashes always fly back in the face of him that throws 

i. e. the calumnies, or injuries, which one man aims at 
another will recoil on his own head. This metaphori- 
cal style is not essential to a proverb ; but I think we 
may say it is essential, or at least most highly conducive, 
to the poetical character of a proverb. Casalis has ob- 
served the same in the Sisuto proverbs in the south. 
" Les Bassoutos," he says, "me paraissent avoir ete tout 
particulierement heureux dans ce genre de composition. 
Leur langue, par sa precision energique se prete admi- 
rablement au style sententieux, et I'elementmetaphorique 
est entree si abondamment dans sa formation, qu 'on ne 

* Vide " 'Etudes sur la langue Sechuaiia," par Eug. Casalis, Partie III. 
p. 32. 

( 20 ) 

saurait la parler sans s'habituer insensiblement a revetir 
ses pensecs de quelque image qui les fixe dans la me- 
moire."* As an instance of this metaphorical style, we 
find amongst his catalogue ofSisuto proverbs, " La pointe 
de I'aiguille doit passer la premiere," meaning, "Be 
direct in your discourse, avoid disguising the truth by 
evasive words." Another example of the same kind 
amongst the Yorubas is, 

Ate yun ate wa li a ite ekuro oju onna, 
" To be trodden upon here, to be trodden upon there, is 

the fate of the palm-nut lying in the road." 
Multitudes more of a similar character might be men- 

The characteristic, however, which gives to the 
Yoruban proverbs their peculiar claim to be regarded as 
a national didactic poetry, is a feature which w^as first 
pointed out to my notice by my esteemed and valued 
friend, the Rev. Henry Venn. It is that same feature 
which Bishop Lowth considered one of the grand cha- 
racteristics, and which Bishop Jebb has proved to be the 
sole distinctive characteristic, of Hebrew poetry. We 
call it the system of parallelism, and by this word Me 
denote " a certain equality, resemblance, or relationship, 
between the members of each period ; so that in two 
lines, or members of the same period, things shall answer 
to things, and words to words, as if fitted to each other 
by a kind of rule or measure."! This parallelism in 
Hebrew poetry has been stated to consist of four species, 
which have been respectively termed the gradational, the 
antithetic, the synthetic, and the introverted. The gra- 

* " 'Etudes sur la lang. Sech." Part III. p. 84. 

t Vide Home's " Introduction to the Scrii^tures," Vol. II. Part II. Book 
II. Ch. II. 1x496. To the examination of Scripture poetry contained in that 
invaluable work I am indebted fur the arrangement of this part of my 

( ^1 ) 

dational is that species in which the second clause rises 
above the first, either in significance or in expression ; 
the antithetic is that in which the two clauses are con- 
nected by contrast instead of similarity ; the synthetic 
is that in which the parallelism lies in the construction 
of the sentences, noun answering to noun, and verb to 
verb, being strictly artificial ; and the introverted is that 
in which, whatever be the number of clauses, the first is 
parallel to the last, the second to the last but one, and 
so on. 

Of the gradational parallelism we meet with a few 
instances amongst the Yoruban proverbs ; thus, in the 
ascending scale, we have, 


• • • • • 

" Marks made with buje do not last more than nine days, 
Marks made with inabi do not last more than a year." 


" The farm-house will be after the farm, 
The ridge of the roof will be after the house." 
And in the descending scale we may notice the two fol- 
lowing — 

Bi 1W9 k6 LI owe, o LI ENA ; 


" If you have no money (to give), you may pay visits ; 

If you cannot visit, you may send kind messages." 
This partakes of the character of the logical sorites. 


• • • 

" A pleader (with the gods) wards off death, 
A pleader (with the judge) wards off punishment ; 

( 22 ) 

If the heat is oppressive 
A fan wards off that." 
Of the antithetic parallelism we also meet with some 
examples ; indeed, this species is peculiarly adapted to 
adages and aphorisms. The following are specimens — 



" However a ruined mud wall may be garnished, the 
trouble will be useless ; 
But all trouble bestowed upon things made of wood is 


" The owner may broach his cask of licpiid, or barrel of 
powder ; 
But he who is sent with it dares not broach the cask." 
Ari ti enni mo iwi ; 
fl apadi bo ti re molle. 
" He who sees another's faults knows well how to talk 
about them ; 
But he covers his own with a potsherd." 
Enia lassan po o ju igbe ; 
Enni rere won o ju oju lo. 
" Ordinary people are as common as grass ; 
But good people are dearer than an eye." 
This last reminds us forcibly of the Scripture proverbs 
in its style of composition ; each word in the second 
clause being antithetic to some word in the first. Exam- 
ples of this character are to be found in almost every 
chapter of the Book of Proverbs; as, for instance, xi. 1. 
xiii. 3. xiv. 34. xv. G,20. xxi. 12. &c.&c. 

The Yoruba abounds more in the synthetic parallelism 
than in any other. A few examples will serve to show 
the peculiarities of the species. 

( 23 ) 


• • • • ' 


■ • • • 

** Let the white pigeon tell the woodpecker, 
Let bird tell bird." 

Agba ko si, illu baje; 
Balle ku, ille di ahoro. 
" When there are no elders, the town is ruined ; 
When the master dies, the house is desolate." 
Bebbe ki o ri okose : 
Sagbe ki o ri awon. 
" Beg for help, and you will meet with refusals ; 
Ask for alms, and you will meet with misers." 
Under this class we often find proverbs in which the 
second clause, constructed with a studied similarity to 
the first, contains the explanation of the figurative lan- 
guage which the first employed. Thus, 

Aji bo wa iba li aba ila li atellewo, 
AwA KO MO enni ti o ko 6 ; 

• • • • • ■' 

Aji bo wa iba li owo adasan, 
awa ko mo enni tl o je e. 

• > • • • 

" We wake, and find marks on the palm of our hand. 
We do not know who made them ; 
We wake, and find an old debt, 
We do not know who contracted it." 
Abere bo lowo adette, o di ete; 
Oran ba ille, o di ero. 
^' If a needle fall from a leper's hand, it requires con- 
sideration (to pick it up) ; 
If a great matter is before the council, it requires deep 



• • • • 

" No-one can cure a monkey of squatting ; 
So no-one can deprive a man of his birthright." 

( 24 ) 

AsTSORi k6 ni ikun bi aobX ; 
Otosi ko lowo bi oloro. 

• « • • 

" A pistol has not a bore like a cannon; 
A poor man has not money at his command as the 

^Imado iba se bi eledde, abilluje ; 
Eru iba jobba, enia ko kun. 
'* A wild boar, in the place of a pig, would ravage the 
town ; 
And a slave made king would spare nobody." 
Elubo se ogbodo ri, 
Eru se ommo ni ille babba re. 

* • • • ■ 

" As the elubo was once a soft unripe yam, 

So the slave was once a child in his father's house." 
The twenty-sixth chapter of Proverbs is full of 
aphorisms of this class, in which the second clause ex- 
plains the first. 

Of the introverted parallelism the following is a spe- 
cimen — 

Ibaje apo ni 

Ibaje apa ; 

Bi apa ba ja, 

^\po aballe. 

" The injury of a bag 

Is (caused by) the injury of the pack-rope ; 
If the pack-rope breaks. 
The bag will go down." 

For the most part, however, the Yoruba proverbs are 
not long enough to display this species of parallelism ; 
but we may notice something similar to it in the inverted 
order of the corresponding words in the two parallel 
clauses which we often meet with ; thus 

Eleke LI eke iye ; 

Ohun ti aba se ni iye 'ni. 

( 25 ) 

" To a liar a lie is natural ; 
Any thing which a man is in the habit of doing is 
natural to him." 
Here eleke is made the subject in the first clause, 
though it corresponds with 'ni in the second ; and ohun 
Ti ABA SE is the subject in the second, though it corre- 
sponds with EKE in the first. 

Such is the striking feature of parallelism which so 
evidently characterizes the Yoruba proverbs. It is this 
which gives them their claim to the title of poetry ; for 
there does not appear to be any thing which can be' 
strictly called rhythm or metre in any of them ; although 
the feature which I am about to notice may be regarded 
as a slight approximation to it. I mean that there is 
in the main a conformity of length between the lines 
which are designed to be parallel or antithetic ; and that 
where there is a third line, either preceding or following, 
which stands alone, it is of a different length from the 
others, and, in most cases, considerably longer. These 
stanzas, if we may call them so, of three lines, are of very 
frequent occurrence amongst the Yoruba proverbs, and 
the peculiarity just noticed will, I think, be found to pre- 
vail almost universally in them. The following are 
examples — 

ose ni isaju ekun, 
Abamo ni igbehin oran, 
Gbogbo ottokulu pe, Nwon k6 ri ebo abamo se. 
^' Sorrow is before weeping, 
Mortification is after trouble. 
All the community assemble,Theyfmd no sacrifice against 

AiYE LI Okun, 

EnIA LI OssA, 


( :^« ) 

^' The world is an Ocean, 
Mankind is the (lagoon) Ossa, 
One cannot swim, So as to cross the world." 

IW9 IBA Rl, 


• • • -^ 


'' You may see, 

You must not speak ; 
It is that which is the death of the strong man." 
i. e. a strong man may perish for want of being apprised 
of his danger. 

Igbo biribiri, 
Okunkun biribiri ; 
Okunkun ni yio sette igbo. 
" The forest is very dark, 
The night is very dark ; 
The darkness of the night is deeper than the darkness of 
the forest." 

Erin ntu ekuru, 
Efon ntu ekuru: 
titu ekuru ajannaku b6 ti efon molle. 

• • • > 

" The elephant makes a dust, 
The buffalo makes a dust ; 
The dust of the elephant Hides that of the buffalo." 


Ete imo ete, 
Ni iko oran ba ereke. 
" Mouth keeping to mouth, 
Lip keeping to lip, 
Bring trouble to the jaws." 
EwuRE je, o re ille, 
Agutan je, o re ille; 
Aje iWA ille Ba eledde je. 

( 27 ) 

" When the goat has fed, it returns home, 
When the sheep has fed, it returns home ; 
Not returning home after feeding Ruins the character of 
the pig. " 
It is observable that in these stanzas, for the most part, 
the concluding line is about double the length of the 
others, and admits of being divided into two. We may 
compare with these the triplets in which Scripture lan- 
guage frequently runs; as. Matt, viii . 20, 
" The foxes have holes. 
And the birds of the air have nests. 
But the Son of Man hath not where to lay his head."* 
We have, however, examples of a different disposition 
of the triple stanza in the Yoruba, where all the lines 
are parallel, although, even in such cases, the last is in 
contrast, whilst the two others are in apposition"; thus, 
Ada ebo fun gunugun, O li on kg ru, 
Ada ebo fun Akalla, O li on kg ru, 
Ada ebo fun eiyelle, O gbe ebo grubo. 
" Sacrifices were prescribed to the turkey-buzzard, But it 
refused to offer them. 
Sacrifices were prescribed to the Akalla vulture, But it 

refused to offer them. 
Sacrifices were prescribed to the pigeon, And it offered 

In this, and in several other examples already given, 
the lines are evidently bi-membral, as is constantly the 
case in Scripture poetry. 

The Yoruba stanzas, however, are not confined to two 
or to three lines : there are instances of quatrains, in which 
three lines are parallel, followed or preceded by an odd 
line ; for example, 

* Vide Home's " Introduction," Vol. II. p. 508. 

( 28 ) 

Eru yio je, 
esu yio mo, 
esu yio lo ; 


" The locust will eat, 
The locust will drink, 
The locust will go away; 
But where will the grasshopper hide itself?" 
Agba metta ki isi ekulu ipe ; 


Ekeji ani ekulu, 
Eketta ani ekulu. 
" Three elders cannot all fail to pronounce the word ekulu ; 
If one says ekiilu. 
The second may say ekulu. 
But the third will say ekulu." 
Occasionally we find them passing the number of four, 
as in the following very simple but really poetic stanza 
of seven lines, which, \ve may observe, commences with 
an odd line, and then divides itself into three couplets, 
of strictly parallel lines, gradually increasing in length : 


Olowo gee owo, 
Iranwu agbe kekke, 
Ajagun agbe apata, 
IWONSO abere gbe assa, 

• • • • 


• • • • • • 

" When the day dawns, 
The trader takes his money. 
The spinner takes her spindle, 
The warrior takes his shield, 
The weaver takes his batten, 
The farmer wakes, himself and his hoe, 
The hunter wakes with his quiver and his bow." 

( 29 ) 

The above remarks would seem sufficient to substan- 
tiate the claim of the Yoruba proverbs to a place 
amongst the poetry of nations. But without dwellino; 
longer on this point, I will proceed to notice one or two 
other distinctive features. 

One is — what indeed we might expect in a nation yet 
in its infancy, and scarcely rising out of barbarism — that 
the point of the proverb very often lies in the fact of 
two words having a very similar sound, with a wholly 
different sense, making the proverb in such cases, a play 
upon the word. We have numerous instances of this 
amongst the Yoruba adages : to quote a few — 


The rain on the batta (shoes) goes patter, patter, pat- 
ter, as on the apatta (rock) : in the street of the ajalubata 
(head drummer), the bata (drum) is wood, the batta 
(shoes) are skin." 

This sentence is designed as a play on the word apatta, 
containing a frequent repetition of b and t sounds. 

But there are others whose meaning is more obvious; as, 

Abere bo lowo adette, o di ete — " If a needle falls 
from the hand of a leper, he requires consideration" to 
pick it up, because his hand is mutilated by the disease. 
The play in this sentence is in the words, adette, and 
o DI ete. One who di ette, is leprous, must di ete, be- 
come thoughtful. 

Igun ti ogun mi k6 jo ti egun — " Piercing me with a 
lance is not like piercing me with a thorn." Here the 
resemblance between the three words igun, ogun, egun, 
gives a peculiar liveliness to the expression. 

Bi OMMO DA oRi KAN APA, APA A — " If a child trcats 
the apa tree insolently, it wounds him." The word apa 
« wounds" is the same as the name of the tree. 

( 30 ) 

Ore Ague se li Offa o di egbe— " The good which 
Agbe did in Olfa is wasted ;" lit., is become loss. The 
word denoting loss is egbe', similar in sound to Agbe. 
He is said to have been a noted philanthropist among 
the Yorubas. 

Iraje apo ni ibaje apa. — "The injury of the bag is 
(caused by) the injury of the pack-rope." Xpo and apa 
are similar. 

Baba bo baba molle — " A great matter puts a small 
matter out of sight." Baba and baba are only distin- 
guished by the accent. 


"■ When the butcher kills the animal, the retailers cut it 
into pieces." The resemblance between alapata and 
ALAGBATA is Sufficiently obvious. 

Multitudes more of a similar character might be col- 
lected, but the examples above given are enough to show 
the tendency of the Yorubas to the figure of rhetoric 
commonly called paronomasia ; in which characteristic 
again, as in the parallelism already described, there is a 
striking similarity to the poetry of the Hebrews and 
other oriental nations.* 

I must not omit to mention, in this brief account of the 
Yoruba proverbs, that there is a degree of moral light 
observable in them which renders them peculiarly in- 
teresting, and gives them, I may add, a real value in 
connexion with the inquiry into the moral government 
of the universe ; inasmuch as it presents us with a lively 
comment on the words of St. Paul concerning the Gen- 
tiles, " which show the work of the law written in their 
hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and their 
thouglits the meanwhile accusing or else excusing one 
another." (Rom. ii. 1.5.) These proverbs, in many in- 

* Vide Home's '' Introduction," Vol. II. p. 292. 

( 31 ) 

stances display ideas concerning the providence of God, 
the moral rectitude of actions, or the practice of social 
virtues, which (to say the least) we should hardly have 
expected to find in a people so wholly separated from 
the influences, direct or indirect, of that revelation which 
God was pleased to make of Himself to man. The words 
of Casalis, with reference to the Sisuto proverbs, are in 
my opinion even more applicable to those of the Yoru- 
bas. " Sous le rapport moral, il est interessant d'observer 
les vestiges de cette conscience universelle, a laquelle 
Dieu a confie la direction de toute creature intelligente. 
Nousacquerons par la la certitude qu'il n'est pas d'homme 
sur la terre qui ne sache discerner entre ce qui est mo- 
ralement bon et moralement mauvais, et qui par conse- 
quent ne soit susceptible d'encourir la condamnation 
attachee a la transgression des lois divines."* Amongst 
his list of Sisuto proverbs we meet with some that ex- 
press a moral sentiment ; as, for example, " La trappe 
prend le grand oiseau aussi bien que le petit ;"t " Le 
sang humain est pesant, il empeche celui qui I'a repandu 
de fuir ;" " Le meurtrier dit, Je n'ai tue qu'une bete, 
mais I'animal sans poil (I'homme) ne perit pas sans etre 
venge ;" " L'homme trompeur est une aiguille a deux 
pointes."]: But there is something more striking in the 
high standard of morality observable in the sayings of 
the Yorubas, displaying as it does a conscious recogni- 
tion of the intrinsic excellence of those peculiar virtues 
which we commonly regard as being appreciated only in 
civilized society. Were we to measure this people by 
the standard of their proverbial morality, we should come 
to the conclusion that they had attained no inconside- 

* " 'Etudes sur la lang. Sech." Part III. p. 84. 
t Ibid. p. 87. 
I Ibid. p. 89. 

( 32 ) 

rable height in the developement of social relations, hav- 
ing passed out of that savage barbarism, in which every 
individual lives for himself alone, into a higher state of 
being, in which the mutual dependence of one member 
on another is recognised, giving room for the exercise 
of social virtues as a sort of moral compact for the safe- 
guard of society. A few instances will suffice to explain 
my meaning. 

Thus the mutual relation between man and man, and 
the consequent duty which man owes to man, are dis- 
tinctly acknowledged in the brief sentence, 

Enniti o se ibaje enia, o se ibaje ara re. 
" He who injures another, injures himself" 
The excellence of truthfulness as one of those virtues > 
which are essential to the existence of society, is evi- 
dently implied in such proverbs as the following, con- 
demnatory of the antithetic sin of lying. 

Pipe ni yio pe eke ko mu ra. 
" The time may be very long, but a lie will be detected 
at last." 
Dr. Krapf, in his laborious researches on the east coast, 
was unable to find any word expressing the idea of gra- 
titude in the language of all the Suaheli tribes, a fact 
significant enough as to the total absence of the moral 
feeling denoted by that name. Amongst the Yorubas, on 
the contrary, not only is the word dupe, '^ to give thanks," 
a word of constant and daily occurrence, but they have 
proverbs relating to ingratitude sufficient to show that, 
in theory at least, its turpitude is acknowledged to the 
full. Thus they say, 

Enniti ase li ore, ti kg dupe ; 
Aba se e ni ibi, ko don o. 
" He to whom kindness is shown, and he does not re- 
turn thanks, 

( 33 ) 

You may do him ill, and he will not feel that either :" 
intimating that an ungrateful person must be destitute of 
all feeling. So again — 

Enia ki ise 'ni ni rere 

Kl API IBI su u. 

'' He who has done you a kindness should never be ill- 


" An ungrateful guest is like the lower jaw, which, when 
the body dies in the morning, falls away from the 
upper by night-time." 
The light in which the Yoruban moralists regard jus- 
tice and equity may be gathered from the following 
pithy piece of advice — 

Eti, gbo ekeji ki o to dajo. 
" Ear, hear the other side (of the question) before you 
The duties of contentment and patience are energeti- 
cally and forcibly recommended in the two subjoined 
aphorisms, duties which can scarcely be recognised as 
such while man is in a state of barbarism ; 

Ma gbiyele ogun ; 

Ti owe enni ni it6 'ni. 

• • • 

" Depend not on (the fortune of) battle ; 
What a man possesses is enough for a man." 

Ibino k6 se nkan fu 'ni, 

SuRU babba iwa : 

Ibino ni iyo offa li apo, 

Ohun rere ni iyo obi li apo. 
" Anger does nobody good, 
Patience is the best (lit., father) of dispositions : 
Anger draws arrows from the quiver, 
Good words draw kola-nuts from the bag." 

( 34 ) 

Another remarkable proverb may be mentioned, in 
which we notice the same implied reproof of a partial 
respect of persons which we so often find in Scrip- 
ture. Tl)is proverb supposes the case of a poor man 
looking on at the erection of a house: a rafter is dis- 
covered to be not long enough for its intended purpose ; 
the poor man ventures to recommend the plan of splicing 
two rafters together, to increase its length : his advice is at 
first despised, because he is poor, but eventually adopted 
on the failure of all other plans. This history the pro- 
verb gives, in the usual brief sententious manner of that 
class of composition, 


" If the poor man's rafter does not reach the top in the 
morning, it will reach it in the evening." 

We are forcibly reminded of the striking parable in 
the ninth chapter of Ecclesiastes, whose moral is given 
in the words, " Then said I, Wisdom is better than 
strength ; nevertheless, the poor man's wisdom is de- 
spised, and his w^ords are not heard." 

The following is an evident proof that the Yorubas 
are capable of appreciating the higher and more gene- 
rous sentiments of refined society, such as are the farthest 
removed from that mere love of animal gratification 
which marks the savage : 


" We partake of our friend's entertainment, because 

(friendship) is pleasant, not because we have not 

enough (to eat) in our own house." 

We are accustomed to view the untutored barbarian as 

one who utterly disregards the life of his fellow-man. 

Yet even amongst the wild Basuto there are proverbial 

expressions which show that they are conscious of its 

( 35 ) 

value : two such have been already noticed ; another is 
to this effect, "Si un homme a et6 tue secretement, les 
pailles des champs ie diront."* In like manner the Yo- 
rubas have this remarkable saying — 


" Every thing has its price. 
But no-one can set a price upon blood ;" 

a remarkable saying in every point of view, especi- 
ally when we look upon it as a self-supplied text from 
which to preach the Gospel of redemption by the pre- 
cious blood of Christ. 

The same observation may apply to those proverbs 
which show how correct an estimate the Yorubas have 
formed in some respects of the character and attributes 
of the Divine Being, thereby proving the unqualified de- 
claration of Holy Writ, that " the invisible things of Him 
from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being 
understood by the things that are made, even His eter- 
nal power and Godhead ; so that they are without ex- 

That they have a true idea of God's watchful provi- 
dence, and care for all His creatures, is evident from the 
following very beautiful proverb, whose import is the 
same as that of the English adage, " Man's extremity is 
God's opportunity." 


" If the Agiliti will die to-day or to-morrow (for want of 
water), rain will surely come." 

* Vide " 'Etudes sur la lang. Secb." p. 8!'. 
t Horn. i. 20. 

( ••» ) 

The Agiliti is an animal of the guana tribe, which is 
said to live for a very long time without water. 

There is another, said to be a very favourite saying of 
one of the present chiefs of Abbeokuta, which conveys 
such a lesson of dependence on the guiding providence 
of God, that it ought not to be omitted here — 


" Leave the battle to God, and rest your head upon your 

But not only do tliey thus prove their acquaintance 
with the fact that God's providence superintends all 
things upon earth, and that man is dependent on that 
overruling power; they farther speak of man's relation 
to God as His servant, evidently regarding that relation 
as applying to all times and circumstances ; and that, 
too, so as almost to force upon us the conclusion that 
they viewed that service in the light of a privilege. At 
least, it is difUcult to give any other explanation of such 
a proverb as the following — 

Arc ni idena orisa. 
" The ar9 (i. e. a man with a withered limb) is the por- 
ter (at the gate) of the gods." 

I understand it as denoting that if a man through in- 
firmity cannot be engaged in the active service of God, 
he is still God's servant, and may fulfil his obligations 

Surely these are indications of no ordinary perception 
of moral truths, and sufficient to warrant the inference, 
that in closeness of observation, in depth of thought, and 
in shrewd intelligence, the Yoruban is ov tvx^ov dvr}p — no 
ordinary man. The existence of proverbs such as these 

( 37 ) 

amongst a people situated as the Yorubans are, is a fact 
pregnant with many thoughts on which the theologian 
and the moralist may dwell with advantage ; and may 
awaken in all an interest in a nation towards whom the 
sympathies of the public have been already directed by 
the exciting events of their recent political history. We 
can now see a little w^ay into the thoughts and feelings 
of that people, which has come prominently before our 
notice as the butt of the last effol-ts of the expiring 
slave-trade, and the repeller of those efforts: we can 
now dive a little into that sea of mind, to which the Da- 
homian tyrant would fain have cried, Hitherto shalt thou 
come, and no farther ; which he would fain have bound 
in the chains of slavery, like the Persian monarch of old ; 
but which refused to be fettered, rising up wholly like a 
flood, and forcing his proud army to flee before it. Surely 
great interest must attach to an insight into the mind of 
such a people, now for the first time furnished to the 
civilized world, in the work before us, by one of the most 
intelligent amongst them, whose long acquaintance with 
foreign civilization renders him capable of appreciating 
the importance of the work which he has undertaken, 
and of estimating the difficulty which attends upon the 
task of rendering intelligible, in a new language, the 
ideas of another, wholly diverse and alien. 

To the philologist this work presents a new field of 
inquiry of a most deeply interesting character. The 
nature of those inquiries which it suggests I have en- 
deavoured to set forth in these few introductory obser- 
vations ; in which I profess to have done no more than 
merely point out the principal distinctive features of the 
language ; tlius preparing the way, I trust, in some little 

( 38 ) 

measure, for future more extended surveys of the Yoru- 
ban in connexion with other African dialects, when our 
acquaintance with Hamitic philology shall have become 
more enlarged. 

Mean time the remarks already given will be sufficient 
to recommend the accompanying work to the perusal of 
those who feel an interest in Africa, and who long for the 
coming of that day, when not "five cities" only, but 
all cities and towns and villages, not " in the land of 
Egypt" only, but in all the tribes of that dark continent, 
" shall speak the language of Canaan, and swear to the 
Lord of Hosts."* 

* Isa. xix. 18. 




&c. &c. 

The five vowels, a, e, i, o, ti, represent the sounds usually termed 
Italian, as lieard in the words — 




Bath, hat. 

Voter, hand. 


Bait, bet. 



Beat, hit. 

Ziehen, sinn. 

Boat. '■ "^ Honig. 


Boot, full. 


There are also two modified vowels and two dipthongs — 

e, a sound between the sounds of bat and bait, hardly distinguish- 
able by an English ear from the latter sound ; approximating 
closely to tlie English interogative aye? or the German a, 

a sound between a and o, as heard in laiv, water, bought, 
not; represented in Swedish by a. 

ai, nearly equivalent to the English /, in mile. 

oi, as in voice. 

Among the consonants it is only necessary to notice that — 
g is always hard, as in gate, 
j is always soft, as in join, 
h has always its distinct sound, as an aspirate. 
P^ip — the hard sound, to which gb is the soft correlative. 

Of the accents, none are employed, as in English, merely to mark 
the stress to be laid on a particular syllable. 

The circumflex usually indicates a contraction, which is also in all 
cases a long syllable, e. g. dabobo, from da-abo-bo. 

The acute (') and grave Q) accents are simply marks of intonation — 
i. e. of the rise or fall of the voice — often, as in the Chinese language, 
affecting the signification. 

Words not divided by a hyphen are uncompounded roots, or words 
whose etymology is uncertain. 

When a word is compounded without any change of the simple, it 
is merely divided by a hyphen into its component parts. 

When there is such a change, an analysis is added of the whole 
word; e.g. Iforiballe (fi-ori-ba-ille) ; or of the syllable which 
needs elucidation, e. g. asennu-enni (se-ennu ). 



A, much used in composition as a prefix ; as Ye, " to live," 
" to have functions of life ;" aye, " a state of living." 

Aa ! a word of exclamation. 

Aba, Abara, s. a slap with the palm of the hand. — IW9 
gba mi li aba, " You slapped me." 

Aba, s. remembrance, thought. — Emi ndaba re, " I was 
thinking of you." Hope, expectation. — '^Aba ki ni 
iw9 nda, " What hope do you entertain V 
;/'Aba, s. a kind of mat. — Eni Aba ko to bi eni ore, eni 
aba ko se ika, rirun ni irun womwom, "An aba mat 
is not so durable as an ore mat ; it is too brittle to 

Abada, Fabada, adv. (Haussa) for ever. — Emi ko se 
behe mo lai, abada, " I shall never do so any more, 
for ever." 

Abafe, s. a tree, the tender leaf of which is used for 
medicine against the bite of the snake. 

Abaje, s. the name of a kind of yams. 

A-BA-JE, s. the act of eating one with another. 

Abaiyeje, Obaiyeje (Ba-aiye-je), s. busy-body, lit. world- 
spoiler. — Abaiyeje ko se ifi idi oran han, "Secrets 
should never be told to a busy-body." 

Aba-mo, mortification, painful reflection. — Ose ni isaju 
ekun, abamo ni igbehin oran, gbogbo ottokulu pe 
nwon ko ri ebo abamo se, lit. "Sorrow precedes 
weeping; mortification follows a grievous matter ; the 





whole community assemble, but find no sacrifice 
against mortification." 
Abanije, Obanije, (Ba-enia-je), s. a despiser, calumnia- 
tor, a slanderer. — Obaniaje obaara re je, "He who 
despises another despises himself." 
^ Abanije, s. one who partakes of the same dish. — Aba- 
nije ma ba ni se ifa enia, enniti o je didon ni ije kikan, 
" He who shares his friend's prosperity, but does not 
move a hand to help him in his work, is selfish ; for 
he who eats the sweet should be ready to eat the 
' bitter." 
/^Abanise ( — se), s. a helper, coadjutor, a fellow-worker. 
— Abanise ma si banise m9, " A helper who would 
help no more." 
^Abanigbele ( — gbe-ille), s. an inmate. Fire is prover- 
bially personified as " Abanigbele ma mo oju enni," 
"An inmate which cannot be tamed." 
/^Aba-pade, s. casual occurrence. — Ohun abapade ko J9 
ohun ti ari telle, " An accident is not like an expected 
Abara, see Aba. 

Abata, s. a park ; an open place in the front of the 
/- Abata, s. a marsh in a plain, a pool. — ^Abata takete bi 
ennipe ko ba odo tan, " A pond appears like a self- 
supported body of water, whereas it is dependent on 
unseen springs or drainage :" applied to persons who 
seem to be what they are not. 
^^Aba-ti, s. the missing of a thing, insecure holding, not 
sticking fast to. — "Abati alapa, aba a ti aba a re, "A 
wall appears ready to fall ; we cannot throw it down ; 
we seek its shelter." A common proverbial saying. 
^^ Aba-w^on, s. a stain, a blot. — Aso funfun on abawon ki 
ire, " A white cloth and a stain never agree." 
Abba, s. incubation. — Adire nsun abba, "The hen is 



Abba, s. a stack, rick, pile of corn on a platform, store. 

Abba, 5. an iron hook by which prisoners' feet are made 
fast on a block of wood, the stocks; a hook on which 
a padlock is hung. — Abba ko se ikan mo ni li esse, 
bikose enniti nse buburu,"The stocks are not pleasant, 
but they are good for a rogue." 

Abbe, s. the lower part, beneath. — Bi oran ba sii okunkun 
abe e wo li abbe, " If a matter be dark, dive to the 

Abbelle (Abbe-ille), adj. private, secret. — Ohun ti ako 
fe ki enia ki omo li ase li abbelle, " What is not 
wished to be known is done in secret." 

Abbeya, Abbiya ( — iya), s. the armpit. 

Abe, s. razor, lancet. — Didi niimu abe imu, " Wrapping 
up a razor preserves its sharpness." 
^ Abebbe, s. a fan made of hide, used by African gentlemen 
to stir the air and cool themselves ; an advocate, a 
pleader. — Abebbe ni ibe iku, abebbe ni ibe oran, bi 
oru ba mu abebbe ni ibe e, "A pleader with the gods 
wards off death ; a pleader with the judge wards off 
punishment ; a fan wards off the heat when it is 
:, A-be-i-yannu, s. importunity, incessant solicitation. — En- 
niti mbe abeiyannu yi9 ri ohun ti nfe gba lowo olu- 
ware, " He who begs with importunity will get what 
he wants." 

Abekuluje-odan (Ba-ekulu), s. a white bird, with long 
neck and legs, which generally accompanies the 
ekulu, a species of the deer. 

Ab-ennu-gbagba, s. a kind of loose trousers. 
^^Abere, s. needle, pin. — Ipa abere li okun ito, " It is the 
path of the needle which the thread is accustomed to 

Abese, s. a good-for-nothing person. — This word is fre- 
quently used to abuse inferiors ; as, I wo abese yi, 
" You good-for-nothing fellow." 
3 B 2 



Ahetelle ( — te-ille), 5. a begging before hand, a bribe. 
— Abetelle ni ifoiu onidaio nitori abetelle ki ile ise 
idajo otito, "A bribe blinds the judge's eyes; for 
bribes never speak the truth." f 

Abetu, s. a brook, running water, a rivulet. 

Abiamo, s. a woman having a young child, a parent. — 
Abiamo abehin jija; a playful name used in ad- 
dressing a woman with an infant. 

Abiga, s. a mixed breed of a large and small horse. 

Abi-ku, s. the spirit of children who die in infancy. In- 
fants, or children who die under ten or twelve years 
old, are called Abiku, and are never buried in the 
town, being sometimes even thrown away in the bush, 
as a punishment. They are supposed to have had evil 
spirits for their companions, who have enticed them 
away. The evil spirits are supposed to punish the chil- 
dren w^ith cruel whippings, if they do not give them 
the things which they require of them. If a child 
grows thin, his companion spirits are affirmed to be 
taking away his food from him ; hence, to appease 
these spirits, sacrifices are resorted to ; and to frighten 
the spirits away, charms are hung about the child, 
and iron rings are put on his feet, the jingling of 
which is supposed to drive the spirit far away. 

Abi-keiiin, adj. younger, last born, 

Abila, adj. striped, varied in colour, checkered. — Aso 
abila gbogbo li o li oruko, " Each coloured cloth has 
its name." 

Abilleko (Ille-oko), s. a married woman who is living 
with a husband. 
■^ Abino-ku-enni, s. a malicious person, a persecutor, a 
calumniator. — Enniti ko fe oran enni ni ise abino- 

• • • * • • 

kuenni, " He who does not love his neighbour acts 

ly^ maliciously." '^ 

Abiron, s. an infirm person, a sick person.^— Bi o ti wCi 

ki o ri aki irerin abiron, boya ohun ti o se e loni. ase 



iw9 lolla, " A sick person should never be laughed at, 
because what happens to him to-day may happen to 
you to-morrow." 

Abo, s. a returning, a coming back, cessation. — Oku 
abo, salutation on one's returning. — Ayun abo mi, o 
di emeffa loni, " My goings and returnings are six." 
" I have travelled the road six times to-day." — Ko 
dekun ko dabo, " It does not cease." 

Abo, s. half, moiety. — Emi ko je fun 'o li abo isu bikose 
ottotto, " I will not give you half a yam, but a whole 

Abogan, Ab-owo-gan, s. the musquito, also called yam- 
yam, a name common to all little stinging flies. 

Aboggibope (Bo-iggi-ope), s. a heathen, an idolater, lit. a 
worshipper of wood and palm. 

Abo-pa, adj. fatted, fed for the slaughter. 

Aborisa (Bo-orisa), s. a worshipper of false gods, idolater, 
the same as Aboggibope, a name indiscriminately 
given to all idolaters. 
^Abose (Abo-ise), s. work done by a person in his own 
farm after his master's work is done, job work. — 
Abose ki ise ise oio, ise babba ni igba ojo enni, 
" Job-work is not the chief business (of a servant) ; 
the master's work has the (first) claim on his 

Abosseje (Ba-osse-je), s. the violator of sacred time, a 

Abo, s. a tree which bears fruit like the sweet-sop, or 
custard- apple, from the stick of which the natives 
produce fire by friction. 

Abo, s. a bag to keep clothes in. — Bi asp pe li abo a hu, 
" If clothes remain long in the bag they rot." 

Abo, adj. female of beasts, also applied to infants ; as 

Abo mbi ako 1 "Male or female?" Never applied to 

grown-up persons. — Abo-agutan,an ewe — Abo-ewure, 

a she-goat — Abo-esin, a mare — Abo-eledde, a cow — 



Abo-galla,a doe — Abo-kenniu, a lioness — Abo-malu, 
a cow — Abo-ri, a female lizard, &c. &c. 
Abo, s. refuge, shelter. 
^ Abojuwo, Ibojuwo (Ba-oju), s. superintendence, a look- 
ing after. — Iwo ni nse abojuwo lehin babba, toju ille 
rere, " You superintend in the master's absence ; see 
well to the house." 

^Abo-oka, s. a bundle of guinea-corn. — Nigbati agbe ba 
ndi abo oka ino re adon, nipa abo oka ni yangidi 
owo iti iwa, " He who ties up bundles of corn re- 
joices, because from bundles of corn come bundles of 

^' Abu- J A, s. a short cut to a place, anticipation of another's 
words. — Enniti o ba mo idi oran telle on ni ibu 

• • • • • • 

abuja eke, " He who knows a matter beforehand con- 
founds the liar." 
Abuja-onna, s. a lane, a cross street or road. 

y Abu-ka, s. the act of encompassing. — Bi aba bu igbe li 
abuka ari eranko ino re pa, " If a bush is surrounded, 
the animals in it are easily killed." 

^ Abuke, s. a hunchback. — A ki isipe inaro fu abuke, "A 
hunchback is never asked to stand upright. 
Abu-kon, s. an addition to, a blessing. 

^^, Abu-kun, 5. a remainder, a deficiency, disgrace, contempt. 
— Chun ti ise ohun abukun ki ama se e si cm mo 

• • • • • 

ennikeji enni, " A contemptuous act should never be 
done towards a fellow-man." 

Abula, s. adulteration. 

/ Abu-le, s. a patch, a piece sewed on to cover a hole. — 

Abule ni imu aso ilo to, enniti ko ba se itoiu abule yio 

se ara re li ofo aso, "Patching makes clothes wear long, 

and he who does not care to patch will lose his clothes." 

Abu-mo, s. a piece put to, additional, exaggeration. 

Abu-ran-owu, s. cotton carded and prepared to be spun. 

Aburo (A-bi-iro),a6^'. erect, upright. — Filla pupa aburo, 
" A cap standing erect." 



Abu-ro,s. a younger relative. — Aburo ki ipa egbon ni\tan, 
" The young cannot teach traditions to the elders." 

Abu-si, s. a bush adjoining the town spared for its shelter. 

Abuso (Ru-iso), s. falsehood of one's own invention. 

Ada, s. billhook with wooden handle^ mostly used by 
^ Adaba, Ataba, s. a dove. — ^Adaba kekeluke ko si oja ti 
ko na tan, " There is no market in which the dove 
with the prominent breast has not traded." A pro- 
verbial expression by which a cowry is compared 
to a dove for its circulation as current money. 
*^DABA-susu, s. a species of white pigeon. — Ki adaba susu 
ki owi fu jedi'edie, ki eiye ki owi fu eiye, " Let the 
matter be spread abroad," lit. " Let the pigeon tell 
the woodpecker, (?) and bird tell bird." 

Adabo-boni (Da-abo), s. a defender, a succourer. 

Ada-bo-oja, s. a small market, the second day's market. 
^ Ada-bowo (Bo-owo), 5. the taking responsibility upon 
one's self. — Bia ti ran 'ni ni ise li aie bi iwo ba seni 

« • o • • • 

si ise adab9wo ara re, ** As a message is given to you, 
so deliver it : if you vary it, the consequences will rest 
with you." 

Ada-do, Erekusu, s. an island. 

Ada-gun, s. a lake, a pool or pond. 

Ada-gunle-apo (Ada-gun-ille), Eb7ri, 5. a large quiver, 
generally placed in the ground in battle, from which 
the soldiers are supplied with arrows. 

Ada-ji, Ada-jiwa, 5. the time of the second cock-crowing. 

Adajo (Da-ejo), 5. a judge, an umpire, one who decides 

Adakadeke, s. a mischievous person, a liar. 

Ada-ma-le-se, s. one unable to perform what he under- 

Ada-mo, s. a mistaken view, heresy. 

Ada-moran, 5. a counseller, a suggester. 
^ Adan, s. a bat. — Adan dorikodo o nwo ise eiye gbogbo, - ' ^3 \ 


"The bat suspends itself, but watches the other 

Adaniduro (A-da-enia-duro), s. a detainer. 

Adanilaga ( — laga), s. he who wearies one, an importu- 
nate person. 

Adanilara ( — lara), s. one who mortifies, or disappoints ; 
one who designedly or purposely does a thing to vex 

Adanilaraya ( — ya), s. one who enlivens or cheers up 
another. — Bi opo enia ba kuro li egbe ofo adanila- 
raya ni ifo ni jojo, "Though many guests are absent, 
he only who enlivens the party is missed." 

Adanilekkun ( — li-ekkun), s. one who forbids, a prohi- 
f Adaniloju ( — li-oju), s. one who disappoints. — Adaniloju 
ko se ifi ehin ti, " He who disappoints another is un- 
worthy to be trusted." 
( Adaniloro ( — oro), s. a tormentor. — Adaniloro fi agbara 
ko ni, " He who torments another (only) teaches him 
to strengthen himself." 

Adaniniji ( — ni-ji), s. one who frightens or alarms ano- 
ther; one who raises a sudden expectation. 
[^ Ada-pe, s. the contraction of words or names. — Adape 
ore ki ii'e ki amo itumo oruko, "Contraction of words 
conceals the sense." 
I Ada-ri-ji-ni, s. one who forgives. — Adarijini ni isette ejo, 
" He who forgives ends the dispute." 

Adaripon, ( — ori-pon) s. the male lizard, so called 
because of its yellow head. 

Ada-ru-da-po, adj. indiscriminate. 

Ada-san, s. an old debt incurred by some distant relative. 
— Aii bo wa iba li aba ila li atellewo, awa ko mo enni 
ti o ko o, aji bo wa iba li owo adasan, awa ko mo enni 
ti o je e, " We wake and find (we find as soon as we 
have consciousness) marks on the palm of, our hand: 
we do not know who made the marks : we wake 


and find an old debt, and we know not who in- 
curred it." 

Ada-si, s. gleaning, a thing spared from the rest. 

Ada-win, s. parts of money due, payments by instalments. 
' Ade, s. a crown studded with beads in a tasteful manner. 
— Obba ko ni filla ade li oni, " The king has no cap 
but a crown." 
ir' Adebipani (Da-ebi-pa-enni), s. or adj. that which causes 
famine or starvation. — Adebipani ki ise 9re enni, 
" He who causes one's starvation is not one's friend." 

Adehun (De-ohun), s. one who concludes a bargain, a 
bargainer, a bargain. 

Adelebo (De-ille-bo), s. a married young woman. 

Ade-mo, Ade-mu, s. a drinking calabash. 

Adena (De-onna), s. one who watches on the road, one 
who lies in ambush, a hinderer, impediment. 

Adetisille (De-eti-si-ille), s. a listener, one who listens 
,^ /to a thing spoken in private. 

Adette (Da-ette), s. a leper. — Abere bo lowo adette o di 
ete, oran ba ille o di ero, " If a needle fall from a 
leper's (mutilated) hand, he cannot pick it up without 
much consideration and contrivance : so a great 
matter before the council requires deep thought." 

Adi, 5. oil made from the kernel of palm-nuts. 

Adi, conj. notwithstanding, after all. 

Adi-don, 5. sweetmeats, confectionery, parched corn 
ground and prepared for the use of the warriors in 
their expeditions. 

Adire, Adie, s. a domestic fowl. 

Adiredo (Adire-odo), s. a water-fowl. — Adiredo, ko se ib9 
ip9ri, " A water-fowl is not fit to worship the tutelary 
god Ipori." 

Adire iranna, s. a fowl killed at the death of a person as ^ 
his passport to the invisible world. — Adire iranna ni 
isaju oku, ^' The fowl is the forerunner of the dead." 

Adi-mo, s. a state of being shut in. 
9 c 


Adin-gbe, s. any thing dried over a fire, such as meat or 
corn prepared by warriors for their marauding expe- 

Adiro (Lokiti-aro), s. a pierced-bottomed vessel used for 

Aditanmo (Da-itan-mo), s. a distant relative. — Aditanmp 
esuo ti o li ekulu li o bi iya on, "The antelope 
seeking relationship with the deer, says his mother 
was born of a deer." 

Aditi (Di-eti), s. a deaf person. 

Adi-gba-ro, s. one who remains in a standing posture. 

Adiri, s. grape shot. 

Ado, s. a small-sized calabash, used for keeping powdered 
medicines, as a vial. 

Ado, s. an adulterer, a whore. 

Adoffa (Ewa-di-effa), adj. one hundred and ten. 

Adogunsille, Adottesille (Da-ogun-si-ille), s. one who 
creates war, disturbance, or revolution. 

Adoje (Ewa-di-oje), adj. one hundred and thirty. 

Adorin ( — orin), adj. seventy. — Adorin eso, " The se- 
venty principal or head guards of the country." 

Adorun ( — orun), adj. ninety. 

Adotta (Ewa-di-otta), adj. fifty. 

Adottesille (Da-otte si-ille), s. a revolutionist, an ag- 
gressor, a mischievous person. 

Adottotta (Ewa-di-otta-9tta), adj. by fifty, fifty in com- 

Adossan ( — ossan), adj. one hundred and seventy. 

Adu, one who is very black, jet black. 

Adu, adj. small, little, few. — Adu enia ki o wa nibe, " Not 
a few people live there." 

Adun, Adon, fiavour, fragrance, sweetness ; grace, beauty, 

Adura, Adua, prayer, supplication. 

Adugbo-lu, Idugbolu, s. a stumbling-block, an object 
stumbled at by falling upon it on a sudden. 

Afaimo (Fi-aimo), adv. not unlikely, not impossible. 


Afara, 9. a bridge ; two sticks rubbed together, from which 
fire is produced by friction. 

Afara, s. slowness, sluggishness. 

Afara oyin, s. the honeycomb. 

Afe, s. a kind of white-bellied rats. 

Afe-imojo, s. an animal of the rat kind, the tail of which 
is used by the king of Yoruba as a sign of royalty : 
he generally holds the tail before his mouth when he 
walks abroad. — Obba si iruke, " The king takes off 

• • • • o 

the tail;" /. e. from his mouth. — Enni ti o pa afe- 

imojo, ki omu re Qyo, eda li ara oko ije, " Whoever 

kills afe-imojo must take it to Oyo ; eda only is due 

to the people of the province to eat." 
A-fe, s. pleasure, pride. 
A-fe-fe, s. wind, breeze, gale. 
Afehinti, s. support, prop. 

Afe-ju, s. one who distorts his face, especially in working. 
Afemojumo (fe-mo-ojumo), s. morning, twilight, dawn. 
Afe-no, s. chaff, that which may be driven away by the 

fan. — Afeno ni ti lyangbo, " Chaff is to be fanned 

Afere, s. a very light wood, like the cork wood. 
Afesonna (fe-si-onna), s. a betrothed person. 
Afe-tan, s. perfect love. 
Afi, Afibi, conj. unless, except. — Emi ki yio duro afibi o 

ba yara, " I will not wait unless he is quick." 
Afibipore (fi-ibi-pe-ore), s. an ungrateful person, one who 

returns evil for good. 
Afi-han, Ifihan, s. the act of shewing, an exhibition. 
Afi-ji, Ifiji, s. remission, forgiveness. 
Afin, s. the king's palace. — From this is derived Alawofin, 

contracted Alafin, " He who enters the palace," 
Afin, s. an albino. 

Afingba (fin-igba), s. one who cuts figures on calabashes. 
Afin-ju, s. a decent clean person, cleanliness, neatness. 
Afinosajere, Afinosehin, AFIN9S0DE (fi-ino-se-ajere), .>'. 
1 1 c 2 


an unfaithful, treaclierous person. — Afinosajere afe- 
hin se ikoko, " An unfaithful man (receives your 
words) in a perforated vessel, but keeps behind his 
back the vessel (which would retain them), or, turns 
his back instead of his face." 

Afirese (fi-ire-se), s. an act of wantonness or irreverence. 

Af-iyanju-se, s. the doing a thing by constraint or com- 
pulsion, reluctance. 

Af-iye-si, s. an oversight, a thing to be noticed or su- 

Afo, s. space, room. — Bu mi li afo, " Give me space." 

^Afo, s. pig's mire. — Apa afo bi eledde, this is said of a 
dirty person, one who wallows in the mire. — Eledde 
pa afo tan o nwa enni rere ti yio fi ara yi, " A pig 
which has wallowed in the mire seeks a clean person 
to rub against." 

Afo-ba-je, s. an overthrow, utter destruction. 

Afoforo, s. the cork wood. 

Afogbo (fo-ma-gbo), s. disobedience, petulance. — AwTgbo 
afogbo ti ifi owo ajae mo omi, " Disobedience will 
drink water with his hand tied up." 

Afogun, Opalaba, s. a flat bottle having four corners. 

Afoju (fo-oju), s. a blind person. — Ohun ti afoju fi oju 
re ri ki oto fo, on li ori mo, ko ton omiran ri mo, 
" What the blind saw before he was blind is the last 
sight he will ever see." 

Afojudi, s. obstinacy, insolence — adj. obstinate, petulant, 

Afojusonna (fi-oju-si-onna), s. earnest expectation, a 
looking on the road for. 

Afo-mo, s, the parasite. — Afomo ko li egbo, iggi gbogbo 
ni ibatan, " The parasite has no root ; it claims rela- '-^ 
tionship with every tree." 

Afonnahan (fi-onna-han), s. a guide, a leader, a di- 

Afonrugbin (fon-iru-gbin), .9. a sower. 


Aforanlo (fi-oran-lo), s. an inquirer into a case, one 

who seeks advice. 
Aforan-mo, Iforan-mo, s. suspicion ; a suspecter. 
Aforesibi, Foresiggi ( — ore-se-ibi), s. an unthankful per- 
son, one who does not value kindness. 
Afo-se, 5. soothsaying. 

Afo-ta, s. depraved vision, a defect in the eye. 
Af-owo-b6, s. secret, a thing not to be made known. 
Afowo-ta, s. a careless search. 
^ Afura, Onifura ( — fu-ara), s. a suspicious person. — 
Onifura alejo ti itete ise onille pelle, "A man of sus- 
picious character (found in a house) is first to salute 
the master (instead of waiting to be saluted)." 
Aga, 5. chair, an elevated moveable seat. — Aga-itisse, 

Agabagebe, s. an hypocrite, a dissembler. 
Agada, s. a short sword, scimetar. — Agada ko mo ori 
alagbedde, " The sword shows no respect for the 
maker of it." 
> Agadagodo, 5. lock, padlock. — Agadagodo ko mo ino ara 
won, ''One lock does not know the wards of another." 
Agalamasa, s. deceit, device, trick ; a double dealer. 
Agan, s. a barren woman, one who never bears. 
Agangan, s. the stone on which beads are ground. 
Aganju, s. the king's palace. 
Aganju, Aginju, s. wilderness, the depth of a forest or 

grass-field, ocean. 
Aganran, s. a kind of green parrots. 
Aganwo aw^o, s. a tall tree used for boards and planks. 
The fruit of this tree yields butter like the shea 
butter nuts, sold by the Mandingos in Sierra Leone. 
Also, the horny substance on the head of the guinea 
Agara, Aga, s. weariness, fatigue. 
Agba, 6'. adult ; manhood. — 'Agba-agba, " Man by man." 
^ Agba, s. barrel, cask. — Ji agba 9tti ji agba ettu, enniti 


aran vva ki iji agba, " The owner may broach his cask 
of liquid or barrel of powder (if he please) ; but he 
who is sent with it dares not broach the cask." 

Agbagba, s. plantain. 

Agbagba-eiyelle, s. a spotted pigeon. 

Agba-bo, s. foster-child. 

Agbabon (agba-ibon), s. large gun, cannon. 

Agbada, s. a loose garment. — Agbada ya li oron o baje, 
"An agbada torn at the neck is spoilt." 
^/ Agbado, s. maize, Indian corn. — Igba dodo li agbado 
igbani, " Indian corn is the true support of a people." 

Agbadu, Sebe, Owon, s. names of a black snake with a 
red stripe on the neck. 

Agbagun (gba-ogun), s. that which causes a gathering of 

Agbaiye (agba-aiye), s. the whole world. 

Agbaja, (aba-oja), Igbaja, s. girdle, band, sash ; one who 
girds himself. — Agbaja gba talla, "One who girds 
himself with a white girdle." 

Agbakankan, s. a forest-bird ; so called from its cry. 

Agba-k6, s. exact time ; coming in contact ; meeting. 

Agba-ku, s. frame for carrying a load, usually of bamboo. 

Agbalaja, s. a kind of small country shirt in common use. 

Agbala, s. court-yard, yard, walled garden. 

Agbalagba, s. an aged person, 
r Agballe, s. a kind of insect. — Aid igba agballe lowo 
arabi, ko si enniti igba ille babba enni lowo enni, 
" No one can separate the agballe from the arabi ; 
(two insects always found together) ; and no one can 
deprive a man of his inheritance." 

Agballu, s. the whole city. 

Agbami (agba-omi), s. the midst of the ocean. 

Agba-ni, s. helper, one who renders assistance. 

Agbanrere, s. the rhinoceros ; an animal with one horn, 
supposed by the natives to be the unicorn. — Agban- 
rere olowo kan, " The one-horned agbanrere." 


Agba-ojo, s. ancient of days. 
y Agbara (gba-ara), s. strength, might, ability ; a kind of 
bush-rope used for tying rafters together. — Ao-bara 
ma mo ero babba olle, "A strong man, who is a 
spendthrift, (may be called) the father of idleness." 

Agba-ra, s. wooden fortification. — Ogun ja agbara otte 
sono " The enemy pulls down the fortification." 

Agbari (igba-ori), 5. skull, crown of the head. — Agbari ko 
ni modunmodun, "A (mere) skull has no brains in it" 

Agbarigba, s. an animal with long horns, and two white 
streaks on each side. 

Agba-si, s. accumulation, addition. 

Agba-sin, Agba-to-ju, Agba-wo, s. a female sheep, goat, 
&c., entrusted to the care of a shepherd, who receives 
in payment part of the offspring ; oversight of any 
thing belonging to another. 

Agbassa, s. solid mass of rock. — Agbassa babba okuta, 
" A rock is the father of stones." 
\.- Agba-tan, s. entire help, complete assistance. — Agbatan 
li agba olle, " You must help an idle man thoroughly 
(if you help him at all)." 

Agbayon, Agbayonkon, s. the miraculous berry ; (a plant 
so called by Europeans). 

Agbe, s. a gourd, a calabash not cut into halves, but 
simply pierced at the top, used for carrying water, 
palm-oil, or palm-wine. — Agbe ni ije egbin omi, 
agbalagba ni ijiya oran, "As a calabash receives the 
sediment of water, so an elder must exercise forbear- 
ance." — Bi apon omi bi o dano, bi agbe ko ba fo aton 
omiran pon, " When one is carrying water, and hap- 
pens to spill it, if the calabash be not broken, you 
. can get more." 
Agbe, s. forgetfulness, slip of memory. 
Agbe, s. one who takes ; one who resides in a place. 
Agbe, s. a kind of woodcock ; alms. — Iwo nse agbe, 
" You ask alms." — Agbe ni ida aro, aluko ni ikosun, 


lekeleke li alalia funfun, " The agbe has blue feathers 
{lit. is the dyer in blue) ; the aluko has red (Jit. is the 
painter of red dye) ; but the lekeleke white (lit. is the 
owner of the white cloth)." 

Agbe-bo, s. a hen. — I wo ba agbebo adire li oia iwo nta- 
gere si i ira, iba se rere oluwa re ko je ta a, " You 
met a hen in the market, and hastened to purchase 
her : had she been worth keeping the owner would 
not have sold her." 

Agbede (gbe-ede), s. a wise or clever person. 

Agbede-meji, s. the middle. — Agbedemeji esse li ori 
ekun, " The knee is the middle of the leg." 

Agbegbe, s. neighbourhood ; region. 

Agbeji (gba-eji), s. a hat. 

Agbe-jollo, s. a long-necked calabash. 

Agbelebu, s. a cross. 

Agbe-ni, s. one who helps, or speaks on behalf of, another. 

Agbe, s. one who sharpens. 

Agbe, s. a kind of native sword. 

Agbe, s. a farmer, agriculturist. 

Agbedde, s. smith's shop. — Ogun ko r9 ike, agbedde ko 
ro batta ; oko ko soro.iro agbedde pa okko ta, "Ogun 
(the god of smiths) does not manufacture ivory ; the 
blacksmith does not make shoes ; and if there were 
not hard w^ork in agriculture, the blacksmith would 
not make hoes to sell." 
^''Agbe-je, s. an early pumpkin, much eaten before other 
vegetables are in season. When over-ripe it becomes 
bitter. — Agbeje gba won la ani ki apa a ni pansa, 
" (After) the agbeje has saved men from starvation, it 
is judged fit to be cut into a common calabash." (A 
proverb against ingratitude.) — Agbeje ko koro ni ille 
nla, " The agbeje is never bitter in a large family." 

Agbe-kuta (gbe-okuta), s. a stone-cutter. 

Agbe-ma-ye, s. a hen which does not lay. 

Agbin-yi-kagba, Akogba, s. hedge. 



'Agbo, 5. a ram. — ^"Agbo meji ko 1119 omi akoto kan, " Two 

. rams cannot drink out of the same calabash." — Roro ^^ 

agbo ni imii agbo niyin, 9lla ti babba ni imu ommo /' ' 

iyan, " A ram's mane gives him a noble appearance ; 

(and) a father's honour makes a son proud." 
Agbo, 5. a decomposed vegetable liquid used by the 

natives for v^ashing. 
Agbo, s. ring of dancers, flock, fold. 
Agbo-agbado, s. sheaves of corn piled up in a conical shape. 
Agbodegba, s. one of a gang of thieves stationed outside 

the house to receive what the rest steal within. 
Agbowode, s. tax-gatherer, publican. 
Agbo-ille, s. square of a house, court-yard. 
Agbon, s. cocoa-tree and nut. — Agbon ko se ije fun eiye 

ki eiye, " Agbon is not good for a bird to eat." 
/^ Agbon, s. a wasp. — Mo mo o tan ko je agbon ki o li oro, 

" Self-conceit deprives the wasp of honey." 
/- Agbon, 5. the chin. — Bi 9 b9Ju bi 9 bonu isalle agb9n li 
^ a ipari re si, " When the face is washed, you finish at 

the chin." — Ari ba 'ni je agb9n isalle bi o ku li owur9 

aya li alle, " An ungrateful guest (is like) the lower 

jaw, which, when the body dies in the morning, falls 

away from the upper by night time." 
Agbon, s. basket. 
Agbonbere, s. a children's play by snatching eatables from 

one another. — Agb9nbere pete igara, "Agbonbere ap- 
proaches to stealing." 
Agbonrin, Agbonyin, s. the deer. — ^Aki ifa eran ikon 

gb9n eran agb9n yin n9, " No one will throw away 

deers' flesh for squirrels'." 
ixAgboya, s. pretended deafness. — Enniti npe 'o ko sun- 

konu, iw9 li 9gb9 agb9ya, " He is going on calling 

you, and you pretend to be deaf." 
Agbugbo, s. a forest bird of the duck tribe. 
Agemo, s. the chamelion. 

Agere, s. the stand on which the idol Ifa is placed. 



Agidi, s. an implacable person. — Agidi ti on ti iyonnu, 
akurete ti on ti lya, "An implacable person is always 
a source of trouble, a pliable person is sure to 

Agiliti, s. an animal of the guana tribe. — Bi o kun oni 
kun olla ki ogbe ki o pa agiliti ojo aro, " If the agiliti 
will die to-day or to-morrow (for want of water), rain 
will surely come." A proverbial expression, because 
the agiliti is said to be able to live without water for 
a considerable time. — Agiliti abi ara yiyi, " The 
agiliti with a rough skin." Applied to people with 
cutaneous disorders. 

Agisa, Akisa, s. rags. — Akisa aso li afi isu osuka. Illu 
kan mbe nwon ama pe illu na ni illu alagisa, ^' Rags 
make up a pad :" there is a town called " The 
Ragged Town." 

Ago, s. a cup, mug, jug. 

Ago, Agoro, 5. a kind of striped rat, remarkable for craf- 
tiness and swiftness, and the care it takes of its young 
ones. — Agoro ti o gbon sasa ebiti pa a ambotori 
malaju, ^' The Ago (a very clever animal) is caught 
in a trap : how much more the Malaju (a very stupid 

Ago, first salutation in approaching a house, indicating 
that the inmates should keep themselves tidy, so that 
they may not be taken by surprise. 

Agogo, s. the name of a tree loftier than the rest; 
tallness. — Eiyelle ko li agogo kiki arupe, "There 
is no tallness among pigeons ; they are all 

Agogo, s. a bell, an hour. 

Agogo kan, one bell, one hour. — Agogo kan lu, " It 
struck one o'clock " 

Agogori (gon-go-ori), s. point of a thing, extreme point 
of a sharp thing. 

Agoro, s. the hare. — Aja ti ire re ba daniloju li ade si 


agoro, " The dog which is known to be very swift is 
set to catch the hare." 

Agoro, s. a title of honour, a grade below that of Asipa. 

^ Ago, Aggo, s. a tent, a temporary building, a shed. — Bi 

ako ba le itete kgWe ago li apa na, " If one is not 

able at once to build a house, a shed is first erected." 

Ago, s. a shroud, a winding-sheet ; a fish, — Ago olu eja. 
Ago, the prince of fishes. 

Ago, Agoni, s. a person who neglects due discipline over 
his dependants, and allows them to fall into slothful 
habits. — Ago won de ara ehin, " An Ago (suffers 
his dependants to be slothful) till some one shall come 
(who shall awaken them)." 

Agon, s. a settled grudge, bad feelings to another. 

Aguala, Ajaosu, s. the planet Venus ; a dogstar. — Aguala 
mba osu irin nwon sebi aja re ni ise. ^Aguala ki ise 
aja osupa, " Venus travels with the moon; they sup- 
pose it to be her dog. Venus is not the moon's dog." 

'Ajude, s. an iron armlet worn by hunters. 

Agufon, s. a kind of long-necked crested bird : it is a 
common superstition that its bones cannot and must 
not be broken. 

Agun-monna, s. a running plant. 

Agutan, s. a sheep. — Agutan enia, a stupid person. 

Aha, s. a small calabash, used for giving children water. 

Aha-mo, s. the state of being enclosed, strait, difficulty. 

Ahamora ( — ara), s. he who puts armour on ; one who 
entangles himself with many things. 

Ahanna, s. a wild, obstinate person. 

Ahariya, s. bird-shot. 

Ahere, s. a farm-house. — Ahere ni yio kehin oko, atta ni 
yio kehin ille, " The farm-house remains to the last 
(upon the ground), and the ridge of the roof com- 
pletes the building :" a proverbial saying, intima- 
ting that a person will be compelled to seek a shelter 
at last. 


Alio, interj. a contemptuous expression, signifying, " I 
do not care." 

Ahon, Awon, s. the tongue. — Ahon ni ipinle ennu, " The 
tongue is the end of the mouth." 

AiioRo, s. ruins, deserted houses, desolation. 

Ahoto, s, a small tight trousers, or drawers. 

Ahusa, s. a fruit resembling walnut. 

Ahu-so-oro, s. falsehood, invented story. 

Ai, a negative particle, chiefly used in combination with 
other words. It is compounded of a privative and i 
the nominal formative prefix. 

AiBERu (Ai-ba-eru), adj. without fear, fearless. 

Ai-DA, adj. not ceasing, not stopping. — Aida ojo ni, " It 
is rain without stopping." 

AiDA-ARA, s. infirmity, unsound state of health. 

AiDERA (de-ara), adj. not negligent, not growing slack. 

AiDiBAJE ( — da-ibaje), s. incorruption. 

Ai-FE, s. unwillingness, reluctance. 

AiFENi (Fe-enni),5. uncharitableness. 

Ai-Fo, adj. unbroken, sound, whole. 

Ai-FO, adj. unwashed. 

AiFOYA (Fo-aiya), s. boldness, fearlessness. 

Ai-GBA, s. non-receiving. 

AiGREDE (Gbo-ede), s. want of understanding or know- 
ledge of a language. 

Ai-GBo, AiGBORAN, s. unbclicf, disobedience. — Aigboran 
babba afojudi, "Disobedience is the father of inso- 

Ai-GBo, s. a motionless state, unwillingness to move. 

Ai-JE, AiJEUN, without food. — Aije aimu, not eating, not 

Ai-JE, adj. not answering, not effectual. 

AiJEBBi (Je-ebbi), adj. uncondemned, guiltless. 

AiJiYAN (Ja-iyan), adj. without denying, undeniable. 

AiKOLA (Ko-ila), adj. not tattooed, not circumcised. 

Ai-KON, adj. without grumbling, not murmuring. 


AiKossE (ko-esse), adj. not tripping or stumbling, with- 
out oflence. 

Ai-Ku, adj. not liable to die, alive. 

Ai-KUN, adj. not remaining, finished. 

AiLABAWON (ni-abaw9n), adj. undefiled, having no stain, 
no spot or blemish. 

Ai-LEGAN ( — egan), adj. having no blame, blameless. 

Ai-LERA ( — le-ara), s. infirmity, bodily weakness. 

AiLERi ( — eri), 5. purity, cleanness, freedom from filth. 

Ai-LERi, adj. having no witness, without a witness. 

AiLESE (ni-ese), adj. without sin, righteous, innocency. 

AiLEwu ( — ewu), adj. having no danger, safe. 

AiLOMMo (ni-ommo), adj. childless. 

Ai-LU, s. a plant ; adj. not having a hole, not bored. 

Ai-MA, adv. two negatives making an afTirmative. — Emi 
ko le ise aima lo, " I must go." 

Ai-Mo, s. want of knowledge, ignorance, a. unknown. 

Ai-Mo, Ai-Mu, adj. without drink. 

Ai-Mo, adj. unclean, filthy. 

AiMOYE (mo-oye), s. wanting knowledge, ignorance; 
adj. not wise. 

Ai-Mu, adj. not sharp, dull, not catching. 

Ai-Ni, adj. not having ; s. need, necessity, destitution. 

AiNiPEKUN ( — ipekun), adj. having no end, everlasting. 

AiNiYE ( — iye), adj. innumerable, countless, myriads. 

AiNiYENiNO ( — nino), s. want of understanding, dulness 
of apprehension. 

AiNiYiN ( — iyift), adj. dishonourable, disreputable, want- 
ing honour or reputation. 

Ai-PADA, adj. not returning. 

Ai-PE, adv. not long, of no long duration. 

Ai-PERi, s. the mushroom, a disease common to children, 
corruption in wounds. 

Ai-REKOJA, s. soberness, self-controul. 

Ai-RiNAN, AiRiRAN, s. dimncss of sight, blindness. 

Ai-Ri-wi, adj. inexcusable ; lit. having nothing to say. 
17 u 


Ai-Ro, adj. without consideration, thoughtless. 

AiROJu, AiRowo ( — ri-oju), 5. business, employment, oc- 

Ai-SA, adj. not picked up, scattered. 

Ai-sAN, s. sickness, disease. 

AiSANu ( — se-anu), 5. unmercifulness, want of compassion. 

Ai-SE, adj. not coming to pass, unfulfilled. 

Ai-sE, AsE, s. a large door, a gate. 

Ai-SE, s. inaction. 

Ai-SE, adj. not sinning, not offending ; having no be- 

AisEGBE ( — se-egbe), s. equity, impartiality, equality, 

AisEMELLE ( — imelle), Aisimelle, s. diligence, activity. 

Ai-SETTAN, adj. or s. void of deceit, simplicity, openness, 

Ai-si, adj. not being, not present. 

Ai-si-Mi, s. indefatigableness, perseverance. 

Ai-siN, s. independence. 

AisiYEMEJi (se-iye-meji), s. or adj. certainty; not double- 
minded, without doubt. 

AisoDODo ( — se-ododo), s. injustice, unrighteousness. 

AisojusAju (oju-isaju), adj. or s. showing no respect ; 

ArsoTO ( — otito), adj. not dealing truly, untrue, unjust. 
/ AiTARA, followed by yo, s. or adj. equality, equal. — Esin 
meji sure li aitara won yo, " Two horses ran equally, or 
inequality;" i.e. without either surpassing the other. 

Ai-To, s. or adj. absurdity, crookedness, not durable. 

AiwuKARA, s. or adj. unleavened cake, not fermented. 

AiYA, s. breast, bosom, heart, stomach ; courage, influ- 
ence. — Bi ako li aiya rindorind9, aki ije ay an, "If the 
stomach is not strong, do not eat cockroaches." 

Aiya-f6, v. to fear, to be discouraged. 

AiVA-jA, V. to be panic-struck. Ijaiya, 5. fearfulness, 


AiVA-LA, V. to be fearful, to be panic-struck. 

AiYA-PA, V. to be terrified, to be frightened. 

Ai-YAPA, adj. not deviating from the right path. 

Ai-YATTO, adj. or s. integrity ; not separated ; undivided 

Ai-YE, adj. lifeless. 

AiYE, s. the world, earth ; condition, state, time of life, 
time ; reign. — Aiye li Okun, enia li Ossa, aki imo iwe 
ki ako aiye ja, " The world is (may be compared to) 
an ocean ; mankind is the lagoon Ossa. However 
well a person swims, he cannot cross the world ;" 
(i.e. It is presumptuous for man to attempt to com- 
pass the whole world.) 

Ai-YE, adj. not understood, unintelligible ; not ceasing, 
not stopping. 

Ai-YE, Ai-GBo, s. not giving way, unyielding. 

AiYERAiYE, AiYE-TiTi-LAi, udv. for cvcr, world without 
end, eternally. 

AiYEssE (yi-esse), adj. or s. immovable ; stedfastness. 

Aja, s. a dog. — Aja egberun ko gbo oruko, "A dog valued 
at half-a-crown(i.e. an old dog; half-a-crown being the 
price of a full-grown dog) cannot be taught." — OkTpa 
aja li afi ib9 Ogun, "An old dog must be sacrificed 
to Ogun ;" (i. e. Ogun claims the best). — Aja ti ko 
let! ko se idegbe, ^^A stupid dog will not do for the 
chase." — Bi aja ba li enni lehin apa obbo, " If a dog 
has a master after him, he will not be afraid to kill 
the large monkey." 

Aja, s. attic, uppermost floor. 

Aja, s. a fairy, said to be of a diminutive human form, 
who carries persons into the wilderness and instructs 
them in magic and all kinds of medicines. 

Aja, Ajara, Ogbolo, s. a running plant, resembling a 
wild vine, used by the natives to varnish their 
houses when newly plastered with mud. 

Aja-bo, Ijabo, narrow escape with much struggle and 


difTiculty. — Ajabo ni ti iwe, bi iwe ja ab9 I9W0 oloko, 
'' The frog (iw^) is sure to escape from the hands 
of the farmer." 

V Ajadi, adj. having the bottom broken off. — Ajadi agbon 

odi olara, ^'A basket with its bottom broken through 
is useless." 

Ajae, s a cord with which the hand is bound to the neck. 

Ajaga, s. a shackle for the neck. 
I AjAGAJicr, adj. firm as a rock or the stem of a tree. — 
Ajagajigi enniti o mi kukute mi 'ra re, " He who 
tries to shake the stem of a tree, only shakes himself" 

Ajagbon, s. the tamarind tree and fruit. 

Ajagun, 5. a soldier, a warrior. 

Ajaille, s. a pit into which thorns are put and carefully 
covered over, so that when a thief falls into it, his foot 
is severely wounded; a ceiling over the dead; vaulted 
roof of a grave. — Pansa ille o li ariwo nin9 ajaille ba 
agba li eru, '* When a grave is made there is a great 
deal of noise (from the loud talking of the labourers 
who dislike the task), and the sight of a vault makes 
old men tremble." 

Ajaje, s. lewd fellow, a mean person. 

Ajaka, Ajakalle, s. an epidemic, an infectious disorder. 

V Ajako, s. an animal very much resembling a dog. — Ogbo- 

gbo awon ni bi ajako, " He who kills an ajako is sure 
to suffer for it" (a superstition). 

Ajala, Ijala, s. escape through much lighting. 

Ajan, s. meat cut in small pieces for sale. — Bi alapata ba 
pa eran awon alagbata abu u li ajan, " When the 
butcher kills the animal, the retailers cut it into 

'Ajanapa, s. a bird snare made of cloth. — Aparo jare 
ajanapa ki li o, mu aso wa ise li oko. Ajare aparo li 
oko li agbe imu aso ilo, ^' The partridge says, ' What 
business has the farmer to bring his cloth here?' 
The farmer says, ' How could I come to my farm 


without cloth?'" (/. 6'. There are two sides to every 

Ajannaku, s. the elephant. — Oku ajannaku 11 ayo ogbo 

si, ta li oje yo oju agada si eran, alabo owo, " It is 

easy to cut to pieces a dead elephant; but no one 

dares attack a live one." 
\ Ajao, s. an animal between the bird and rat kind. — Ko 

se eku ko se eiye ajao, '^ The ajao is neither rat nor 

bird ;" (i. e. He is neither one thing nor the other). 
Ajapa, s. a petty wholesale trade ; a nickname given to 

the tortoise. 
Ajara, see Aja, s. a medicinal plant, used for curing sore 

breasts : it is also eatable, and is used in rubbing 

houses to give the walls a gloss. 
Ajaso, s. hearsay, false report. 
IAje, s. money ; the god of money. — Aje saluga, o fi enni 

iwaiu sille se enni ehin ni pelle, 6 ri ki oran ki o tan. 

" Aje often passes by the first caravan, as it comes to 

market, and loads the last with blessings ;" (/. e. The 

race is not always to the swift). 
Aje, s. a trial, ordeal by water. 
Aje,5. a sorcerer, a witch. — Aje 9mm9 hee,ya miso wogan, 

apa ma gbagun, '' A witch kills, but never inherits." 

The owl is considered the bird into which the spirit 

of a witch transmigrates when it wishes to do evil. 
Aje, s. paddle, oar; wadding. 
Ajefowo, s. the name of a garden herb, so called for its 

Ajejee, s. calabash bored with many holes like a colander, 

to wash the sediment of the locust fruit and eggusi seed. 
Ajeji, s. stranger, foreigner. 
Ajekun, s. fragment, remainder after eating. 
Ajelle, s. an agent, a consul, a deputy. 
Ajenia (je-enia), s. cannibal, man-eater. 
Ajere, s. a country pot with many holes like a sieve to 

dry meat in over the fire. 



Ajeti, s. remnant left after eating to the full. 

Ajeyo, adj. having eaten to the full, satisfied. 

Ajibowaba, adj. existing a priori. 

Ajigbese, s. a debtor. 

Ajimo, 5. Friday, observed as sacred by the Mahommedans. 

Ajin, 5. profound silence, darkness, depth of night. — 

Ajinjin, "There is profounddarkness: it is midnight." 
Ajina, s. the act of spending, daily expenditure, marketing. 
Ajinde, Agbende, s. the Resurrection, — ^Ki Ajinde olla 

kioje, "May a future resurrection answer (my hopes)!" 

an expression probably learntfrom the Mahommedans. 
Ajisinsin, s. concealment, a concealed matter. 
'Ajo, s. journey. 

Ajo, s. anxiety, solicitude, carefulness. 
Ajo, s. assembly, a meeting, a gathering together. 
Ajoku, adj. unquenchable. 
Ajo-mo-po, Ajo-je-po, s. a feasting or drinking together, 

a banquet. 
Ajo-ran, the act of catching fire. — Bi ille ko kan ille ki 

ijo ajoran, "Houses not contiguous do not easily catch 

Ajo-rin, i'. companionship on a journey. 
Ajo r6, s. a mutual combination, bargain, agreement. 
Ajo-so, a mutual talk, consultation, a talking together. 
Ajo-yo, s. participation in joy. 
Ajuba, s. newly cultivated grassfield. 
Ajumo, s. combination, co-operation. 
Aka, s. the name of a tree, the armadillo. — Aka ko 

gbe odan, igbo ni igbe, " The armadillo dwelt in a 

forest, and not in a plain." — Two li ojuti bi aka, "You 

are bashful like the armadillo." 
Aka, s. a storehouse, built in the shape of a V, supported 

by four sticks, with three or four apartments for 

Akabbe aso, s. the pole on which the cloth is wound 

while weaving. 


Akaka, s. the posture of squatting, or sitting cross- 
legged. — I wo dakaka yekete bi agbalagba, " You 
squat like an old person." — 'Aki igba akaka lowo akiti, 
aki igba ille babba enni lowo enni, " No one can cure 
a monkey of squatting ; and no one can deprive a 
man of his inheritance." 

Akala, s. a carnivorous bird. — Bi oku ba ku laiye akala 7s 
amo li orun, (akala agbe orun mo), " The akala smells 
the carcase, however high in the air he may be." 

Akalambi, s. a bag, a sack. — Akalambi li afi ipiye li 
ogun, "A sack is used to plunder with at a war camp." 

Akamo, s. the act of encompassing, enclosing, or sur- 

Akan, s. the crab ; a name given to the epaulet worn by 
soldiers or naval officers. 

Akanse, adj. special, made to order, uncommon. 

Akara, s. bread, cake, of which latter there are various 
kinds. — Akara-awon, fancy cake made in imitation 
of a net. — Akara-bowo-bowo, fancy cake made in 
imitation of a ring. — Akara-fule, a soft cake made 
of white beans and the vegetable occro. — Akara-ku, 
a hard cake made of beans, and used by warriors 
for provision in their war expeditions. — Bi o ba /K' 
gbo ogun mi, ki iduro din akaraku, " Whenever he 
hears of my w^ar, he never waits to make provision." 
This is said of a busy-body who rejoices at another's 
trouble. — Akara-lapata, cake made of Indian 

Aka-so, 5. a ladder, steps. 

Akaso-ewu, a kind of short garment, from the neck to 
the waist, which may either be drawn tight, or w orn 
loose ; generally worn singly. 

Aka-su, s. a large lump of agidi for family use. — Akasu 
babba ekko, " Akasu is the father of all other loaves." ^ 
Ajakasu ko mo bi lyan mu, " He who eats akasu does ^ 
not know that a famine prevails." 


^Akata, s. a broad-brimmed straw hat used by the natives 
to ward off rain or the rays of the sun, instead of an 

Akatapo, Akatanpo, 5. a cross-bow. — Akatanpo ko to 

^ ija ija, ta li o mu iggi wa iko loju, "A cross-bow is 

not enough to go to war with (since the introduction 

of fire-arms) : whom do you dare to face with a 

I- stick ?" — Alakatanpo fi oju woke, " A cross-bowman 

is obliged to look upwards." 

Aka-we, Akawe-oran, s. similitude, comparison of words 
or matter, signification. 

Akayin (ka-eyin), s. one who loses his teeth. 

Ake, s. a crier. 

Ake, s. an axe. See Akeke. 
( Akede (ke-ode), s. a public crier. — Akede ko jiyan gbi- 
gbona, " The public crier does not eat warm food," 
because he is liable to be called away from his meat 
at any moment. 

Akegun-oko, s. an old hoe. 

Ake-ja-onna, s. a cross street, lane. 

Akeke, Ake, s. the axe. — Ake kan wo igbo agbo okiki, 
Akeke ti nke iggi ko se gbenagbena mbu ettu si atari, 
" An axe enters a forest ; we hear a sound. The axe 
that cuts the tree is not afraid, but the carpenter 
performs charms for his defence." (There are some 
trees which it is considered dangerous to fell without 
the protection of a charm.) 

Akerekere, Akeke, s. the scorpion. — Akeke Ojogan fi 
id ija ara, ille fi oju di ni, akeke ko se idi ni ibo, " A 
scorpion stings with his tail ; a domestic is apt to 
be insolent: one cannot hide a scorpion in the hand." 

Akeri, Yonyon, s. a plant used for washing, also for 
sauce ; a hater. 

Ake-si, Ikesi, s. the act of calling upon, or visiting. — Oku 
akesi mi anna, "I thank you for calling upon me 


^ Akete^ 5. bed, bedstead, — Akete kekere ko gba enia meji, 
" A small bed will not hold two persons." 

Akette, s. hat. 

Akettox, Akettun, 5. a new hoe, a bough, branch of a tree. 
y Akije, (ki-ma-je), s. dumbness, not answering salutation. 
— Ille kan wa li Oyo nigba atiJ9 ti anpe li akije, 
" There is a house in Oyo which was called of old 
time the place of silence." There is a tradition that 
a white man died and was buried there. 

Aki-lo, s. parting salutation, farewell. 

Aki-molle, Ikimolle, s. the act of pressing down. 

Akiri, s. a wanderer, rover. 
; Akisalle, s. a running plant, with a pod very much like 
a pea. — Aki iti ehin akisalle iwure, " One cannot bless 
the gods without using the word akisalle." 
</ Akisa, Agisa, s. rags. — Akisa ba enni rere je, " Rags 
disgrace a handsome person." 

Akiti, s. monkey. 

Akiyesi (ko-iye-si), s. the act of taking notice or observing. 

Akke, s. bush-rope used for tying rafters together ; a 
large she-goat. — O bun mi li akke ewure kan, " He 
presented me with a large she-goat." 
\y Akko, s. a swan, sheath, scabbard. — ^Akko ploron ejo, 
" The bird akko, with a snake-like neck." — O sure 
iku o bo si akko ida ; or, ]\Io sa osa iku, mo si bo 
si akko ida, " He runs away from the sword, and 
hides himself in the scabbard, (into which the sword 
wdll return)." 

Ako-ja, s. completion, bringing to a point, termination. 

Ako-jo, s. accumulation, piling up. 

Ako-ki, 5. the act of saluting on meeting on the way. 

Akoko, s. time, season, exact time. — Akoko ti mo setan 
ge ni iwo de, " You came just as I was ready." 

Akoko, s. the name of a tree, the juice of whose flower is 
sucked ; tooth. The leaf of this tree is given to those 
who receive a new title, as a sign of great honour. 
25 E 


Ako-kun, s. a remnant after a large quantity has been 

Ako-po, Ikopo, s. a draught ; gathering together. 
Ako-so, s. restraint, control, government, rule. 
Ako-tan, s. completion ; entire removal. 
Ako, s. the male of beasts or birds. — Ako-eledde, s. a 

boar — Ako-malu, s. a bull, bullock — Ako-pepeiye, s. 
y^ a drake. 
^Akobi, (ko-bi), s. the first-born. — Akobi ni ti eleran, 

" The first-born is due to the owner, (and not to the 

shepherd who takes care of it)." 
Ako-ju, s. superior learning, learning to excess. 
Ako-kan, adj. the first, foremost. 
Ako-le, s. a superscription, direction, address of a 

Ako-mu, s. that which is first taken. 
Akon, Akun, s. a kind of beads made of shell. 
Akoni (ako-enia), s. a teacher. 
*^ Akoni, s. a brave, bold, stKong person. — I wo iba ri, iwo 

ko gboddo wi ; ni ipa akoni, " You may see, but not 

dare to speak (of the danger) : it is that which is the 

death of the strong man ;' i.e. (The strong man often 

perishes for want of warning.) 
Akonrin (kon-orin), s. a singer. — Akonrin ko li elegbe, 

" The singer has no one to take part in the chorus 

with him." 
Akonron, s. closet, private room. 
Akon-sino (si-ino), s. a murmuring, muttering. 
Akonw^osille, Ikonwosille (kpn-wo-si-ille), s. overflow- 
ing, brimful. (Applied to dry measure.) 
Ako-ojo, 5. every fifth day, superstitiously believed to be 

a bad day, in which nothing is undertaken in which 

success is particularly wished. 
Akorira (ko-irira) 5. one who hates, a hater. 
Ako-ro,s. the first rain intheyear, commencement of rains. 
Ako-se, s. the first, first made, beginning. 


^*5^ossEBA (ko-esse-ba), s. that wliich is met by chance. — 

Akosseba eyi ti ije odun, " He who waits for chance 

will have to wait a year." 
Ako-tan, adj. perfectly built, perfectly instructed. 
Akow^e (ko-iwe), s. a scribe, writer, clerk, secretary. 
^ AkudTn, s. the heart of a tree. — -Akudin asapa ko konno 

ake, " The heart of (the tree) asapa fears no axe." 
M.KUKO, s. a cock. — Akuko gagara ni idajo funi li arin 

oganjo, "A large cock crowing in the middle of 

the night settles the dispute " (as to the time of the 

Akumalapa, s. the young leaf of the shea tree. 
Akun, ^Okun,5. a dull stupid person ; a worm with many 

Akunyungba (kon-iyin-gba), 5. a bard, drummer, flatterer. 
Akurette, Akunrette, s. a sluggish stupid person. 
Akuro, s. a garden by the waterside. 
Al, a substitute for oni, " one who has ;" used as a prefix. 
Ala, 5. boundary of a farm, limit of a territory. 
Ala, s. dream, vision. 
Alabaje (oni-ibaje), s. a messmate, one who partakes 

of the same dish. 
Alabalase ( — ba-ni-ase), s. an oracle ; the name of the 

goddess Obbatalla, who foretels what is coming to pass. 
Ala-ba-pa, s. partner of a fisherman, partner in killing. 
Alaba-pade, s. chance, luck. 

Alaba-pin, s. a partaker, participator, sharer in any thing. 
Alaba-rin, s. a fellow-traveller. 

Ala-bino-ku-enni, s. an enemy, a persecutor, an accuser. 
Alabo (oni-abo), s. a defender, a succourer. 
ALABO-owo(oni-abo),5.the ownerof the bundle of cowries. 
Alabukon, Olubukon (oni-ibukon), s. one who adds to, 

one who blesses. 
Alabukon-fit, s. one who blesses. 
Alabu-kun, s. one who despises, one who contemns. 
Alabukun-aron, s. a maimed person. 


Alabu-si, s. a bestower upon. 

Alada-mo (oni-ada-m9), s. one who is led astray with a 
mistaken notion, a heretic. 

Alada-si, s. a meddler. 

Alada-so, 5. one who spoke on his own responsibility. 

Alade (oni-ade), 5. a king ; the royal family, consisting 
of several persons who rule over different districts of 
Yoruba, viz. Obba Yoruba, Onikoyi, Olugbon, Aressa, 
Asehin, Alado, Alake, Olowu, Alagura, Alaketu, Olu. 

Al-adugbo, 5. a neighbour, one living near. — Aladugbo 
ki ida olla, " A near neighbour need not take (a 
final) leave till to-morrow." 

Ala-feiiinti, s. a supporter, sustainer, one on whom 
dependence is put. 
^ Alafia, s. peace, health. — Alafia babba ore, " Peace is 
the father of friendship." 

Alafi-han, s. one who shows, a revealer, a betrayer, a 

Alafin, s. see Alaw9fin. 

Alafiyesi (fi-iye-si), s. an inspector, superintendant, over- 
seer, observer. 

Alafo, s. an open place between a group of things ; 
vacant space ; a valley, ravine, crevice. 

Alafo JUTO, (fi-oju-to), s. an overseer, one who over- 
looks or has an oversight of a thing. 

Alagba (enia-agba) s. an elder, a person of respect, a 
person of honour, rulers among the people. 

Al-agbada, s. the tailor who makes the loose garment 
called agbada ; one who has an agbada. 

Al-agbafo, s. one who washes linen, one who makes 
. washing a trade. 

Al-agbara, s. a strong able-bodied person, a mighty 
man. — Bi alagbara je 'o ni lya, ki o fi erin si, "If a 
powerful man ill treat you, smile at him." 

Ala-gbaro, s. a farm-labourer, one who hires himself out 
to till the land. 


Alagba-se, s. a common labourer who hires himself out 

to do any work, a labourer. 
Alagba-so, Alagba-wi, s. an advocate, spokesman, orator, 

VAxAGBE, Asagbe (euui-agbe) s. a poor beggar. — Alagbe 

ko ku li Oyo, " A poor beggar never perishes from 

want in Oy9 (the capital)." 
Alagbedde, s. a smith, whether in gold, silver, lead, or 

iron : to distinguish which, the name of the metal is 

annexed, as Alagbedde-oje, " lead-smith." 
Alagidigba, s. beads made from palm-nut shells. 
Alahoro, s. a desolate person. 
Alahe-so, s. one who collects news and spreads it widely, 

idle talker, babbler. 
Alaiduro (oni-ai-duro), s. one who is unsteady, one 

wanting stability. 
Alaigbede ( — gbo-ede), s. one who does not understand 

another's speech, a barbarian. 
Alai-gboddo, 5. necessity, compulsion, force to do a thing. 
Alaigboran ( — gbo-oran), s. a state of not giving ear, not 

taking heed ; an obstinate, disobedient, unbelieving 

Alaiko (enni-ai-ko), s. one unlearned, one uninstructed ; 

a house unbuilt. 
Alaiko-la, adj, untattooed, uncircumcised. 
Alaiku, adj. immortal, not capable of being deprived of 

life, unquenchable. 
Alai-le-ra, s. an infirm, impotent person. 
Alai-le, s. want of solidity or strength, want of firmness. 
Alailere (ai-ni-ere), adj. unprofitable, unworthy. 
Alailese, s. a just, sinless, righteous person. 
Alaileso, adj. fruitless. 
Alailogbon ( — ni-ogbon), unwise person, an ignorant 

Alai-mo, s. one who does not understand a thing, an 

ignorant person. 


Alai-mo, s. that which is not clean, a filthy thing, a pol- 
luted thing. 

Alai-more, s. an unthankful person, not valuing kindness. 

ALAI-M9WE, adj. unlearned, illiterate. 

Alai-moye, s. one who has no power of perception, a 
thoughtless, dull, sluggish person. 

Alai-ni, s. a needy, indigent person. 

Alainigbagbo ( — ni-igbagbo), s. a faithless person. 

Alai-ri-wi, s. an inexcusable person. 

Alai-si, s. one who ceases to be, one who is absent, an 

Alaisododo (se-ododo), s. one who does not act justly or 
with equity, an unrighteous person. 

Alai-soto, adj. unjust, not true, not acting uprightly. 

Alai-ye, s. an unfit or unw^orthy person. 

Alai-yo, s. one who hungers, one who is not satisfied 
with food. 
^ Alajapa (oni-ajapa), s. a petty trader who generally 
purchases from one town and sells at another with 
a little profit. — Alajapa ko li eran li aiya, " A petty 
trader has no flesh upon her chest" {i.e. wears her- 
self to a skeleton). 

Alaje, 5. a nick-name given to one's self. 

Alajo-pa, s. a partner, a fellow-hunter, or fisher. 

Alakatanpo, s. a cross-bow man. — Alakatanpo oju ko le 
ita eran pa, " He who has only his eye (brow) for a 
cross-bow never can kill an animal." 

Alakara, s. a cakemaker, a baker. 

Alakelle, s. a small bird of the palm-bird tribe which 
lives on figs. 

Alakele, s. the head weaver.— Papa li assa awonsp bi 
alakele, " A noisy weaver, who imitates (his head- 
man) alakele." 

Alakesi, s. a visitor. 

Ala-kon, s. half; part of a thing added. 

Alako-se, s. a beginner. 


AlakotT, s. a disobedient person. 

Alami, s. a spy ; anxious or secret observation of a thing. 

Alamo, Alamgba, Alamo-rt, Adaripon, 5. the male lizard. 
— '^Oko nla se alamgba pensan o ni behe li enni ti o 
ju 'ni lo ise ni, " A large stone (being thrown) crushed 
the male lizard. It replied, ' So one who is stronger 
than another is accustomed to act towards him.' " 

Al-amo-rere, s. the owner of the best clay — a title of 
the goddess Obbatalla. 

Alamo-ri, Alamo, s. a concern, a secret. — Alamori ni ti 
ri ? " How does that concern stand ?" 

Alaniyan ( — ani-iyan), s. a solicitous, anxious person, 

one whose mind is disturbed about the issue of things. 

^ Alansasa, Alanta-kun, s. the spider. — Alantakun bi yio 

ba 'o ja ata ka 'o lara, " When the spider intends to 

assault you, it surrounds you with (its) web." 

Alanu (enni-anu), s. he who has mercy, a merciful person. 
y Alapa, s. broken pieces of old mud walls, ruins. — Ase 
alapa li oso ko gbo, ase ohun gbogbo fu iggi 9 ye 
iggi. — " (However) a ruined mud wall may be gar- 
nished, the trouble will be useless ; (but) all trouble 
bestowed upon (things made of) wood is advanta- 
/ Alapa-ta, s. a butcher. — Alapata ko mo iru eran, " The 
butcher pays no regard to any particular breed of 

Alape-je, s. one who invites to a feast. 

Alara, Omnira, s. a free person. 
- Alaraje (9ni-iraje), s. a purchaser for ftimily use, one 
having no farm. — Alaraje ko mo odun, abi isu ita bi 
iggi, "A buyer knows nothing of seasons of the year, 
but his yam must always be as large (as a billet)," be- 
cause his money enables him to purchase the best of 
every thing. 

Ala-ran-se, s. a helper. 

Alarekereke, 5. a rogue, a double-dealer, a prevaricator. 



Alarena, s. an agent who is employed in engaging a 

young woman. 
AlarT, Alari, s. a kind of red cotton grown in Haussa. — 

Alari babbaaso, "Alari is the prince of decorations." 
Alarin-jo, Arin-jo, s. one who dances about. 
Alarin-kiri, s. a rover or wanderer about. 
Alarobo, s. a petty trader, who buys and sells off at a 

little profit, a commissioner. 
Ala-ro-ye, s. a great talker. 
Alaru (oni-aru), s. a carrier, a bearer of burdens. 
Alasa, s. king's messenger. 
Alase, s. a cook — Iya-lase, a female cook — Babba-lase, 

a male cook. 
Alaso, s. a talker — Alasodon, an exaggerator. 
Alaso, s. a quarrelsome person. 
Alasa, s. a title ; captain of an inferior rank in the army. 

Are alasa; Oton alasa; Osin alasa. 
J Alasara, Alasa, s. a dealer in snufF or tobacco. — Ko si 

alasara ti ita igbo ku gbogbo won ni ita oyin, " No 

dealer in snufF likes to confess she sells bad tobacco, 

but all of them profess to sell (tobacco as sweet as) 

'^^^LASE-ju, s. a self-willed person. — Alaseju pere ni ite, 

" An obstinate man soon falls into disgrace." 
Alase-ran, s. one who infects another with his actions, 

a pestilent person, 
Alaso (oni-aso), s. the owner of the clothes; a seller of 

clothes, a weaver. 
^ Alatampoko, s. a kind of grasshopper. — Esu yio je, esu 

yio mo esu yio lo, nibo li alatampoko yio wo, " The 

locusts will eat, drink, and go away, but where will 

the grasshopper conceal itself?" 
Alaton-se, s. one who brings a matter right, an agent, 

mediator, umpire. 
Alawi-ye, s. one who explains a matter to another so as 

to be perfectly understood. 


AlawTve (wi-ma-ye), s. one who cannot speak intelligibly. 
ALAwfoBo (wi-ma-gbo), 5. a faithless person ; an obstinate 

person . 
Alawi-ka, also called Alawi-rin, Aronika, Oso Aje, s. a 

wizard, a sorcerer, a witch. 
Alawopupo (awo-pi-p9), s. many coloured. 
Alawo (awo), s. a dealer in leather or hides, a tanner. 
Alawo (awo), 5. a priest, one acquainted with the secrets 

of the gods. 
Alawofin, s. a king, lit. one who enters the palace. 
Alayan-je, s. he who cheats ; an inferior person. 
Alaye, s. living, possessing life. 
Alayi, dem. pron. this, this one. 
Ale, s. a plant. 

Alebu, s. evil treatment, unjust usage. 
Alejo, s. a guest, stranger, visitor. 
Aligarima, s. a spirited horse. 
Alkurani, s. the Koran. 
Alla, s. white cloth, calico, muslin. — Alia funfun otta 

orisa, " A white cloth is an object of hatred to the 

gods" (because it is worn out in their service). 
Alle, s. a concubine. 
Alle, Asalle, s. afternoon, evening. 
Almagaji, Alumagaji, s. scissors. 
Alo, s. a district ; a flame of fire, combustion. 
Alongo, 5. a kind of tight-legged trowsers. 
Alore, s. a look-out, place to look out, gibbet, spy, watch. 
Alo, s. a riddle, enigma ; that which is turned or inverted. 
Alolekke (lo-ilekke), 5. beadmaker, beadgrinder. 
Alonilowogba (lu-enia-li-owo-gba), s. an extortioner, a 

wringer from the hand of another. 
Alu-bata, s. a beater of the (drum) bata. 
Alubossa, s. the onion. 

Alu-dondon, s. a beater of the (drum) dondon. 
Alufa, s. a Mahommedan priest, a priest of the only true 

33 F 


Alugba, s. the frame upon which the door closes when 

Alu-gba, s. a beater of the calabash drum. 
^ Alugbon, 5. that which is near akin to, resemblance. — 
Egbon iwaju alugbon babba, " An elder brother is a 
resemblance of a father." 
Alukanrin, Kanakana, s. a black crow with white neck. 
It is said that rain never falls where it lays its eggs. 
Alukasafa, s. a kind of upper garment with short sleeves. 
Alukawani, s. promise, bargain, agreement. 
Alukembu, s. the stirrup. — Alukembu babba assa, " The 
stirrup is the father of the saddle." 
^ Aluki, s. a slender prickly plant. — Bi ina jo abowp fun 
aluki, " When fire burns up the bush, it has respect 
for the plant aluki." (A superstition.) 
Aluko, 5. a kind of woodcock. 
Alu-koso, s. a beater of the (drum) koso. 
Alupayida ( — pa-eyi-da), s. sleight of hand, the act of 

changing, deception. 
Aluse, 5. a spring-lock with brass knob. 
Alusin, s. damage, distress, misfortune. 
Aluwala, s. ablution. — Omi aluwala, " The water for 

Aluwasi, s. parade, show, exhibition. 
Ama, adv. a particle denoting custom or habit (used with 

verbs). — I wo ama lo, ^' You used to go." 
Amala, s. an interpreter of dreams. 
Amala, s. food made from yam flour. 
Am APE, |Mr^. being called, accustomed to be called. 
AmbosIn, Ambotori, co?{j. what else. 
Amewa, s. one who knows the beauty. 
Ami-kan, s. breathing which touches or influences a thing. 
Amin, s. Amen, so be it. 
Ami-po, Imipo, s. a shaking together. 
Ami-si, Imisi, s. a breathing into, the act of breathing into. 
Amkan, Amukan, s. sorrel plant, leaf 


Amma, conj. (Hanssa) but. 

Ammi, AmI, s. a sign, omen. 

AmmOjS. a large water-pot set in the house to keep water 

Amofin (mo-ofin), 5. a lawyer, one who knows and pro- 
fesses the law, a professor of law. 

Amore (mo-ore), s. a thankful person, one who feels and 
acknowledges kindness. 

Amove (mp-oye), s. a wise person, a sage. 

Amo, s. white clay with which country pots are made. 
i^ Amodun (mo-odun), s. next year, a return of the season. — 
Amodun ko riri, je ki amura ki asise, " The coming 
year is not out of sight ; let us be up and work." — 
Woyi amodun ma to gbangba gbangba, "By this 
time next year I shall become a great person." 

Amohungbogbo (mo-ohun), s. or adj. all-knowing. 
, Amo-ja, s. a guess, conjecture. 

Amo-je (mo-eje), s. a plant. 

Amoje-w^ewe, s. a plant with very small leaves, used for 
healing swellings or tumours. 

Amoje, s. one who tries by water. 

Amo-ju, s. superior knowledge. 

Amo-ju, s. excessive drinking, drunkenness. 

Amojukuro (mu-oju-kuro), s. that which is to be over- 
looked or passed over. 
^ Amokun,s. a lame person. — Amokun ni eru on W9, ki ise 
lori, ni ille li o ti wo lo, "A lame man said his load 
was not upright, and was answered, ' Its uneven- 
ness began from the ground' " (from your lame foot). 

Amolle (mo-ille), s. a conspirator. 

Amolle-pa, Imollepa, s. assassination. 

Amonna ( — onna), s. a guide, leader. 

Amonna, s. booty, plunder. Hence came the w'ord Jama 
for Jeamonna, to take booty, to plunder. Jama, 
soldiers who plunder. 

Amope, conj. though, althougli, notwithstanding. 



Amopara (mo-pa-ara), s. drinking to stupefaction, drunk- 

Amouan (mo-oran), s. A knowing man, a counseller.— 
Amoran mowe ni ilaju oran, " A counseller who 
understands proverbs (soon) sets matters to rights." 

Amo-se, 5.a wilful action, wilfulness, obstinacy. 

Amo-tan, s. pretended knowledge. 

Amotekkun, Jakumo, (to-ekkun) 5. an animal of the 
leopard kind. 

Amotelle, s. foreknowledge, previous cognisance. 

Amu, 5. confusion, — O damn mi, "He upsets (or, confuses) 

Amu-ba, s. that which is brought to one ; means, oppor- 

Amu-pada, s. a restoration, restitution. 

AxMu-RAN, s. a hook used by tailors to hold cloth when 

Amuron, s. a bleeding of the nose. 

Amure, s. a girdle, a girding of the loins ; a small kind 
of lizard. 

Amu-wa, Imuwa, s. that which is brought forth from a 
matter or thing, issue, ultimate produce. 

Amgbadu, s. the vegetable called cranecrane, in Sierra 
Leone.- — Amgbadu obbe onse, " The amgbadu is the 
sauce of messengers." (Messengers are usually en- 
tertained with a sauce made of this vegetable.) 

Amuya, s. seizure of goods in room of debts due. 

Anfani, s. advantage, ease, convenience. — K6 se anfani, 
" Not easy, (or, advantageous)." 

Angeli, s. (Gr.) an angel. 

Angere, s. a wooden leg. 

Ani, v. it is said, they say. 

Ani-ani, s. doubt, uncertainty. 

Anidopin (ni-de-opin), s. complete possession. 

Ani-tan, s. perfection, completion, full possession. 

Ani-yan (ni-ayan), s. carefulness, anxiety. 


Anna, adv. yesterday. 

Anna, s. the parents and relatives of a wife or husband. 

Anu, s, pity, compassion. 

Antete, s. a kind of cricket, — Antete 9 da yanpan yanpan 
sille, " The cricket antete causes a stir and confusion." 

A PA, s. arm, wing, bough. 

Apa, s. a tree, supposed to be the African mahogany. 
It is superstitiously believed to become luminous at 
night. It is also used in the construction of drums. 
— Bi ommo da ori kan apa, apa a ; bi o si da ori kan 
iroko, iroko ako o li onna, " If a child treats the apa 
tree insolently (an emblem of vengeance), it wounds 
his head ; if he treats the iroko tree civilly (an em- 
blem of refuge), it welcomes him." 

^Apa, s. a prodigal ; a wasteful person ; pack-rope ; the 
string of a drum. 

^Apa-asara, s, roll tobacco in a whole state. 

Apa-ikoko, s. a plant used for wadding ; also by shoe- 
makers instead of hemp. 

Apada-hu, s. amendment ; a fresh shoot. 

Apadi, s. potsherd. — Ari ti enni mo iwi fi apadi bo ti re 
molle, " He who sees another's fault knows well how 
to talk about it ; but he covers his own with a pots- 
herd." — -Apadi li o to iko ina loju, " Nothing but a 
potsherd {i. e. not a calabash) can face fire." 

Apakan (9kan), adv. aside, on one side. 

Apako, s. board, plank, floor. 

Apako, Apa, s. the bamboo. 

Apala, Apaxla, s. a gourd, vegetable marrow. 

Apalo (pa-alo), s. a riddle-maker, an enigmatist. — 
Apalo patita, " He who makes a trade of telling 

Apani (pa-enia), s. a murderer, an executioner, one who 
seeks to destroy another. — Apani ki ije ki amu ida I9 
ni ipak9 on, " The executioner never lets the sword 
be passed across his own neck." 




A PARA, A SALLE (pa-ara), 5. barrenness (said of land). 

Apari (pa-ori), s. bald. — Apari fojiidi abbe, " A bald- 
headed person does not care for a razor." 

Aparo, s. a bird very like the partridge. — Ennu 11 aparo 
ifi ipe ora, ani kiki ora, kiki ora, " With the mouth 
the Aparo proclaims its fatness, crying (kiki ora), 
Nothing but fat, nothing but fat." 

Aparon, s. a cane. 

Apata, 5. a shield. — Apata ri iku kehin si, apata ni igba 
'ni li ogun, " When a shield sees death, it (does not 
fly from it, but) turns its outside {lit, back) to meet it ; 
a shield is a protection in the front of the battle." 

Apatta, s. a rock. — Apatta li ehin akan, "The rock 
{i.e. shell) on the crab's back." — ^"Ojo pa batta bata 
batta bata li ori apatta li ode ajalubata bata ni iggi 
batta li awo. A play on the word Apatta, contain- 
ing a frequent repetition of h and t sounds. — "The 
rain on the batta (shoes) goes patter, patter, pat- 
ter, as on the apatta ; in the street of the ajalu- 
bata (head drummer), the bata (drum) is wood, the 
batta (shoes) are skin." (See a similar instance 
under Kanakana.) 

Apeja, Pejapeja (pa-eja), s. a fisher. 

Ape-je-ase, s. a feast, dinner. 

Apeje-iiun, Apeje, 5. guest, the act of eating with another. 

Ape- JO, s. an assembly, a meeting. 

Ape-jure, Ijure, 5. sign, mark, direction, pattern. — Ape- 
jure li agbedde iro ; or, Apejure li onna ise, " The 
smith or artisan always follows a pattern." 

Ape-le, 5. that which is added, surname. 

Apena, Ena (pe-ina), s. the act of stretching, pins on 
which spun cotton is wound for sale ; a title of one 
who calls an assembly. — Ma fi ti re ko mi li oron li 
oda fu apena on owu, " (The pin says to the cotton,) 
' Do not hang your trouble on my neck.' This is 
always the dispute between the cotton and the pins." 


Apere, s. a rider's portable seat; also used for a travelling 

Ape, s. a clapping of bands. 
Apere, s. a sign, direction, pattern, token. — Die die li 

amo apere, " By degrees one understands a sign." 
Apetta, Etta (pa-etta), s. a part of the dead, remains. 
Apinni, s. name of a place in Oyo, the head of the 

priests called 'Oje. 
Apixti, s. a kind of drum. 
n ykpG, s. bag, pocket. — Ijaje enia ko di ennu apo," "A 
t/ rascal never closes the mouth of his bag." — Ibaje apo 

ni ibaje apa, bi apa ba ja, apo aballe, " The injury of 

a bag is caused by the injury of the pack-rope : if 

the pack-rope breaks, the bag will go down." 
Apo, s. a quiver. 

Apo-agadagodo, s. a kind of leathern bag like a scrip. 
Apo-agbado, Awo-agbado, s. a shock or stack of corn. 
Apo-isana, 5. the tinder and flint-bag, bag containing fire 

Apofin, Aporiki, s. the chief of the archers. 
Apopo, s. piece (of cloth), pod (of fruit). — Apopo 

ARAN, a piece of velvet — Apopo obi, a pod of 

kola nuts. 
Aporo, s. a walk between beds in a farm or garden. 
Aporo, s. antidote against poisonous arrows. 
Apoti, 5. a bench, stool, box. 
Apoti-itisse, s. a footstool. 
Apo-ju, Ipo-ju, Opo-ju, s. the more part, the greater part, 

abundance, over-abundance. 
A PON, s. fruit of a tree called oro, used for palaver sauce, 

very slimy when ground and mixed with water. 
Apon, s. an unmarried man ; a widower. 
Apon, s. or adj. restlessness ; busy here and there, al- 
ways doing. 
Apon, s. a bird with red beak. 
Apon-obiri, s. a woman who has weaned an infant. 

" 39 


Ara, 5. boch^ member, limb, kind. — Ara re m, "This 
belongs to its kind." 
kRxfolloivcd hy da, v.?/. to be well, to recover, to be clear. 
— Ara mi da, " I am well ;" ^' I recover ;" " I am clear 
(of any blame or responsibility)," lit. my body is clear. 
It is also used to express disappointment, as Ara 
da '9, "You are disappointed;" "Your expectation, 
or hope, fails." 

Ara Gbekan, v. w. to feel soreness or pains. — 

Ara mi gbekan, " My body feels sore." 

Ara, s. relative, relation, kindred (to a person or place). 
— Emi ko ri ara mi, " I do not see my relative." 

Ara, s. a bird. — E' mase pa eiye ti ije ara, "Do not kill 
the bird called ara." 

Ara, Rara, adv. at all. — K6 kuku ranse si mi rara ? 
" Does he not send to me at all ?" 

Ara, s. a very loud thunder. — Ara san wa, " It thunders 

Ara, 5. fashion, custom, form ; repetition of journeys. — 
Ara ki li eyi ? "What fashion is this?" — Oniruru 
alarabara, " Of various kinds, (or, fashions)." — Eyi li 
o di ara keji wa, " This is our second journey." 

Ara-nfu, X). to be uneasy under a sense of wrong done, to 
be suspicious. — Ase oran ikoko se bi on li ambawi, 
abi ara ifu bi enni se ohun, " He who (has committed) 
a secret action supposes himself to be spoken of 
(when he sees persons conversing together), being 
uneasy, as one who has committed an offence." 
y Araba, s. the cotton tree. — Araba nla omm9 agberu 
gbake, " A large araba receives (into its substance) 
the handle and the axe together." 

Arabi, s. a kind of insect. — 'O bo lowo agballe, o kun 

[^' arabi, " When (the insect) agballe is overpowered, 

there remains only the power of (the insect) arabi 

(to be conquered)." These two insects are always 

found together. 




Ara-binri, Arabiri (ara-obiri), 5. a female relative, sister. 

ARA-BiNRi-iYEKAN,5.a female relative on the mother's side. 

Ara-binri-obbakan,5. a female relative on the ftither's side. 

Araiyara (ara-eyi-ara), s. natural body, material body, 
the body itself. 
\^ Araiye (ara-aiye), s. the people of the world, mankind. 
— Araiye abi oju pete, "Mankind presents a circum- 
scribed appearance (lit. countenance)." (A proverb 
expressing the limited nature of human things.) 

Arajo (re-ajo),5. traveller. 

Ara-konri, 5. a male relative, brother. 

ARAK9NR1-1YEKAN, 5. male relative on the mother's side. 

Arakonri-obbakan, s. male relative on the father's side. 

Aralle (ara-ille), 5. he who belongs to a house or family, 
an inmate. 

Arallu ( — illu), s. countryman, inhabitant of a town or 
country. — Arallu mi ni, " He is my countryman." 

Aramori (ra-mo-ori), s. a kind of close country cap. 

Aran, s. velvet. — Aran ni ipari oso, " Velvet gives a 
finish to dress." 
J/ Aran, s. decay of mental faculties through old age. — 
Babba nse aran, " The father's mind wanders." 

Aran, s. worms in children. 

Aranbatta, Onibatta (ran-batta), s. shoemaker. 

Aranilowo (ran-enia-li-ow9), s. helper, assistant. 

Aran-kan, s. malice, malignity. 

Aran-mu, s. catching, infectious. 

Aratubu, s. prisoner. 

Aran-se, 5. communication of things, help. 

Aranso (ran-aso), s. a tailor. 
[^ Aran-wu, Iranwu, s. a spinner. — Bi ojumo mo, olowo 
gbe owo, iranwu agbe kekke, ajagun agbe apata, 
iwonso abere gbe assa, agbe aji ti on ti aruko, ommo 
9dde aji ti apo ti 9ron, " When the day dawns, every 
trader to his trade, — the spinner takes her spindle, 
the warrior his shield, the weaver stoops to his batten, 
41 G 

ARA ^ 

the farmer arises with his hoe, and the hunter takes 
his bow." (i. e. No person should be idle.) 

Arara, Rara, adv. at all, in the least. — Ko han rara, 
" It does not appear at all." 

Arara, .?. diminutive person, dwarf. 

Arare, pron. second j7ers. sing, self, one's self. — I wo li o se 
arare, " It is you who hurt yourself." 

Arare, j^^'on. third pers. sing. On li o se arare, " It is he 
who injured himself." 

Arawo, 6-. a carnivorous bird. 

Are, s. eldership, the state of being older; chief, principal, 
first in rank. — Mo se are iwo, "lam older than you." 

Are, s. fatigue, weakness. — Are mu mi, " I am weary." 

Are, ,9. right in dispute, justice on the side of. 

Arekakanfo (kakan-fo), s. the general of the army. 

Arekereke, s. dishonesty, double dealing, unfairness^ per- 

Arekunda, s. deceit. 

Aremo (are-ommo), s. the eldest child, whether male or 

Arenije (re-enia-je), s. a cheater. 

Arere, s. perfect silence, stillness. 
, Areregbosun (rere-gba-osun), s. a small bird with red 
X Arewa (re-ewa), s. a person of beauty, comely per- 
son. — Enniti o fe arewa o fe iyonnu, "He who mar- 
ries a beauty marries trouble." 

Ari, s. one who sees or finds. 

Aridiji, s. fright, terror, apparition. 

Arifi, 5. any thing very hot. — Denge tutu lehin ino re 
gbona bi arifi, " Though the pap is cold on the sur- 
face {lit. back), yet the inside is very hot." 

Ariiiun-gbogbo, or Aroiiun-gbogbo (ri-ohun), adj. all- 

Arin, s. the middle, centre. 

Arinjo (rin-jo), s. dancer. 


Arin-k6, s. chance ; exact time. 

Ariwo, s. noise, uproar. 

Ariva, Ariyo (ri-ya), s. joy, gladness, merriment. 
(X Aro, s. one having a withered limb. — Aro ni idena orisa, 
" The aro is the porter at the gate (a stationary ser- 
vant) to the gods." — (Cf. Milton's Sonnet on his blind- 
ness. — " They also serve who only stand and wait.") 
Ejo ba 9 bi oran ikunle ba aro, " The matter is to you 
what the task of kneeling is to one of withered limbs." 

Aro, s. smith's profession. 

Aro, s. a kind of calabash used for a quiver by hunters. 

Aro, s. a small bird with glossy blue feathers. 

Aro, s. blue dye. 

A Ro,s. playfulness, restlessness; applied chiefly to children. 

l^ Aro, s. the hearth, fire-place ; three stones or lumps 

of clay used to support a vessel over a fire. — Aro ki 

iru eru ki o ma so, " The aro does not always bear 

its load ; it will be put down (sooner or later)." 

Aro, Abba, s. storehouse, barn, garner ; a granary built 
in the shape of a funnel inverted. 

Arobo, s. a petty trade. 

Aroje, s. a place of refreshment, a market-place on the 
road, where travellers halt. 

Arokan (ro-kan), 5. reflection upon painful occurrences. 

Arokin, s. a traditionist, one who tells ancient stories. 

Aroko, s.the overseer or head servant of a farm, a farmer. 

Arokuro (ro-kuro), s. the last or latter rain. 

Arolle (r9-ille), s. heir to an inheritance. 

Aromobimo (ri-omm9-bi-ommo), s. great-grandparents. 

Aron, 5. sickness, disease. 

Aron-oju, s. ophthalmia. 

Aroni, s. a fairy, an elf supposed to have but one leg. 

Arosille, Ajoso, Asotelle (ro-si-ille), s. a bargain, an 
understood thing. 

Aro-ye, s. much talk, explanation, complaint, excuse, 


Aruda, 5. acceptable, propitiatory sacrifice. 

Arufin (ru-ofin"), s. transgressor of the law. 

Arugbo (ru-gbo), s. an old person. 

Arugborugbo, adj. very old, full of days, aged. 

Aruko, Ako (eru-oko), s. handle of a hoe. 

Arukon (ru-kon), s. rising to fulness, as water in a 

well ; fulness, a full or perfect sacrifice. 
Arun, adj. five. 
Arunjeran, (run-je-eran), s. a shrub used as a medicine 

for sore eyes. It bears black berries, not eatable, 

and has short thorns on the stem. 
Arun-odun, s. May, the fifth month of the year. 
Arupe, s. or adj. dwarf, short, equal in height. — Eiyelle 

ko li agogo kiki arupe, " The pigeon-tribe have no 
J one (among them) of a high stature, but they (are all) 

Asakani-ille, s. the square of a house; a square. 
Asase, Alase (se-ase), s. cook. 
AsAsiN (sa-sin), s. an unsteady person who forsakes his 

father to live with and serve another. 
AsE, AisE, s. large door, door. 
AsE, IsE, IsASE, s. feast, dinner ; the act of cooking. 
AsE, or AsE, s. paint, colour. Some call it Ese. — Osu u 

li ese, " You paint, or colour, it." 
A.SE-ALLE, s. supper, feast made in the evening. 
AsE-iJO, s. feast for an assembly. 
AsE-iYAWo, s. wedding feast. 
AsE-ossAN, s. dinner, feast made in the daytime. 
AsENJE (se-onje), s. a cook. 
AsENo (se-ino), s. barren woman. 
AsEPON (se-pon), s. barren woman (used when speaking 

AsiKi, s. luck ; good luck, success. 
AsiNGBA(sin-gba), s. presents made to the messengers of 

the king, which he carries back to his sovereign ; 

the custom of passing on presents from town to town. 


AsiNRiN, s. a kind of rat having a very offensive odour, 
very much like the mouse ; musk rat. Its bite is 
supposed to be poisonous. 

AsiNWA-AsiNBo, adv. (sin-wa-sin-bo) after all, in the end, 
in conclusion. 

AsiNwiN (sin-iwin), s. fool, idiot. — Asinwin Ika, asi- 
werelluka, nwon dariio nwon li awon nsore, "A fool 
of the town Ika and an idiot of Iluka meet together 
to make friendship with each other." 

AsoFEivEJE (so-fu-eiye-je), s. a tree, the fruit of which is 
eaten by birds ; a kind of banyan. 

AsoGBO (so-gbo), 5. the state of coming to perfection, 
ripening ; (applied only to fruits). 

Aso, s. wrangling, loquacious quarrel. — Aso babba ija, 
" Wrangling is the father of fighting." 

AsoDUN (so-dun), s. exaggeration. 

AsoNiDAYE (s9-enia-di-aye), s. he or that which quickens 
or makes alive. 

AsoNKON (son-kon), s. the dropsy, an increase. 

AsoNMo (son-mo), 5. nearness, proximity. 

Asopo (s9-po), s. a mutual talk, communication. 

AsoROJEJE, AsoROKELLE (so-oro-jeje), s. a whisper. — 
Asorokelle bojuwo igbe, igbe ki iro: enni ti aba 
so ni ise iku pani, " A whisperer looks (suspiciously) 
at the bush (if he hears a noise) : the bush tells 
no tales. He to whom the tale is told is the be- 

Aso-TAN, s. perfect speech. 

AsoTELLE, Arotelle, Arosille ( — tc-ille), s. an agree- 
ment, bargain. 

Aso-ti, s. unfuiished speech. 

Aso-YE, s. a reasoning, explanation. 

AssA, s. weaver's instrument, the batten or lay with 
which he presses the warp. 

AssA, s. the saddle. 

AssA, Oguassa, s. a word pronounced by Tetn, the officer 


of justice, or tipstaff, when he arrests a man who 
neglects to pay the king's tax ; a shield. 

AssAN, s. vanity, emptiness. 

AssE, s. a small basket made for straining. 

AsuBo (su-bo), s. gilding or silver plating with which 
another metal is covered. 

AsuNwoN, s. small bag, closed with strings, which serves 
for a purse ; a shrub so called. 

Asa, s. fashion, custom. 

Asa, s. a small kind of hawk. — Asa ni Tapa eiye, " The 
hawk is the Nufi of birds." (The Tapa or Nufi 
people are noted for their swiftness.) — Asa gbe mi 
li adire ko duro nitori ti o mo ohun ti o se, " The 
hawk, having caught my chicken, will not stay, be- 
cause it knows that it has done (wrong.)" 

AsAGBE, Alagbe, s. beggar. 

Asa-enia, s. vagabond. 

Asa-ju (se-iwaju), s. forerunner, leader. 

AsALAiLAi (asa-lai-lai), s. old fashion. 

Asalle (sa-ille), s. barren ground, worn-out land. 

AsALLE, s. evening, dusk, afternoon, twilight. 

AsAN, s. plain vegetable diet, without sauce or meat. — 
Asan ni mo je sun lanna, " I ate asan last night." 

i\sAPA, s. a hard-wood tree ; a canopy over the corpse 
of a rich person. Joists, roofs, rafters, posts, and 
charcoal are made of this tree ; the leaves are used 
in curing the small-pox, 

AsARA, s. tobacco, snuff. 

AsARo, s. porridge. 

AsATi (sa-ti), s. that which is put aside, set at nought. 

AsATi-AGBADo, s. a shock of corn. 

AsAwi (sa-wi), s. a selection of words. — Asawi eJ9 ennikan 
se are, " A one-sided statement of a case {lit. words 
selected in a dispute) always appears right." 

AsAYA, s. a jest, joke. — Asaya ki ije ki ommo oya ki 9 
gbon, " (The dog) playing with the young hedgehog 


throws it off its guard (lit. does not suffer it to be wise)." 

j^SAYAN,5. athing selected from the rest, picked out,chosen. 

AsE, s. the menses. 

AsE, s. a coming to pass ; law, commandment ; virtue ; 
effect ; imprecation. 

AsE-HAN, s. a thing done for show, a pretence. 

AsE-Ju, s. an extravagant action. 

AsE-KAN, s. a final action, a winding-up. 

AsE-KUN, s. unfinished work, that which remains yet to 
be done. 

AsE-SA, s. disgrace. 

AsE-TAN, s. perfection, completion. 

AsE-Ti, s. a thing not completed, not brought to perfection. 

AsE-TiNO-ENNi (se-ti-iuo), s. an obstinate man, a self- 
willed person. 

AsEHiNDE, AsEHiNDENi (se-ehiu-de), s. one who acts for 
another in his absence, an agent, an overseer. — Oju 
oloju ko jo oju enni, asehindeni ko wopo, "Another's 
eye is not like one's own ; (faithful) agents are not 
numerous." — O ku asehinde, " I thank you for acting 
in my absence." 

AsEiYESATE (so-eiye-sc-ate), s. a dissembler, hypocrite, 
double dealer. 

AsENNU-ENNi (sc-eunu — ),5. a spokesman, one who speaks 
for another. 

AsESE-KosE, s. beginning, commencement. 

Asi-Ri, s. a secret. 

Asi-soRi (se-ori), s. pistol. — Asisori ko ni ikun bi agba, 
otosi ko lowo bi 9l9ro, " A pistol has not a bore like 
a cannon ; a poor man has not money (at his com- 
mand) as the rich." 

AsiwERE (se-iwere), s. fool, madman. — Enniti o nsape 
fun asiwere jo on asiwere, 9kan, " He who claps 
hands for the fool to dance is no better than the 
fool." — Asiwere li o bi iya obbo, "The monkey's 
grandmother was a fool." 


Aso, s. morose, peevish person ; a sour look. 

Aso-ENiA, s. headstrong obstinate person, not easily 

Aso-ERiN, s. an elephant feeding singly. 

Asoju-ENNi (se-oju-enni), s. one left in charge of another's 
affairs during his absence. 

AsoRE (se-ore), s. benefactor. 

AsoRiN, Igginla, s. the name of a very large tree. — Asorin 
babba iggi," Asorin is the father of trees." — Asorin ko 
da osusu, "Asorin trees never form a grove." — Asorin 
Olodo, " The asorin tree commands the brook." There 
is a superstition that as soon as any one begins to 
cut the asorin tree he is chased by the spirit that 
dwells in it. The woodman accordingly drops palm- 
oil on the ground, that the spirit may lick it up 
whilst he makes his escape. This tree is worshipped 
at a distance. 

AsoRo, s. pointed knife. 

AsoRo (se-oro), s. troubler, tormentor, one who acts vio- 
lently upon provocation. 

Asowo, Isowo (se-owo), s. trader. 
1 Aso, s. cloth, clothes. — Aso lowo ko lekanna, enia ko si 
ni iballe, " Cloth has length, (lit. hands, the mea- 
sure being by hands) but no fingers ; so a man (has 
hands, but) no flowing train (like the cloth)." 

Aso-DUDU, s. black cloth, blue cloth. 

Aso-ETTU, s. check cloth, so called from its being made 
in imitation of the guinea-fowl's feathers. 

Aso-iRON, s. hair cloth. 

Aso-iwoLLE, Aso-iYiLLE (wo-iUc) s. cloth or clothes in 
common use. 

Aso-ojo, s. cloth used as a defence from the rain, cloak. 

Aso-oso, s. dressing cloth, robe. 

Aso-TALLA, s. muslin, calico, white cloth. 

AsoLLu (s9-illu), s. magistrate, manager of a- town. 

Asoso, s. a small bird which feeds on figs. 


AsoTTE (se-otte), s. a revolter, a revolutionist. 

AsuKAN (su-kan), (also called Moimoi), s. a kind of 

Ata, s. any thing pungent ; pepper. 
Ataba, A.DABA, s. a dove. See Adaba. 
Ataba-Orenkere, s. a kind of wild pigeon, striped on the 

, "Ataba-susu, s. a kind of dove. — Ko ka iku ataba-susu ti ije 

larin asa, " Fearless of death, the pigeon feeds 

amongst the hawks." — Ni ijo ti ina ba jo ataba-susu 

ni il9 larin igbe, bi ina ba palo, elebu ama ire ebu, 

" When the bush is on fire, the pigeon removes from 

the grass-field ; and when the flame is extinguished, 

every one returns to his home." 
Ataba-gbegbe, s. a kind of wild pigeon. 
Atafo, s. a tumour on the finger-nail, a whitlow. 
Ataiyeraiye (ti-aiye-re-aiye), adv. {lit. from world to 

world), everlasting. 
"Atajateran (ti-aja-ati-eran), s. cattle, beast of every kind. 
. Atampako, s. the thumb. — A.tampako ko se ijure pkan- 

kan, " The thumb cannot point straightforward." 
Atamora (ta-m9-ara), s. one who entangles himself with 

many things ; a man fully armed. 
Atan, Akitan (ki-tan), s. a dunghill. — Agbasi mu atan 

gele, " Continual sweepings make a high dunghill." 
Atan, s. a small scaffold on which fish or meat is dried. 
Atannamanna (ati-anna-m9-anna), adv. from yesterday 

until now. 
Atano (ta-no), adj. cast off, useless. 
'Atanroko, s. a disease in fowls which swells their back 

part. — ^tanroko mu adire mi, " My fowl is infected 

with atanroko." 
^ Atarere,5. a kind of pepper. — Atarere ew9 9bbe, "The 

atarere is never used in sauce." 
Atari, s. the crown of the head. 
Ate, s. a beaver or black hat. 
49 H 


J Ate, 5. birdlime. — ^Ate peiye mu eiye ku, " The birdlime 

is the death of a bird." 
Ate, 5. flatness, insipidity, disgrace, reproach. — Nwon bii 

ate lu mi, " They disgrace me." 
Atete, adj. that which is first, prior. (Always used as a 

Atete-ba, 5. that which is met first, frontier, outer court. 
Atete-bi, Akobi, s. first-born. 
Atete-kose, Atete-se, Ipille-se, s. the beginning, the 

commencement of a thing. 
Ate-le, s. or adj. a thing next in order, next in rank, next 

born, that which follows. 
Ateleiiin (te-li-ehin), s. a hump or crooked back. 
Atellebosi ( — bo-si), Isabotti, s. a threshold, outer court. 
j Atellesse (te-ille-esse), s. the sole of the foot. — Atel- 

lesse ni ije egbin onna, " The sole of the foot is ex- 
posed to all the filth of the road." 
"^Atellewo ( — 9W0), s. the palm of the hand. — Atellewo 

ki itan 'ni je, " The palm of the hand never deceives 

one," denoting the safety of a thing in hand. 
Atemora (te-mo-ara), Apamora (pa-mo-ara), s. patience, 

AtewogbX (te-owo), adj. acceptable, propitiatory. 
Ati, s. purpose, intention, conception. (Frequently used 

in composition with verbs, as a formative prefix for 

substantives. See Ati-ko, &c.) 
Ati, adj. both; conj. and, likewise; p*<?p. from. 
Atibaba, s. scaffold, shelf. (Applied chiefly to such as 

fish and meat are dried on over fire.) 
Atibabbadebabba, adv. from father to father. 
Ati-bo, s. a coming, returning. 
Ati-de, s. an arrival, coming. 
Ati-gba, s. reception. 

Atijeffawa (ati-ijo-effa-wa),rtc?i5. six days ago. 
Atijarunwa (ati-ijo-marun-wa), adv. five days ago. 
Atijedogunwa ( — medogun — ), adv. fifteen days ago. 


Atijejilawa ( — niejila — ), adv. twelve days ago. 
Atijerinwa ( — erin — ), adv. four days ago. 
Atijerinlawa ( — erin-la — ), adv. fourteen days ago. 
Atijettawa ( — etta — ), adv. three days ago. 
Atijettalawa ( — etta-la), adv. thirteen days ago. 
ATrjEJ9WA ( — ijo-mejo — ), adv. eight days ago. 
Atijokanlawa ( — mokanla — ), adv. eleven days ago. 
Atijewa ( — iJ9-me — ), adv. ten days ago. 
Atijejewa ( — ijo-meje — ), adv. seven days ago. 
Atijessanwa ( — messan — ), adv. nine days ago. 
Atijo ( — ojo), adv. of old time, long ago. 
Ati-ko, s. the process of teaching; the process of build- 
Ati-la, s. salvation, the act of being saved ; the act of 

getting rich. 
Atillende (nti-ille-nde), s. a youth, just arriving at the 

age of puberty. 
Ati-lo, s. departure, the act of going. 
Ati-ni, s. attainment, possession. 
Atioro, s. tassel ; bird ; plant. 
Ati-pillese (pa-ille), s. beginning. 
Atipo, s. resident, sojourner. 
Atisinsin-yi-lo (ati-isinsin), adv. henceforth. 
Ati-wa, s. the act of coming. 
Atiwa-ojo, 5. sun-rising, the east. 
Atiwo-orun, s. the west. [Haussa : Yama.) 
Ati-se, s. action. 
Atonimoni (ati-oni-mo-oni), adv. all day long. (Used in 

cases of difficulty or distress, to denote the length of 

time they occupy.) 
Aton-wa, s. a returning. 
Atori, s. a tree very remarkable for its elasticity, used 

for bows. 
AT9RUNWA (ati-orun), adj. heavenly, proceeding from 

heaven ; original ; untainted. 
x\toto, s. noise ; the word used by the public crier to 


enforce silence, when about to deliver a proclama- 
tion ; — Atoto — o — o ! 

A.TO, s. that which makes straight ; a medicine which 

heals a fractured bone or limb ; a kind of long- 

/ necked calabash. 

y Atojomojo (ati ojo-mo-ojo), adv. a long time ago. — Oro 

atojomoio ko le isini li eti bi oro titton, " An old 

story does not open the ear as a new one does." 

Atojuenni (to-oju), s. superintendent. 

Atokun (to-okun), s. leader, guide. 

Atokko (to-okk9), s. pilot, helmsman. 

Atommodommo (ati-ommp-de-ommo), adv. to children's 

Aton-bi, s. regeneration. 

Aton-da, s. regeneration. 

Aton-iiu,5. a repetition of behaviour; a fresh shooting out. 

Atonna ^(to-onna), s. one who walks about the road ; 
spy ; watchman. 

Atowowa (ati-owo-wa), s. that which originates from 
one's self; personal action. 

Atta, s. the ridge which covers the top of the roof. 

Atta, s. a resinous tree, commonly split and used for 

Atte, s. fan to winnow rice or corn. 

Atuko (tu-okko), s. sailor. 

Atubo-se, s. that which brings any thing to a completion. 

Atubo-tan, s. termination. — Ki olorun ki o fu ni li atu- 
b9tan rere, " May God give us a happy end !" (An 
expression borrowed from the Mahommedans.) 

Atun-se, Aton-:SE, s, restoration, repairs. 

AwA, pers. pron. we. 

iVwADA, 6". jest, joke. 

Awa-mu, s. adherence, attachment. 

AwA-NA, pers. pron. we ourselves. 

AwA-No, ,v. a waster, waste. 

AwA-Ti-KARA-WA, pers. pron. we of our own selves. 


AwA-wr, s. an excuse. 

AwAYA or AiiARiYA, s. Small shot. 

AwAYA, AwAYA-iJA, s. agony, contest, combat, struggle. 

AwERE, s. name of the yellow monkey. 

Awe, *. fasting, religious abstinence from food; mourning 
for the dead, at which time the relatives of the dead 
do not wash their clothes. 

Awe, s. a division of fruits or nuts, such as coffee-nuts, &c. 

AwEDE (we-ide), s. an herb used for cleaning brass. — Oni- 
baba ni itoju orombo, onide ni ima itoju awede, " He 
that has copper ornaments looks after the (fruit of 
the) lime ; he that has brass ornaments looks after the 

Awe-no, s. that which is washed off; soap. 

AwTdakke (wi-ma-dakke), s. perpetual talking. 

Awi-MA-Yi-HUN, s. a man of truth. 

AwiN, s. trust, credit. — Iwo gba mi li awin, " You credit 

Awi-RiN, s. a witch. 

Awi-ye, 5. interpretation, explanation. — Awiye ni Ife ifo 
gbangba li oro iperan, " (As) the Ife people speak 
without disguise, (so) a poisoned arrow kills an 
animal in the sight of all." 

AwTyannu (wi-ma-yannu), s. importunity. 

AwiGBo, s. that which is uttered audibly ; plain speech. 

AwfcBo (wi-ma-gbo), adj. disobedient, obstinate. 

Awo-agbado, s. shock of corn. 

Awo, s. a kind of guinea-fowl. — Bi amba mbu ettu 
ori ama ra a wo, " If you abuse the ettu (a kind of 
guinea-fowl), you make the head of the awo (a bird 
of the same genus) ache ;" {i e. People feel acutely 
any reproach cast upon their relatives.) 

Awo, s. plate. 

Awo, s. that which is looked into or through ; a spy-glass. 

Awo, s. device, secret bai'gain, su])erstitious mystery. 

Awo-KOTo, s. a bason. 


Awo-oMiTORo, Awo-OBBE, s. soup-platc. 
Awo-oLOMMORi (oni-9mmo-ori), s. bason with a cover. 


AwoDi, s. hawk. — ^A.wodi nra ino ahidire baje, "When the 
hawk hovers (over the yard) the owner of the fowls 
feels uneasy.": — Li oju awodi ki ako adire re apatta, 
"No one would expose fowls on the top of a rock in 
the sight of a hawk." — Awodi oloju ina, " The awodi 
has eyes that can bear the fire." 

Aw^ojuiN (wo-ji-ijin), s. glass, looking-glass. 

AwojuiN-oJu, s. spectacles. 

Aw OKO, s. colic, spleen. 

AwoKo, s. the mock-bird. — Mo kon igba lalle mo kon 
igba li oro mo kon igba li ossan ki mto fi ayindayinda 
lu u, " I sang 200 songs in the morning, 200 at noon, 
and 200 in the afternoon " (says the mock-bird, " as 
my ordinary task), besides many frolicsome notes (for 
my own amusement)." 

AwoLLEiiu oRO ( — wo-ille — ), s. a fabricated rumour. 
woNi (wo-enni), Alake-si, s. a visitor. 

Awo-RAN, s. picture, image, likeness. — Bi aba gbe awo- 
ran, aki isa ima fi, owe re te nkan, " However well 
an image may be made, it must have something to 
stand upon." 

AwoROJOBi ( — ^je-obi), a\ a small bird. 

Awo-se, s. pattern. 

Awo-TAN, s. perfect cure, entire healing. — O se awotan 
won gbogbo, " He cures them all." 

Awo-VE (wo-oye), Alore (enni-ore), s. a looker out, a spy. 

Awo,s. hide, skin, leather. 

^Aw^o, s. colour ; outward appearance ; likeness, simili- 
tude, image. 

Awo-PALA, s. very coarse leather ; unwrought leather. 

Awo-wiLiKi, 6'. leather worn about the waist. 

Aw^o-sANMAj s. the clouds. 

Awo-TUTU, s. raw hide. 


AwoiiiN (wo-ebin), s. hump ; crooked back. 

AwoN, s. land tortoise; greediness; a miser; adj. sparing, 

scanty, parsimonious. — Eje aw9n ko kon ni H own, 

{/ " The blood of the tortoise is not a handful." — lile 

os9n9 a ya yo ta ni je ya ille aw9n ki aw9n, " One 

^ may call at the house of the liberal and be filled, (but) 
who will call at the house of a miser to salute him V 
— lUe aw9n ko gba aw9n, 9dedde aw9n ko gba olojo, 
aw9n ko ille oyo 9dde ni ibadi, " The house of the 
^ tortoise is not large enough for itself, the verandah of 
a tortoise wall not accommodate a guest; the tortoise 
having built its house, makes the verandah (i. e. the 
part of the shell that overlaps the tail) behind it." 

AwoN OKUN, s. sea turtle. 

Aw^oN, pers. pron. they. 

AwoN, Ahon, s. the tongue. 

'AwoN, s. a net. 

AwoN-EKUN, s. a hairy plant, whose touch causes severe 
itching — so called from its being rough, like a leo- 
pard's tongue ; also, a very watery plant, much used 
by thirsty hunters, who cut it asunder and drink the 

AwoNNiwoNNi Cvv9-enni), s. a kind of guana ; otherwise 
called Awonwon; Aiianhan; Alegba ; Alegba Ale- 
To-Lo ; supposed to be able to live without water for 
a long time. 

AwoN-NA, pers. pron. they themselves. 

AwoN-so, s. a weaver. 

Awo-RiRUN, s. a well-worked leather ; soft leather. 

Awujo, s. the midst of an assembly. 

Awuju, s. confusion. 

Aya, s. a wife. 

Aya, s. a kind of monkey. — Aya be sille 9 be si sille, 
1/ " When a monkey jumps down from the tree, he 
jumps into the house (of his pursuer);" Le. is sure to 
be caught. 


AvABHA (aya-obba), s. a queen, a king's wife. 
Ayamo-pe, Ayamo-bi, C071J. otherwise, unless. — Bi babba 

ko ba de ayammope emi ko so otito, " Unless my 

father has come 1 have not spoken the truth." 
Ayan, s. a tree, from which the club of Sango (the god 

of thunder and lightning) is made ; the cockroach. — 

Ayan ko gba edon, " The Ayan tree resists an axe." 
Ayan, s. inquisitiveness ; stench, ofTensive smell. — O 

nsayan, " It stinks." 
Ayan-fe, s. or adj. a friend, one selected among the rest, 

chosen, beloved. 
Ayanga, 5. a word of rebuke or threatening to an inferior. 
Ayan-je, Iyan-je, s. cheat, imposition. 
Ayan-se, s. any thing done specially, done to order. 
Aya-sebi, conj. unless, except, otherwise. 
Aye, s. room, space. Aye-agba, chief room, seat of the 

Aye, Awe, s. breadth of cloth. 
Aye, adj. alive, living, quick. 
Aye-tan, s. perfect understanding, full conception. 
Ayi-da, s. a change ; round of time ; next season ; year. 
Ayida-yida, s. much talk, chattering. 
Ayi-ka, s. a surrounding ; circle ; halo. 
A YIN, s. a very hard tree with oily sap. 
Ayin, s. mats made of bamboo. Ille ayin, house of 

bamboo mats. 
Ayinrin, s. light blue. 
Ayinuin, s. a small animal like the fox, which catches 

Ayo, 5. a choice person or thing ; adj. most beloved, most 

\^y Ayo, Awo, 5. a game called the warry. — Ayo ki ije ki aye 

e, " When the game is won, it cannot be disputed." 
Ayo, adv. plentifully. 
Ayo, s. joy, gladness. 

Ayoluwo (yo-illu-wo),s. a spy sent to survey a town. 


Ayommo (aya-ommo), s. the wife of a prince. 

Ayoniwo (y9-enni-wo), s. a spy who watches the actions 
of an individual ; an eaves-dropper. 

Ayo-san, s. money paid for sacrifice. 

Ayo-se, s. doing hy stealth ; that which is done by stealth. 

Ayun,5. a going, departure. — Ayun ni mo ri nko ri abo, 
" I saw the departure, but not the return." — Kun 
'yun kun 'wa bi iko era, " To be busy here and 
there, like the messenger of the ant (era)." 

Ayun, Avon, s. a saw. — Onsonna o fi ayun re iggi, " The 
artisan cuts a tree with a saw." 

Ayun-abo, Ayun-awa, s. a going and returning. 


Ba, v. a. to meet, overtake, find at a place. — Nwon ba mi 

ni ille, "They meet me at home." — I wo ba mi li 

onna, " You overtook me on the road." — Awon oba 

mi nibe, " They will find me there." 

Bk followed hy Lo (to go), v. a. to accompany. — Ma se 

ba mi lo, " Do not accompany me." 

Ro(consider),v. a. to advise, give counsel. 

— Ta li o ba iwo ro iru oran behe'? 
"Who advised YOU in such a matter?" 

So (squabble), v. n. to quarrel with. — Ma 

bamisomo, "Do not quarrel with me 
any more." — K6 ye ki aba a so, " It is 
not good to be quarrelling with him." 

Sun (sleep), iJ. ;i. to lie with. (This word 

should be always used in translating 
the Scriptures, it being a more decent 
expression than Do.) 

Tan (connected), v. n. to be related to. — 

Gbogbo araiye li 9 ba ara won tan, 
"All mankind are related to one 

Wi (talk), V. a. to rebuke, blame. — 

57 I 


Babbaba mi wi, "(My) father blamed 

me." — Ma se ba ommo re wi to behe, 

" Do not rebuke your child so much." 

Ba followed hy Wuo (dispute), xi. a. to judge. — Olorun 

yi oba gbogbo aiye wijo, " God shall 

judge the whole world." 

Ba, v. a. {primary idea, to bring into contact with, hence) 

to sit or alight on a tree, as a bird ; fit, be exact ; hit 

the right mark ; come to the point ; bespeak ; plait 

coarsely {i.e. bring the grass fibres into contact with 

each other) ; strain through (/. e. bring into contact 

with) a sieve. — Eiye meji ba li ori iggi, " Two birds 

are sitting on the tree." — O ba a patapata, " It comes 

right to the point." — Emi ti ba malu na sille, " I 

have bespoken the cow." — Ba esu fu mi, " Plait 

some esu grass for me." — lya mba aro, '^(My) mother 

is straining potash." 

KAfoIloived by Je {tvithout meaning, except in comj^osition), 

V. a. to corrupt, spoil, defile, destroy. 
— O ba ommo mi j^, " He spoils my 
child" (by indulgence, demoraliza- 
tion, bodily injury). 

LoRUKOJE (ni-oruko, to the name), v. a. 

to slander. — Emi o ba oruko re je, " I 
will slander you." 

NiNOJE (ni-ino, in or to the mind), v. a. to 

displease, grieve.^ — E' ma je ki aba 
babba ninoje, "Don't let us grieve 
our father." 

Ti (failure),!?, w. to fail, miss one's aim by 

a small distance. — Ofa ti o ta ba a ti, 
" The arrow which he shot, missed it." 
'Oko ti mo so si eiye na o ba a ti, 
*'The stone which I threw at the 
bird, missed it." 
Ba, v. n. to be bent inwards, to be bent. — Ehin re o ba, 



" His back is crooked." Iggi na ba die, " The stick 

is bent a little." 
Ba, v. n. to lie close to the ground, hide. — Ole ba nino 

igbe, " The thief hides in the bush." — Adie ba le 

omm9 re, " The hen sits over her young." 
Ba, mix. V. (defective), shall, should, would; ought. — Ni- 

gbati yio ba lo, emi o fi fu 'o, " When he goes (lit. 

should go) I will give it to you." — Emi ni iba I9, 

" I ought to have gone." (With the prefix it assumes 

the sense of " to.") 
Ba, aifx. V. (defective), should, might. — IW9 nse behe 

ki emi ki oba lo, '• You act thus in order that I 

might go." 
Ba, j'jre^j. with, against; (frequently in composition). — 

Ommo wa ba won lo, " Our children went with 

them." — Gbogbo W9n mba wa ja, ^' They were all 

fighting against us." 
Ba, (Lat. con) ; particle used only in composition. 
Ba, adv. with Ha, (emphatical) never. — Emi ko ha se e 

ba, " I did not do it ; no, never !" IW9 ko je I9 ba, 

" You would never go." 
Baba, s. the red Guinea corn ; copper. 
Baba, s. a great thing ; Baba, s. a small thing ; words em- 
ployed in the following proverb — Baba bo baba m9lle, 

" A great matter puts a smaller out of sight." 
Babba, s. father, master. — Babba wa ko si ni ille, " Our 

father is not at home." — Babba ataiyeraiye, " Father 

Babbalawo (babba-ni-awo), s. a priest of Ifa. 
Babba-nla, Babb7\la, s. grandfather. — IW9 ko mo bab- 

banla wa, " You did not know our grandfather." 
Babo, s. a tree, the leaf of which is much used in tying 

up agidi and kola-nuts. 
Babuja (bu-abuja), v. a. to cross, thwart. 
Bada, s. a title. 

Ba-de, v. n. to agree, suit. — O bade, " It agrees ;" " It suits.'" 


Bafin, Ibafin (iba-afin), s. eunuchs, of whom there were 
six in the palace of the King of Yoruba; they are 
called Ivveflfa. 

Bai, Bayi (bi-eyi), adv. thus, so ; only; no more ; very. — 
Emi ni iw9 se bai si, " Do you act thus towards me." 

Bai, adv. yonder, somewhere, thereabouts. — Ille re mbe 
nibai, " His house is somewhere thereabouts ;" " His 
house is yonder." 

Bai-ba\, adv. dimly. — Orun nran baibai, "The sun shines 

Balaga (ba-le-aga), s. a young man, coming to maturity. 

Balle-ero, s. host, landlord. — Balle ero li o mu mi wo, 
" The host lodged me." 

Balle (ba-ille), v. n. to touch the ground. 

Balle (ba-ille), s. governor. 

Balle (obba-ille), s. householder, master of a house ; 
husband.— Balle mi, " My husband." — 'Agba ko si illu 
baje, balle ku ille di ahoro, " When there are no 
elders, the town is ruined ; when the master dies, the 
house is desolate." 

Balogun (obba-ni-ogun), Ibalogun, 5. a war chief, officer. 

Balogun-orun, s. a centurion. 

Baluwe, Ibaluwe, (ibi-alu-we) s. apartment in a house 
for washing or necessary resort. 

Banabana, Benabena, .v. a plant having small leaves 
which fold as soon as the sun sets, the powder of 
which is used by thieves, as a charm to put the in- 
mates of a house to sleep, previous to attempting 
a robbery. 

Bambam, s. a piece of wood, flattened on one side, used 
for beating mud floors, to make the foundation solid. 

Bans {Eng.), s. bans of marriage. 

Bao, Bawo, (bi-ewo) adv. how ? in what way ? — Bawo ni 
ki ase? "How should we act?" — Bawo li ori? 
" How is it ?" 

Baptisi {Gr.), v. a. to baptize. 


Bar A, s. a kind of running plant, which bears the seed 


Bar A, s. god of mischief, Satan, the Devil. 
Bata, s. a kind of long drum. — Opolopo a lu bata ni 
nsagbe je, " A great many bata drummers are beg- 


Batta, s. shoe, sandal ; hoof. — Batta li a ifi ise agbara li 
' arin egun, "With shoes one can get on in the midst 

of thorns." 
Baun, (bi-on) adv. thus, so. — Emi li o se e baun, " I did 

it so." 
Bawonni (hi-iwon-ni), jjron. such. — Iru enia bawonni li 
anfe, " Such persons we like." — Enia bawonni sow9n, 
" Such persons are rare." 
Bayi (bi-eyi), adv. thus. See Bai. 

Bere (bi-ere), v. a. to ask, inquire after, question, re- 
quire, consult, demand. — 'Obere mi, " He inquired 
after me." 
Bese, s. saddle-cloth. 

Be, v. a. and n. to skip, to leap from a high to a low place, 
to leap at a measured distance ; cut in two pieces at 
a stroke ; bring forth young, litter (applied to car- 
nivorous animals, and also to pigeons). — M9 be iggi 
na meji, " I cut the stick in two." 
Be folloived hy Lori (ni-ori, at the head), v. a. to behead. 
— Iwo be ewure lori, " You beheaded 
the goat." See Beri. 
Be, v. a. to beg, pray, beseech. — O be mi ki nkalo, " He 
prayed me to go along with him." 
Be folloived hy Wo, v. a. to peep at, pay a short visit to. 
• — Awon iyekan nyin wa ibe yin wo, 
" Your relatives came to visit you." 
Be, v. n. to display a brilliant and deep red colour ; to be 
officious, too forward, impudent. — Aran yi be yo, 
" The colour of the velvet is brilliant." 
Bebbe (be-ebbe), v. n. to pray, supplicate, make entreaty. 
61 ' 


— Avva bebbe loddo re, " We entreat of him." — 
Bebbe ki o ri okose, saojbe ki ori awon, " Beg for 
help, and you will meet with refusals ; ask for alms, 
and you will meet with misers." 

Bebe, s. brink of a pit or precipice ; verge, edge ; shoal, 
bar. — Mase duro ni bebe odo, "Do not stand at the 
brink of the river." — Bebe ya, "The (river's) bank is 
broken." < 

Bebe-idi, s. rump. 

Bebe-oju, s. eye-brow. 

Bebeyara, (bebe-iyara), s. earthen mound against a for- 

Behe, adv. thus, so. — ^Behe ni, " So it is." 

Beiie-ko, adv. no, not so. 

Behe ni, coty. neither, nor. — Beheni ki ise emi, behe ni 
ki ise iw9, "It is neither I nor you." — Ki ise eyi, 
behe ni ki ise eyini, " It is neither this nor that." — 

Belebele, adj. flat, elastic, pliant, thin. 

Beleje, adj. beautifully yellow. — Ina pupa beleje, djo 
dudu bolojo, " The fire is a beautiful yellow ; the 
rain-clouds are a beautiful black." 

Bende, s. a blow with the fist. -Yio ki iwo nibende, 
" He will box you." 

Bebe, v. a. to begin, commence, stoop. 

Bere, adj. low, fiat, not high. — Orule yi here, " This 
roof is flat." Also used as an impers. v., " It is flat." 

Bere, adj. even, s. gentle slope ; slight elevation, in 
rows ; level. — Nwon wo ille gbogbo palle bere, "They 
levelled the houses all along." 

Bere, s. grass used for thatching, of which there are va- 
rious kinds ; Bere-mene, s. fine yellow grass ; Bere- 
ALOLo ; Bere-pasi, s. kinds of coarse grass. 

Beri, (be-ori), v. a. to behead, — Obba beri re li oju 
opopo, " The king beheaded him on the highway lead- 
ing to the town." 

Beru, (ba-eru), v. a. to fear, be afraid of, be daunted. — 



Ma beru enni kan, " Fear no man." — Bern Olorun, 
"Fear God." 
Beri^keru (ba-eru-ki-eru), v. to be apt to fear, to be timid. 
Br, conj. and adv. according as, if, although, whether, 
just. — Bi behe ba ni, " If it be so." — Bi babba ti wi li, 
awa o se, " As (my) father has said, so will we do." — 
Bi o ti de ni yi, " He is just come." — Bi ko tille fe awa 
ose, "Though he be not willing, yet we shall do so." 
Bi, V. a. to bear, beget, breed (applied to mammiferous ani- 
mals). — Malu mi bi lanna, "My cow calved yesterday." 
^i followed hy Si (towards), v. n. to multiply, increase, 

replenish. — Glare mbisi, "His riches 
Bi, v. a. to ask, question. — Obi mi li oran na, " He asks 
me about that matter." 
Bi, followed hy Lere (ni-ere, with a question), v. a. to 

question, interrogate. — Okon-ri na bi 
mi li ere, " The man questions me." 

Lejo (^ — ejo, judgment), v. rt. to question 

a man upon a charge brought against 

LoHUN ( — ohun, voice), v. a. to reproach 

a person for ingratitude. 

Nino ( — ino, in the inward) v. a. to vex, 

make angry. 
Bi, v. a. fo push violently ; vomit, spew. 

Bi followed hy Subu, v. a. to push headlong, overthrow. 
Bi-ATi, adv. how. — Ko mi biati ise, " Teach me how to 

do it." 
Bi-ATi-N^\^, adv. immediately, instantly {lit. as we were 
talking). — Biatinwi behe li ode, "He came just as we 
were talking." 
Bi-BAWo (bi-bi-ewo), adv. whereby, in what way, how. 
BiBi, adj. begotten ; 5. that which is born. 
BiBO, adj. boiled. — Eran bibo, " Boiled meat." 
BiBU, adj. broiled, by being heated under hot ashes or 


embers ; s. roof patched by inserting grass ; mended 
roof. — Isu bibu, "Broiled yam." — Ejja bibu, "Broiled 

Bi-ENNi-PE, conj. as if one should say, as if. 

BiERANKO (bi-eran-oko), adj. brutal, like a beast. 

BiKiTA, V. a. to notice, regard. — Emi ko bikita si won, " I 
do not notice them." 

Bi-KOSE, Bi-KOSE-PE, Bi-KOSE-Bi, conj. but, except, unless. 
— Bikosepe mo lo, ki yi ofi fu 'o, " Unless I go, he 
will not give it to you." 

BiLA (bi-ila), v. n. to give place, as in a crowd (lit. to 
push an opening). — Bila fu mi, " Give place to me." 

Bi-Lu, v. a. to push heavily against another. 

BiNA-BiNA, s. abusive language. 

BiNo (bi-ino), v. n. to vex, be angry. — O bino si mi poju, 
" He is very angry with me." 

BiNo-jE, V. n. to feel grieved, be sorry. 

Bi-OLORUN, adj. godlike, godly. 

Bi-osuMARE, ^6/;. in a semicircle, like a rainbow ; archlike. 

BiRi, adj. occupying a small space ; within a small com- 
pass (applied to land). — Ille biri, " A circumscribed 
piece of land." 

BiRi, adj. occupying an extensive circular space. — Mo 
ra ille biri, "I bought a large piece of ground." 

BiRiiuRi, adv. very ; (intensive particle usually followed 
by the v. Su, to be dark). — Ille su biribiri, "'The land 
is utterly dark." — Igbo biribiri, okunkun biribiri, 
okunkun ni yio sette igbo, " The forest is very dark ; 
the night is very dark : the darkness of the night is 
deeper than the darkness of the forest." 

BiRiGAMi, s. a square bag or wallet used by travellers and 

BiRi-KOTO, s. a small narrow place. 

Blasffmi (Gr.), s. blasphemy. 

Bo, V. a. and n. to peel, deprive of covering or bark ; to 
make a noise like a he-goat. — Joseph bo ille babba re, 



"Joseph stripped his father's house." — Epo iggi na bo, 
" The bark of the tree peels." — Ara mi bo, " My skin 

Bb,v.n. to be full of leaves, rich in foliage. — ^Aba ode mi bo 
dudu, "The banyan-tree in my street is full of 

Bode, s. custom-house. — Obba ni igba owo bode, " It is 
the king who receives custom," 

BojiN, s. shade. — Joko ni bojin, " Sit in the shade." 

BojiN, Boji (ibi-oji), s. grave, place of interment. 

Bojuwo, Boju-To (bu-oju-wo), v. a. to have an oversight 
of, take notice of at intervals. — Bojuwo ille fu mi, 
" Take care of my house for me." 

Bole (bo-ille), v. a. to thatch, cover a house; rob a house ; 
confiscate. — Obba bole enniti 9 se, " The king con- 
fiscates the house of the offender." 

BoLE-BOLE, 5. thatcher ; robber ; confiscator. — Ole bole- 
bole ejikan — a term of reproach applied to robbers. 

BoLESEBi, BoLESEPE (bi-ole-sc-bi), adv. if possible. — Bole- 
sepe yi olo iba daraju, " If it be possible for him to 
go, it will be well." 

BoMiwoN (bu-omi-won), v. a. to sprinkle with water. 

BoMO, Okabomo, s. white-grained Guinea corn. — Bomo 
yo larin baba, "The (white-grained) bomo is con- 
spicuous in the midst of the (red-grained) baba." 

BoMUBOMU, s. a tree, the leaf of which is pounded, and 
used to curdle milk, as the leaf of the ore plant is to 
ferment akara cakes. 

Bora, v. n. to cover the body (as with a cloth). 

BoRi (bo-ori), v. a. to overcome, surpass. — IJ9 kan ojo 
o bori oda, " One day's rain makes up for many days' 

BoRi (bo-ori), v. n. to be the head, to be superior ; to 
have the upper hand. 

BoRi-GBOGBo, pre}), above ; over. 

BoRVKo followed 63/ Je (ba-oruk9), v. a. to slander. — Otta 
65 K 


enia ni iba oruko re je, " He is an enemy who slanders 
one's name." 

BoTi, V. n. to tear half-way open. 

BoTi-BOTi, adv. talkatively. — Ommode yi nsoro botiboti, 

i^ "This child prates very much." — 'Qrp botiboti ko ye 

fun agbalagba, " Prating is unbecoming in an elder." 

Bo, V. a. to feed, maintain, support ; to beat the mud floor 
of a house ; to wash slightly. — B9JU (bo-oju) v. to 
wash the face. — Bora (bo-ara), v. to wash the body. 

Bo, V. n. to drop, as a leaf or fruit from a tree ; drop 
or fall from a loft ; slip ; to fail in carrying out one's 
point. — Awo bo lowo mi, " The plate slipt from my 
hand." — Ewe bo lori iggi, "A leaf drops from the 
tree." — Ommo kan bo si kanga, " A child fell into 
the well." — 'Oran na bo lowo mi, " I failed in that 
business (lit. that matter dropped from me). (This 
word is not applied to dropping of liquid.) 

Bo, V. a. to take off any thing suspended loosely on a 
pin or on the body. — Bo aso si ille loriekan, "Take 
the clothes down from the peg." — O bo aso lara mi, 
" He took off my clothes." 

Bo, V. a. to adore ; to worship false deities by sacrifices. — 
Awon Keferi ama bo iggi bo okuta, "The Gentiles 
worship wood and stone." 
Bofolloived hy Laso, v. a. to strip. — Ma se bp mi laso, 
" Do not strip me of my clothes." 

BoLOWo (bo-ni-owo), v. n. to escape or get free from 
(the enemy's) hand. — I wo bolowo enia buburu, "You 
escaped the hand of the wicked." 

Bo, V. a. to insert ; pierce ; boil ; put on trowsers ; shake 
hands. — Bo gbogbo eran na, " Boil all the meat." 
— Bo sokoto re, "Put on your trowsers." — Bo mi lowo, 
" Shake my hand." 

Bo, V. n. to return. — x\won ero bo lanna, " The caravan 
returned yesterday." ' . 

Boju, (bo-oju), V. n. to wash the face. — Bi ko se ob9n 


enia, ta ni ibaji lo oro ki 9 ma boju re mo sasa, "Who 

would awake in the morning without washing his 

face, unless he were a dirty person T' 
BoKiNNi, s. a neat, decent person. 
BoLLA (bu-olla), V. a. to respect honour, regard. — Bolla 

fun agba, awon ni babba enni, " Respect the elders ; 

they are our fathers." 
BoLOJo, adv. beautifully (used of intense blackness). — ^"Ojo 

dudu bolojo, "The rain-clouds are beautifully jet 

BoNNi, s. a species of acacia used by tanners. 
Bora (bo-ara), v. n. to wash the body slightly ; to strip 

the body of clothes, — Emi nlo ibora li odo, " I am 

going to wash myself in the brook." 
Boro, adv. soon, immediately. — K6 de boro, " It does not 

come soon." 
Borukonu, adj. profligate, wasteful ; stupid. 
Bosi, 'y. a. to enter. — Bosi ille, " Enter {Jit. drop into) the 

BowA, V. n. to come onward ; move towards one. 
Bowp (bo-owo), V. n. to shake hands together. 
Bowo (bu-owo), V. a. to regard, pay respect to, honour. — 

Gbogbo illu li o bpwo fun wa ni ille yi, " All people 

in this town respect us." 
BoYA (bi-oya), adv. perhaps, peradventure. — Boya ma de 

Ilorin ki nto pada si ehin, " Perhaps I may reach 

Ilorin before I return." 
Bu, v. a. to broil or bake under hot ashes or embers. 

— Mo bu isu metta nino eru gbigbona, " I baked 

three yams under the hot ashes." 
BujV.w. to rot by mouldering, spoil through damp, decay. 
Bu, V. a. to abuse, censure ; v. n. to burst out into a loud 

cry ; to send out a stinking savour. 
Bu, V. a. to take out a portion {e.g. of water, rice, or any 

thing in a mass). — Bu omi fun mi ki nmo, " Give me 

some water to drink." — Bu agbado fun esin wa, 




" Fetch some corn for the horse." — Bii isu die fun 
omm9 de yi, " Cut some yam for this child." 

^h followed by Lu(beat),BuLU,'y.«. to pour upon; sup- 
ply largely ; blow upon vehemently ; 
(used of the sensation produced by an 
oppressive atmosphere). — Oru bulu 
mi ti, " The heat overpowers me." 

Si (to), Busi, V. a. {primary idea, to put 

to) ; to add to, bestow upon ; bless. — 
Olprun yi obusi i fun o, " May God 
bless you!" or, "God will bless you!" 

Je (eat), V. a. to bite. — IW9 bu mi je, 

' " You bite me." 

KuN (deficient), v. a. to lessen ; to de- 
spise.- — Gbogbo enia li o bu u kun, 
"All people despise him." 

Se (completed), v. n. to be almost 

finished. — Ise mi bu se, " My work 
is nearly done." — Ise re ibama bu se 

V • • • • 

ma ran o lowo, "Had not your 
work been nearly completed I would 
have helped you." 
BuBA (ibi-iba), s. ambuscade ; lurking-place. — Ahu won 
ni buba, nwon sa lo, "We discovered them in their 
hiding-place; they ran away." 
BuBURu, adj. lewd, wicked, evil. 
BuDO (ibi-ido), s. camp. 

BujE, s. a plant which bears a round fruit. The soft 
part of it turns black when exposed to the air, and is 
used by the natives to give the appearance of tattoo- 
ing. — Os9 onibuje ko pe isan, oso oninabi ko ju odun 
lo, " Marks made with buje do not last more than 
nine days ; marks made with inabi (a plant which 
blisters the skin) do not last more than a year." 
Bu-JE (ibi-je), s. a place to feed at ; stable ; manger. 
BujoKo (ibi-ijoko), s. abode, dwelling, seat. — Ommode 


ki iwo S0S9 ni bnjoko agba, " The younger should not 

intrude into the seat of the elders." 
Bu-KON, V. a. to add to, increase. 
Bu-KUN, V. n. to be deficient. — ^Aso na bukun nitori ibo 

ti ko ni, " The cloth is deficient, because it has not 

breadth (enough)." 
BuKu, s. one of the gods supposed to accompany the 

small-pox, and to kill persons so afflicted by twisting 

their necks. 
BuRA (bu-ara), v. n. to swear, take oath. 
BuRA-EKE, V. n. to perjure, swear falsely. 
BuRu, adj., BuRUJu, compar., Burujulo, superl. bad, ill, 

BuRU-BURU, adv. closely (used with the verb Sapamo, to 

hide).- — Nwon sapamo buruburu, " They hide them- 
selves very closely." 
Buso (ibi-iso), s. stall in which animals are tied up during 

the night. 
Buso (^ibi-iso), s. a resting-place for travellers, inn, place 

for refreshment. 
Busu, s. loose sand, loose soil very heavy to walk on. 
BusuGBA (busu-igba), 5. the soft pulp of the locust fruit. 
BusuN (ibi-isun), s. a sleeping-place, bed, nest. 
Bu-YiN (bu-iyin), v.a. to respect, regard. — Buyln fun obba, 
" Honour the king." 


Da, v. a. (The primary idea of this verb appears to be, 
" to make or create." Its signification is modified by 
the substantive with which it is used in combination.* 
e.g. O da mi ni iggi, " He strikes (makes at) me with a 
stick." O da owo ode, " He ^;ays (makes a payment 
of) a tax (public money)." 
l^AfolIoii'edbj/BL'iA.E,(to lie down), to make to lie down. 

* Cf. French v.faire ; e. g-foire wn confe, to tell a story ; /aire Ics 
chrveux, to cut the hair. — Ed. 



Da followed hy Duro (to stop), to detain. 

KojA (over), to pass over, neglect. 

KuRO (away), to release, redeem, acquit. 

Odamikuroninoewon, "He redeems 
me (makes me away) from prison." 

Laga (ni-aga, under weariness), to 


Lara ( — ara, under (?) the body), to 

disappoint (cause depression (?) ). 

Laraya ( — ya, to be lively), to enliven. 

Lare ( — are, justice), to justify, — I wo 

da mi lare, " You justify me." 

Lebbi ( — ebbi, wrong), to condemn. 

Lekun ( — ekun, cessation), to forbid. 

Lesse ( — esse, foot), to stop from going 

to a place. 

Loju ( — oju, the eye), v. n. to be sure ; 

V. a. to disappoint. — Ommo yi da mi 
loju, " This child has disappointed 
me {i. e. by its early death)." 

. , LoRo ( — oro, torment), to torture. — 

Masedaenialoro, "Tormentnoman." 

Majemu (agreement), to make a cove- 

Meji (two), to divide, break, cut, mould. 

— O da isu meji, "He divides the 
vams in two." 

NiDAGiRi ( — idagiri, alarm), to raise 

fears. — Ogun dii illu nidagiri, "War 
frightened the inhabitants." 

NiGGi (ni-iggi, under a stick), to beat. 

NiJA ( — ija, wrestle), to throw down in 

wrestling. — O da mi nija, " He 
throws me down." 

NiJiN ( — iji, fear), to frighten. — Eranko 

da mi nijin, "A beast frightened me." 


Da followed hy Oruko (name), to mention one's name. 

Si (by), to spare, reserve. — Agbe da 

irugbin si, " Tiie farmer puts aside 
some of his seed." 

^^". SiLLE (si-ille, to the ground), to cause, 

be the asfsrressor. — Enia buburu da 
oran sille, "A wicked man creates 

So (talk), to mention. — Iwo ko gb9dd9 

da oran na so, "You dare not men- 
tion tlie matter." 

. SASA(soundly), to be whole, clever, wise. 

— Oju ommode yi da sasa, " This 

child is very clever." — Ara mi da 

sasa, "I am perfectly well." 

Da, v. n. (The primary idea of this verh appears to be, " to 

be scarce or rare ") ; hence, to be a time of dearth ; 

cease from raining ; flash (as lightning from a cloud); 

be intelligent ; flower, blossom ; be well ; ferment. — 

Oda da li odun ni, " There is a famine this year." 

— Manamana nda, " It lightens." 

Da, v. a. to cast, pour ; hence, to betray a trust ; slip a 

child under the arm from the back. — Ore mi da mi, 

" My friend betrays me {lit. casts me off)." — Da ommo 

re ki o fun u li ommo mu, " Slip your babe under 

your arm, and give it suck." 

\yk followed hy No (away), to pour away, waste. — Da 

omi buburu no, " Pour out the 
dirty water." 

Po (many), to mingle, join. 

Ru (stir), to confuse. — Nwpn da eke 

ru, " They confound the liar." 
Da, v. n. to upset, be poured out, be acceptable as a sacri- 
fice (because the blood of the sacrifice is poured out, 
or upset, on the ground); to be turned out of the right 
direction ; to bend. — Okko 9 da, " The boat upsets." — 


Ada mi da ida, " My billhook bends very badly."- 
Also used as v. subs., to become. When used in this 
sense it is changed into Di, for the sake of euphony, 
before e, i, o, and all consonants. — Kokoro di laba- 
laba, " The grub becomes a butterfly." 

Da, prep, (denoting a change of position), over, round. — 
Pa mi da, " Turn me round." 

Daba (da-aba), v. n. to imagine, think. 

Dabi, v. n. to resemble, be like. 

Dabo, v. n. to cease coming. — -On ko dake ko dabo, " It 
does not cease." 

Dabobo (da-abo),!;.^. to defend, shelter. — Ille ni idabobo 
ni, " A house affords shelter." 

Dagba (di-agba), v. n. to grow up, come to age, be old. 

Dagbere, v. a. to take leave of, bid farewell to. 

Dahun (da-ohun), v. n. to reply. 

Daja, v. a. to serenade. 

Daji, v. n. to rise a great while before day. 

Dajo (da-eJ9), v. a. to settle a matter, to judge ; appoint 
a day, fix a time. 

Daju (da-oju), adj. shameless ; certain, plain, demonstra- 
tive, quick of discovery ; v. to be sharp. — O daju danu, 
'o ko mo essan messan, " (Though) you (appear) very 
sharp, you cannot tell nine times nine." 

Daju-daju, adv. plainly, evidently, assuredly. 

Dakaka (da-akaka), v. n. to sit cross-legged. 

Dake (da-akke),^. w. tobe silent, to hush; adj. silent (an 
euphemism for " dead.") — Babba dake, " (My) father 
is dead." 

Dake-roro (da-akke), adj. very still, very calm. — Omi 
dakeror9, " The water is very still." 

Dako (da-oko), v. n. to circumcise (an expression to be 
avoided in translations. See Kola). 

Da-ku v. n. to faint away, to be at the point of death. 

Dakun (da-okun), v. a. to prepare spun cotton for sale. 

Dala, .s'. a coarse grass used for plaiting fences. 


Dalare (da-are), v. a. to pronounce in the right, justify. 

Damoran (da-imp-oran), v. a. to give counsel, propose. 

Da-mo, v. a. to strike violently with a stick. 

Da-mu, v. a. to confuse, perplex, confound. 

Dan, v. n. to shine, glitter ; be slippery ; be good, be 
right ; v. a. to make bright. 
Da^n foUoived hy Wo, v. a. to attempt, try ; tempt. — Mo 

dan ise na wo, emi ko le ise, " I tried 
the work, but was unable to accom- 
plish it." 

Dana (da-ina), v. a. to make fire. 

Dandan, s. a kind of talc, used for mirrors by the natives 
of the interior. 

Dankare, Jankare (ja-ka-re), s. soldiers, men of war. 

Danilara (li-ara), v. n. to vex, annoy, mortify. 

Daniloju (da-enia-li-oju), v. n. to be sure, certain, evident. 

Danu (da-ennu), v. n. to be able to speak fluently ; to be 

Dapara (da-ipara), v. n. to grow callous. 

Dapara, v. n. to sneer at, make a jest of one. 

Dapo, v. n. to mix, mingle. 

Dara, v. a. to make a new fashion. 

Dara (da-ara), adj. good, handsome, fair. 

Dara-dara, adv. well ; very good. 

Daran (da-oran), v. n. to commit sin, transgress, tres- 

Daraya (da-ara-ya), v. n. to be cheerful, lively. 

Dari followed hy Ji (da-ori-ji), v. a. to forgive, pardon. 

Daro (da-aro), v. n. to be a dyer of blue. 

Daro ( — aro), v. n. to be anxious or concerned about 

Darudapo. v. a. to mix indiscriminately. 

Daru-daru, adv. entirely, (applied to verbs of conceal- 
ment.) — Ikuku bo illu molle darudaru, "The fog 
covers the town entirely." 

Daruko (da-oruko), u. a. to name, mention one's name. 
73 ' L 


L^ Dasa, 5. a small dish with cover. — Dasa mu abbe ni iyin, 
enni nla li 9pon iye, " (Though) a dasa gives the stew 
a neat appearance, a bowl answers best for great men 
(because it holds more)." 

Da-si, v. a. to meddle with, intrude ; also, to spare, re- 

Dasse (da-esse), v. w. to cease from coming or going to a 
place, cease, stop. 

Dasa (da-asa), v. n. to aim at too much ; to introduce a 
new custom. 

Dawo (da-owo), v. a. to put money together, to contri- 

Dawo-esu, v. a. to pay money into a savings' club. See 

Dawo-ode, v. a. to pay tax or public rate. 

Dawu (da-owu), v. a. to prepare spun cotton for sale. 

Dawole (da-owo-le), v. a. to lay hands on, undertake. 

Dayele, Diyele (da-iye-le), v. a. to put or charge a price 
upon ; to rate, estimate. 

De, v. nt to come to, arrive at, reach ; to cover with a lid. 
— Ojo-de, " There is rain coming." 

De, p*e^. for. — Duro de mi, "Wait for me." — Sise na 
de mi, " Do the work for me." 

De, v. a. to bind, shackle. — Nwon de mi ni sekeseke, 
" They put me in fetters." 

Debbi (da-ebbi), v. a. to pronounce guilty, to condemn. 

Debe (di-ibe), v. a. to arrive at a place, end a journey. 

Debipa (da-ebi-pa), Febipa, v. a. to famish, starve. 

Dede, adr. all right ; adj. alike, agreeable, corresponding. 
— Ose dede, " It is agreeable." 

Deiiun, (de-ohun), v. n. [lit. to close words ;) to agree, bar- 
gain, promise. 

Dena (de-onna), v. a. to keep the road, stop the passage, 
lay wait. 

Dewo (da-ewo), v. a. to forbid (said of ceremonial prohibi- 


De, v. a. to ensnare, tempt, bait, hunt, encourage, pursue. 

Ode nde igbe, " The hunter is hunting in, tlie 

T)e followed by Wo (to see), v .a. to try, watch, tempt, 
De, v. a. to loosen, slacken. 
De, v. n. to ripen, to be soft, to be easy. 
Dede, or Dedde, jorep, near, at at a short distance. — OJ9 

ti awa yio lo kun si dede, " The day of our departure 

is near." 
Dedo (de-odo), v. a. to fish {lit to hunt the water). 
Degbe (de-igbe), v. n. to go out hunting, to engage in the 

Dehun, v. n. to sink the voice. 
Deja (de-aja), ( — eja), to lay a dog on the scent ; v. n. to 

" fish. * 
Dekun ( — okun), v. a. to set a snare. 
Dekun (da-ekun),v. n. to cease, stop, yield. 
Deni, v. a. to relieve, ameliorate, facilitate. — IW9 deni 

lara, " You make us comfortable." 
Denge, s. gruel made of Indian corn. 
Deredere, adv. (hanging) loosely and slovenly as if 

ready to fall of 
Desse (de-esse), v. n. to stop, slacken one's pace. — 'Desse 

duro fu u, " Wait for him." 
Deru (di-eru) v. a. to pack, to load. 
Deruba (da-eru-ba),u. a. to frighten, discourage. 
Dese (da-ese), v. n. to sin, transgress. 
Deti (de-eti), v. n. to listen, incline the ear. 
Deti, v. n. to fail, come short of, be unable to perform, be 

Di, v.n. See Da. 

Di, adj. less, short, deficient ; complicated, entan- 
Di, prep, used with v. Sa, which see. 
Di, V. a. to shut, close up ; parch, fry. 


Di followed bi/ Mo (close), v. a. to shut in, enclose, en- 

Di, V. a. to tie, bind, unite ; pack ; coagulate ; chew to- 
TS\, followed hy Mu (lay hold on), v. a. to grasp, hold fast. 
RiKisi (conspiracy), v. w. to conspire, con- 
cert, plan, plot. 

DiBAJE (da-ibaje), corruption, v. n. to die, perish ; get 
spoiled, corrupt. 

Did A, adj. (from Da), that which is to be delivered, re- 
leased, made, created ; creation, the act of creating. 

DiDA-ARA, 5. health, soundness of body. 

DiDA-JO, ( — ejo), s. decision of a case; appointment of 
a time or day. 

Dtdan, adj. shining, bright. 

DiDE, adj. that which is to be bound, shackled, watched. 

DiDE, defect, v. arise, get up. — Dide naro, " Stand up- 

DiDE, adj. that which is to be baited or chased. 

DiDE, adj. soft, ripened. 

DiDi, verbal adj. (from Di), that w hich is to be tried. 

DiDi, s. the act of tying or binding a thing ; plaiting of 
hair ; a kind of game. 

DiDON, adj. sweet, pleasant (to the eye, taste, or any 
sense) ; 5. sweetness, flavour. 

DiDLlf, verb. adj. (from Du), that which is to be grasped. 

DiDURA, s. elfort made to keep from falling when one 

DiDURo, 5. detention. 

Die, adj. few, some, little ; adv. awhile. 

DiFE, V. n. to blossom, flower. 

DiGBOSE (da-igba-ti-ose), adv. by and bye, till another 

Dioi, s. glass, looking-glass. 

Died (da-igo), s. piece of cloth tied round the waist, an 




Due, Duje (da-ije), v. n. to compete in labour. 

DiJi DiJiN, (da-iji), v. n. to take fright ; be disappointed. 

— Omm9 dijin, " The child is frightened." — Mo 

diji pe okko tiwa ni. " I fancied it was our ship 

(but was disappointed)." 
Diju (di-oju), V. n. to knot, be entangled, to grow per- 
plexed. — Oranyi diju, " This matter is perplexed." 
DiLLE (da-ille), v. n, to be at leisure, unemployed. 
DiPARA, V. See Dapara. 
DisTsiYi (da-isisiyi), adv. hitherto. 
DiTi (di-eti), v. n. to shut the ear, to be deaf. 
Diwo (di-owo), v. w. to be placed in difficulty. 
DiYAN (da-iyan), u. n. to be careful, solicitous ; to intend, 

think about. 
DiGBARo (da-igbaro), v. n. to remain standing. — Odigbaro 

to onilu lehin, ''He that follows the drummer is 

obliged to keep standing." 
Do, V. n. to encamp ; v. a. to cohabit with. (See Ba and 

DoGiRi (da-ogTri), v. n. to gallop. 
DoGOTi ( — ogoti), v.a. to dun a person for debt ; to sit 

closely at. 
DoGUN ( — ogun), V. n. to rust, to corrode. 
D0JUB9LLE ( — oju-bo-ille), v. w. to turn one's face to the 

DojuDE ( — oju-de), V. n. to invert a vessel. 
DojUKODo ( — oju-ko-odo), d. n. to look down from a 

DojUTi ( — oju-ti), V. a. to make ashamed. 
DoMDOM-AiYE, s. comforts of the world, luxuries of life. 
DoRiKODo, (ori-ko-do) v.n. to incline the head downwards, 

look downwards, meditate. 
DoTi, V. n. to encamp against. 
DoBBALLE ( — obba-ille), u. n. to prostrate one's self on the 

ground, lie flat, pay respect to a superior. — Dobballe 

ki apa igbonwo mo o ni 'hun ti ise fun ni, " To pro- 


strate one's self and keep the elbows close, does some- 
thing for one {i.e. is sure to benefit a man)." 

Dodo, adv. very (describing the quality of Ro, cool). — 
Ewe na ro dodo, " The leaf is quite shrivelled." 

Don, Dun, v. n. to be hurtful to, grieve, cause regret, be 
painful. — Oran na don mi poju, " That matter grieves 
me much." 

Don, Dun, adj. sweet, pleasant, handsome ; (used as a 
participle), pleased. 

DoNMO, Dunmo, v. n. to be pleasant, agreeable, delight- 
ful. — Ohun ti nwon se donmo mi iojo, " That which 
they did pleased me much." 

DoNDON, s. a kind of drum. 

DoGBA (da-ogba), v.n. to be equal, right, correct, exact. 

Du, v.n. to be black. 

Du, r. a. to deny a request. 

DuBULLE (da-ibu-ille), v. n. to lie down. 

DuDu, adj. black. 

DuDU, adv. very fully, thickly. — 'Ojo o su dudu, '' The 
rain clouds gather quickly." 

DuGBOLU (da-egbo-lu), v. a. to strike against another un- 
intentionally, as in the dark. 

DuLUMo, s. calumny, slander. — Ma se gba dulumo enni 
kan, " Do not slander any one," {lit. '' Do not receive a 
slander against any one, to accuse him falsely "). — Du- 
lumo' epa li oron sese, ajebbi oran woti, " The slan- 
der of the bean (sese) against the ground-nut (epa) 
shall fall upon the sese's neck (shall recoil upon it- 
self) ; he who is in the w-rong {i. e. deserves the 
censure) must sit quietly apart." The bean sese is a 
climbing plant, the ground-nut a small herb. 

Dupe (da-ope), v. n. to give thanks for kindness shown or 

r , benefit received. — Enniti ase li ore ti ko dupe aba se 

'^ e ni ibi ko don o, " He to whom kindness is shown, 

and does not return thanks, if evil is done to him he 

will not feel that either {i.e.he is devoid of all feeling)." 



Dura (du-ara), v. n. to make an effort so as to keep from 
falling at a trip. — Mo dura gidigidi, " I made an 
effort to recover myself" 

DuRo (da-iro), v. n. to stand, stay, wait. — Duro de mi, 
" Wait for me." 

DuRu, s. harp, fiddle, guitar. — Iwo ko ti igbo idi duru o 
njo duke-dnke, " Before you heard the strain of the 
fiddle you commenced dancing merrily." 


E is used as a nominal prefix in the same way as A and 
/: e. g.verh, Ba, to touch ; — noun, Eba, the vessel which 
contains the ointment to be touched ; verb, L6, to 
use ; — noun, Elo utensils. 

E, jjer5. pron. he, she, it. 

E-BA, .9. an ointment-jar, oil-jar. 

Ebe, s. a heap of earth for the purpose of planting ; 

E-Bi, s. vomit, matter thrown up from the stomach. 
£/Ebi, s. hunger ; journey. — Ebi ko je ki apa owo mo, ebi 
mu ino se papala, " Hunger does not allow saving of 
money ; hunger makes the body lean." — Ebi ko pa 
Imalle o li on ki ije aya. — " When a Mahommedan is 
not pinched with hunger, he says, * I never eat mon- 
key (flesh ;' " which is ceremonially forbidden). 

Ebi-npa v. n. to be hungry {lit. to be killed by hunger). 

Ebo, 'Abo, ^Edi, s. the act of binding or tying. 

Ebolo, s. an herb used as a vegetable. 

E-BU, s. abuse, censure. 

E-BU, s. yam seed. 

Ebute, s. landing-place, wharf. 

Ede, s. language, dialect. 

Ede, s. crawfish, lobster, shrimp. 

Edi, Idi (ere-idi), 5. reason, cause, origin. 

Edi, s. the act of binding, 

Edi-di, s. cork, stopper. 


Efangelisti, s. (Gr.) evangelist. 

Egake, Eganni, Eginni, s. a tickling. — Oke mi li agake; 
or, Iwo rin mi li eginni, " You tickled me." 

Egbe, s. perdition, loss, eternal loss. — Ore Agbe se li 
OiFa odi egbe, " The good, which Agbe (a well- 
known philanthropist among the Yorubas) did in (the 
town) OfFa, is wasted (because they did not appreciate 

Egbe, s. a blessing, encouragement, support ; vindica- 
tion, contiguity ; profit ; benediction. 

Egbere, s. an evil spirit, supposed to wander abroad at 
night, and to frequent the woods ; name of a small 

Egbin, s. a kind of deer. 

Egbo, s. root of a tree ; adj. sore. 

Egbo, s. husk peeled or rubbed off corn or beans ; corn 
cleansed from the husk and prepared for eating. 

Egbodo, s. name of a plant. 

Egbon, s. flea, tick.' — -Egbpn so mo ayinrin li ennu ani ki 
adire ki o wa iyan a je, adire mo pe ontikara on onje 
ayinrin, " A tick having fastened itself on the mouth 
of a fox, a fowl was desired to remove it; but the 
fowl well knew that she was food for the fox, as well 
as the tick for her." 

Egede, adv. only. — Mo bo ille tan, egede ki nye e li o 
kun, " 1 have covered the house ; it only remains to 
complete the ridge." 

Egun, Egungun, s. bone. 

E-gun, s. an imprecation, abjuration, oath. 

Egungun-Aiya, s. the breast-bone. 

Egungun Iha, s. rib, rib-bone. 

Ehase (eyi-ha-se), adv. why ? wherefore ? how so ? 

EiiiN, Eyin, s. tooth, tusk. 

Ehin-erin, s. ivory, elephant's tooth. 

Ehin-ndon, v. n. to be troubled with tooth-ache. 

Ehin-okankan, s. the fore tooth. 


Ehoro, s. hare ; an animal of the rabbit kind, usually 
producing two young ones at a birth : it is remark- 
able for swiftness, and has large ears and soft fur, 
which last is used by the natives as a charm against 
fire. — Ehoro ni ti Oloffa li o soro, " The (swift) -ehoro 
said, * I care for nobody but the archer.' " 
Ehu, s. birds of the palm kind, generally found in flocks. 
Ehu-iyan, s. cold pounded yam. 
Ejano, s. passion, passionate feelings. 
Eje, adj. seven. 

Eje-odun, s. the seventh month ; July. There are no 
settled periods for the commencement of the weeks 
and months in the Yoruba country. The English 
notation will be introduced. 
Eji, s. rain. 
Eji, adj. two. 

Eji odun, s. the second month ; February. 
Ejidilogun (eji-di-ni-ogun), adj. eighteen. 
Eji-la, adj. twelve. 

Eji-LA-ODUN, s. the twelfth month ; December. 
Eji-ka, s. the shoulder. 
Eji-kan, s. thief, robber. 
Ejire, Ejie, s. twins. 
I Ejo, s. serpent, snake. — Ejd ommo oniwere, bi o ti wu 
ki ase titi ako le iba ejo re, iggi ni gbogbo araiye 
iy9 si i, " However much a snake may try, no one 
will be friendly to that creeping thing (lit. child of 
writhing) ; on the contrary, all mankind take up 
sticks to (strike) it." 
Ejono (ejo-ino), s. worm (internal). 
Ekan, Ekanna, s. finger-nail, claw. 

Ekan-awodi, s. a prickly shrub used as medicine for 

destroying tape-worms. 
Ekan-Ekun, s. a prickly plant, so called from its 
prickles resembling leopards' claws. 
Ekan, s. new shoots from the stem or root of trees. 
81 M . 


Ekan, s. pin on which the woof is adjusted; any wooden 
^ Eke, s. falsehood, a downright lie. — Eleke li eke iye, 
ohiin ti aba se ni iye 'ni, " (As) any thing which a man 
is (in the habit of) doing is natural to him, (so) a lie 
is natural to a liar." — Pipe ni yio pe eke ko mu ra, 
" The time may be very long, but a lie wall be de- 
tected at last ; {lit. will not go to oblivion)." 

Ekeje (ek9n-eje), adj. the seventh. 

Ekeji (ekon-eji), adj. the second, the next. 

Ekiri, s. a kind of goat. 

E-Ko, adj. hard, not soft, not tender ; (applied to the herb 
Ila, called also Okro). — Ila ko. " Okro gets hard." 

E-k6, I-ka, E-ka-odun, s. the last month ; December ; {lit. 
the closing or winding up of the year). 

Eko, Oruko, s. name. — Oruko ti a?o ommo ni imo ommo li 

• ••' ■■•■ ••• 

ara, "The name given to a child becomes natural to it." 

Ekolo, s. long worms, found in great numbers by the 
side of brooks, but soon destroyed by the heat of the 
sun if attempting to crawl along the road. 

Eku, s. rat. 

^KULu, s. a kind of deer. — i\gba metta ki isi ekulu ipe, 
'w/ bi okan pe ekulu, ekeji ani ekulu, eketta ani ekulu, 
" Three elders cannot all of them fail to pronounce 
(the word) ekulu ; one may say ekiilu, another ekulu, 
(but) the third wdll say ekulu " {i. e. out of many 
counsellors one is sure to be right). 

Ekun, Ekunkun, s. handle of a knife, sword, or cutlass ; 
(not applied to hoe or axe). 

Ekun, s. protracted sickness. — O se ekun dide die, " You 
are trying, then, to sit up a little during your illness ?" 

Ekun, Erukun, s. the knee. 

Ekuro, s. palm-nuts. — Alejo bi okete li a ifi ekuro ilo. 

'*A stranger, like the ground pig, is entertained with 

palm-nuts," (which are but poor fare). — Ate yun ate 

wa li a ite ekur9 oju onna, " To be trodden upon 

82 * ' ' 


liere, to be trodden upon there, is the fate of the 
pahu-nut (lying) in the road." 

Ekuru, s. a kind of very dry cake made of the ere (white 
bean) ; otherwise called Kuduru. — O fon mi li oron 
bi ekuru, " He chokes me like ekuru," (said of a 
tedious visitor). 

Ekuru, s. the mange in dogs ; the itch. 

Ekuru, s. dust, fine dust. — Erin ntu ekuru, efon ntu 
ekuru, titu ekuru ajannaku bo ti efon m9lle, " The 
elephant makes a dust, and the buffalo makes a dust ; 
but the dust of the buffalo is lost in that of theelephant." 

Ekuse, s. a disease common to children. 

Ekute, Eku, s. rat, mouse. 

Ekute ille, s. domestic rat. — Ekute ille ko fi ibi aja ji 
han 'ra won, " The rat does not show its companion 
the hole in the ceiling, (into which it may fall)." — 
Ekute ille ko ri ennuba ologbo wijo, " The rat has 
no power {lit. voice) to call the cat to account." 

Ekuya, s. an herb used as cabbage. 

Ele, s. force, violence ; hardness. 

Ele, 5. interest ; that which is paid in addition to the 

Ele, 5. a layer or course in mud or stone walls; height, 
eminence ; iron, instruments of iron, weapons. — Mo fi 
ele keji le ille mi, "I have added the second course to 
my house." The cry of ^Ele denotes " All to arms !" 

Elegbe (ni-egbe), s. supporter, encourager ; repeater of 
a chorus ; one who makes responses. 

Elegede, s. pumpkin. 

Eleke (ni-eke), s. liar. 

Ele-ni-ni, s. despiser, calumniator, backbiter. 

Eleri, Olori (enni-ori), s. headman. 

Eleri ( — eri), s. unclean, polluted person. 

Elerupe ( — erupe), s. he who possesses earth ; adj. 
earthly ; having earth. 

Elevi ( — eyi) detn. pron. this person. 


Eleso-pipo, adj. possessing abundant fruits. 

Elo, s. utensils, furniture. 
-^ Elo obije, s. spice or other ingredients used in cookery. 

Elu-bo, s. prepared yams made into flour. — Elubo se 
ogbodo ri, eru se ommo ni ille babba re, " (As) the 
elubo was once a soft, unripe yam, (so) the slave 
was once a child in his father's house." 

Emi, Mo, Mo, Ng, pers. pron. I. 

Emina, 2)ei's. pron. I myself 

Emi-na,5. a trailing plant, bearing a fruit on the stalk, 
called the black potato. 

Emirin, s. the sand-fly. — Emirin nje 'ni ko to iya, " The 
^ (sting of the) emirin is not so sharp as poverty." 

Emi-ti-kara-mi, refl. pron. I myself, I. 
/ Emo, s. strange thing, wonder. — Emo de, "A wonderful 
thing happens." — Ki emo ki o mo ni Ibese, ki 
omase de Ijanna, " Let the wonder stop at Ibese, and 
not proceed to Ijanna ;" (i. e. let the matter proceed 
no further). Ibese and Ijanna, now destroyed, were 
two frontier towns at which travellers entering the 
Yoruba country successively paid tribute. 

Emo, s. seeds of wild grass which adhere to clothes ; any 
thing adhesive. 

Emo-agbo, s. a grass, so called from its sticking on 
sheep when grazing. 

Ena,5.(/zY. stretching the legs as in walking) ; frequent visits 
to a person, as a sign of regard. — Bi ivvo ko li owo o 11 
ena, bi iwo ko li ena o li ohun rere li ennu, " If you have 
no money (to give to a person in distress), you may 
pay frequent visits ; if you cannotvisit, you may send 
kind messages (lit. good words of the mouth)." Hence 
arises the title of Apena — " One m ho calls together." 

Ena-Awon, s. the flickering appearance of a rarefied atmo- 
sphere under the sunshine ; supposed to be an under- 
ground fire made by the tortoise to kill the trees by 
burning them at the roots. 



Eni, s. that which is given over the exact quantity upon 
making a purchase. 

En I, adj. one. 

Eni, Eyini, detn. pron. that, that one. 

Enia, Eniyan, s. a person ; somebody ; people ; mankind. 
Enialassan (enia-ni-assan), s. a common person, com- 
mon people. 
Enia Dudu, s. black people. 
Enia Funfun, s. white people. 

Eni-tere-Eji-tere, adv. {lit. one here, two there) ; one 
after another ; by degrees, gradually. — Enitere ejitere 
11 oja ifi ik9n, " One here, (and) two there, (so) the 
market is filled up." — Enitere ejitere opo womu, 
" One here, two there, (so gathers) a great multi- 

Epa^ s. crust ; dried poiinded yam, boiled and dressed for 

Epe, s. oath, a swearing. 

Epo, s. palm-oil. 

Epo, s. chaff, husk, bark, rind. 

Era, s. small black wood-ants. — Bi ino ibi ajanaku abi 
era, " If the elephant can be angry, so can the ant." — 
Enniti ko le igbe era, ti o nkusa si erin, yio te ara re, 
" He who cannot take up an ant, and yet tries to take 
up an elephant, will find out his folly." 

Eran, s. fine grass, eaten by horses ; the leaves of a 
plant used as thatch. 

Eran, s. infection, pestilence, communication. — Ma ko 
eran ran mi, " Do not infect me." 

Ere, s. gain, profit, benefit, interest (of money). 

Ere, s. image, idol. • 

Ere, s. question, inquiry. 

Ere, s. imprecation, prayer wishing evil to another. 

Ere, Erewe, s. a kind of white bean with black eye. 

EREKERE,5.indiscriminate gain, dishonest gain, filthy lucre. 

Erekusu, s. island. 




Eri, Erin, s. filth, dirt ; the husk of Indian corn after it 
has been ground, used to feed cattle. 

Eri, Ori, s. the head. 

Eri-Ekun, s. the knee-pan. 

Erigi, s. the gums. 

Erin, s. the elephant. — Ak\ iru eran erin lori ki ama fi 
esse tan ire nille, "No one bearing elephants' flesh 
on his head should seek for crickets under ground ;" 
(^■. e. The rich should not stoop to petty gains ; ele- 
phants' flesh here denoting the portion of the wealthy, 
and crickets that of the poor). 

Erinmi, s. whale ; hippopotamus. 

Erg, s. caravan ; travellers ; traders ; consideration ; 

pondering ; nit. — ^"Ero ko jewo imota tan, bi o ba bi 

" i, ali oferi die, "The trader never confesses that he 

has sold all his goods ; but when asked, he will (only) 

say, (Trade) is a little better." [fif. Prov. xx. 14.) 

Erokojikasi, (ero-ko-je-ikasi), s. a kind of sweet plum. 

Eru, s. deceit, double dealing, craft. 

Eru, s. lime, ashes ; adj. ash-coloured, grey. — Enniti o da 
eru li eru ito, "Ashes (always) fly back in the (face) 
of him that throws them." 

Erukuku, s. pigeon ; (more usually called Eivele, which 

Erun, s. generic name for the ant tribe. — Owo li owo 

ika, opo li opo erun, " The ant ika moves in ranks ; 

all others move in irregular swarms ;" {lit. order is the 

order of the ika; multitude is the multitude of erun)." 

Erun-Dudu, s. the black ant. 

Erupe, 5. dust, earth. 

EsA, s. the red ant. 

Ese, s. cat. 

EsE, s, shea nut. 

EsE, s. provision, preparation for the future. 

EsEj'EsE, .<?. coloured liquid used by tanners; dye; paint. 

EsE-iVEYE, s. yellow colour. 


Esi, s. answer, reply. 

EsTn, s. kind of a tree. 

Eso, s. fruit (of a tree), opposed to Eta, a bulb or tuber, 
— lyan ni imu 'ni ije eso iggi ki iggi, " Famine com- 
pels one to eat the fruit of all kinds of trees." 

Esu, s, a wild grass, not unlike the sugar-cane. 

EsuE, s. disordered stomach ; nausea. 

Esuo, 5. antelope. 

EsuRu, s. a kind of potato like a yam, of very yellow^ 
colour and bitterish taste. 

EsE (eyi-ti-se, how does it be ?) adv. why ? what is the 
matter ? what is the reason ? 

EsE, s. See ^Ese. 

EsE, s. gleaning. — Ommo wa pese li oko, " Our children 
glean in the farm." 

Esi, s. mistake, accident, casualty. 

EsiNsiN, EsiN, 5. a fly. — Esinsin ko mo iku, jije ni ti re, 
*' The fly heeds not death : eating is all to him." 

Esisi, s. the leaf of a plant which, if touched, blisters the 
j Esu, s. devil ; Satan. — 'Esu ko ni iwa ako ille re si ita, 
" As the devil has no (kindliness of) disposition, his 
house is made for him in the street (by itself)." 

Esu, s. the w^hite ant : after undergoing two previous 
changes, it assumes its perfect form about the com- 
mencement of the rainy season, when it is furnished 
with wings. These wings drop off* after a few hours, 
and the helpless insect becomes the prey of birds and 
reptiles, besides affording a favourite food to the 
natives. Also ; a locust. — Ki esu ki o yin eiye, esu 
fo ni ijo kan soso iye re re, " The white ant may well 
admire the bird, for after flying one day, it loses its 
wings." — Ko si ohun ti 6 po to esu, bi o ba 'o ni ille 
a ba li oko, " There is nothing so numerous as the 
locusts : they meet you in the town and in the field." 

Esusu, Esusu, s. leech. 


Esusu, s. a running prickly plant. 

EsuwA, s. former time, adj. the former. 

Eta, Eta, s. rough parts of flour separated by sifting ; 

soreness in the gums. 
Ete, s. intention, thought, consideration. — Ete 11 egbon, 
ero li aburo, opbon ino 11 o se eketta, " Consideration 
Is the first-born, calculation the next, wisdom the 
third." — Aimete aimero nl imu enla melFa isinirba 
egbaffa, " Want of consideration and forethought 
made six brothers pawn themselves for six dollars." 
Ete, s. lip. — Ennu imo 'nu, ete imo ete ni iko oran ba 
ereke, " (A) mouth not keeping shut {lit. to mouth), and 
lips not keeping close (lit. to lip), bring trouble to the 
Ete, 5. morsel, fragment. — Ki yio fun 'o li ete, " He shall 

not give you a fragment." 
Eti, s. the ear, edge, brink, brim ; name of a tree. — Eti, 
gbo ekeji ki o to daJ9, " Ear, hear the other (side of 
the question) before you decide." 
Eti-0d6, s. beach, water side. 
Etille (eti-ille), s. neighbourhood, environs. 
Etu, s. an old farm nearly exhausted. 
Etu, s. that which is stript off; discovery of a plot. 
Etutu,5. that which gives satisfaction, propitiation; atone- 
ment, pacification. 
Etutu, s. the small kind of white ants. 
Ewe, s. childhood, childishness. 
Ewe, s. leaf, foliage. 

Ewe-Eti, s. convolvulus : so called because its sap, 

mixed with nut-oil, is a remedy for sore ears. 
Ewe-Ina, s. a shrub with a hairy leaf, producing severe 
blisters if touched; used among the ingredients for 
poisoning arrows, and in preparing various medi- 
EwEKEWE, s. herb ; (general name for) leaves.' 
Ewo, pron. which ? 


Ewo, 5. time, season. 

Ewo-ERUN, s. dry season. 
Ewo-ojo, 5. rainy season. 

Ewo, s. prohibition to eat ; aversion to. 

Ewu, s. danger, imminent danger ; narrow escape. 

Ewu, s. gray hair. 

EwuRA, s. a kind of soft yam. 

EwuRE, s. goat. — Ewure je o re ille, agutan je ore ille, 
aje iwa ille ba eledde je, " When the goat has fed it 
returns home ; when the sheep has fed it returns 
home ; not returning home after feeding, ruins (the 
character of) the pig." 

EwuRo, 5. a bitter herb used for food. 

Eyi, Eyiyi, pron. this, this one. 

Eyin, Ehin, s. tooth, tusk. 

Eyina, dem. pron. that ; he who ; the same. 

Eyini, pron. that, that one. 

Eyiti, pw?. the* one which; any one. — Eyiti o ri ni ki 
omu, " Take what you see." 

Eyitatinwiyt, adv. immediately ; lit. as we were talking. 


'E,pron. ohj. case ; him, her, it. 

Eba, s. brink, edge. 

Ebado, s. sea-side, river-side, sand-beach. 

Ebbe, s. entreaty, supplication. 

Ebbi, s. wrong, condemnation. 

EbTri, s. a large quiver. 

Ebiti, s. a kind of stone snare ; an insecure cliff. 

Ebo, s. sacrifice, offering. — Ada ebo fun gunugun, o li on 
ko ru, ada ebo fun 'Akalla o li on ko ru, ada ebo fu 
eiyelle, o gbe ebo orubo, " Sacrifices were prescribed 
to the turkey-buzzard, but it refused to offer them ; 
sacrifices were prescribed to the 'Akalla vulture, but 
it also refused: when sacrifices were prescribed to 
the pigeon, it offered them." A tradition said to 
89 N 


account for the two former remaining unclean, 

while the last is domesticated and used for sacrifices. 
Ebo-Alakoto, (enni-akato, persons with a basket), s. 

The basket-sacrifice. A human sacrifice, so called in 

order to conceal its real character : it is occasionally 

ofFered for the whole nation, when the victim is 

sometimes killed, and sometimes kept alive in chains 

to sweep the idol's temple. 
Ebu, s. house, place of abode ; kiln. 
Eburu, 'Onna Eburu, s. back path, back door. 
JEbun, s. gift. 
Eda, s. flower, blossom ; interest paid on money ; natural 

propensities ; inclination ; instinct. 
Eda, s. a kind of rat, remarkable for fast breeding. 
Edda, Ida, s. nature ; the act of creating ; creature. — 

Eledda edda li Olorun ida 'ni, " God made difTerent 

creatures difTerently." 
Edan, s. the Ogboni staff. 

Edalle, s. traitor, one guilty of a breach of faith. 
Ede, s. name of a tree. 

Ede, s. ripe fruit ; adj. soft, yielding to the touch. 
Edogun (arun-di-ogun), adj. fifteen. 
Edo, s. liver : inward motion of affection. — K6 bino 

eru, ko ra edo ommo, " He is not angry on account of 

slaves, nor peevish on account of children." 
Edofofo, s. irascible, easily provoked. 
Edon, Edun, s. twins ; a name generally given to one of 

twins ; ape ; four-fingered monkey. 
Edon Dudu, Edun Oriokun, s. a kind of black and very 

agile monkey, generally found by the sea-side or 

among mangroves. 
Edon, s. axe, hatchet. 
Edon, s, grief, pain of mind. 
Efa, s. a kind of trousers. 
Effa, adj. six. 

Effa-odun, 5. the sixth month •, June. 

■ 90 


Effe, s. fun, jest, joke, mockery. 

Efe, s. fault-finding, captiousness. 

Efi, Efin, 5. smoke. 

EFo,5.a kind of herb used as food. — I wo ko ri akasu o npata 
si efo, "You have not yet obtained the loaf, and you be- 
gan to prepare your efo stew." — Didon li 9 don li a nba 
9re je efo ti ille enni to ni ije, " Because (friendship) is 
pleasant, we partake of our friend's entertainment, not 
because we have not enough (to eat) in our own house." 

Efokko, s. a wreck. 

Efon, s. the leaves which surround the ear of Indian 
corn ; arrow used for crossbows. 

Efon-Iha, s. rib. 

Efon, s. buffalo. — Aobara to efon ma la iwo, " A man 
may be as strong as the buffalo, yet he has no horns." 

Efufu, s. breeze, gale, tempest. 

Efufu Nla, 5. storm, tornado, tempest. 

Efun, s. chalk. 

Ega, s. the palm bird. — Enniti ko gbo ti ega ali ega 
npatoto ennu, " He who does not understand the 
palm-bird's note, complains of the noise it makes." 

EgaApaso, s. a species of palm bird. 

Ega, Elenga, s. common grasshopper. ^Ega Alatam- 
poKo, Alampara, s. a large kind of grasshopper. 
Ega Oris a, 5. species of grasshopper. 

Egan, s. a dense native forest, never cultivated. 

Egan-Osusu, s. prickly forest. 

Egan, 5. backbiting ; contempt. 

Eganran, s. raw, unripe fruits. 

Egba, adj. two thousand. 

Egba, s. the palsy ; a disease which withers the limbs. 

Egbara, s. a kind of rat, remarkable for swiftness. 

Egbin, s. filthiness, dirt. 

Egbe, s. prepared beans. 

Egbe, s. company ; rank ; party ; band of soldiers ; com- 
panion ; equal. 


Egbe, s. the side from the arm -pit to the waist, loin ; 
adv. alongside. 

Egbedogbon, adj. five thousand. 

Egbera, s. equality. 

Egberi, s. one uninitiated into the secrets of the gods ; 
one in darkness concerning a matter. — Mo pa iwo 
li egberi, ^' I puzzle you." 

Egberun, adj. one thousand. 

Egbessin, s. itch ; measles ; a tree used as medicine for 

Egbegberun, adv. by thousands. 

Egbon, adj. elder, eldest. — Egbon iwaju, alugb9n babba, 
^'An elder brother is like a father." 

Egbon, s. that which is to be shaken off; shaken. 

Egbon Owu, s. carded cotton, cotton prepared for spin- 

Egboro, s. young dog ; calf, lamb, kid. 

Egge, s. a snare ; a trap suspended on a tree and set by 
a string, which kills whatever comes under it if it 
touch the strinoj. — E^ore ko so okl, enniti o bo si 
abbe re a pa a ku patapata, '^ The egge never fails ; 
whatever comes under it is struck dead." 

Eggi, s. a ram s mane, prepared and worn as an orna- 
ment on a dog's neck ; the collar for a dog's 

Eggo, s. name of a plant. 

Egusi, s. seeds of the Bara. 

Egun, s. thorns, prickles. — Enni egun gun ni ise laka- 
laka to alabbe, " He who is pierced with thorns must 
limp off to him who has a lancet." — Asare nino egun 
ko se lassan, bi iwo ko le ejo, ejo li o nle 'o, " A 
man does not run among thorns for nothing ; either 
he is chasing a snake, or a snake is chasing him." 

Egun-ikoko, s. thorns of a plant, used by hunters as 

Eha, s. jacket, waistcoat. 


Ehin, s. the back ; adj. hindermost, last. 

Ehin-Assa, s. remnant of cloth on the sley. 

EiiiRi, s. a poisonous plant, 

Ehuru, s. a large bird of the goose tribe much attacked 
by vermin. 

EiYE, s. bird. 

EiYELE, s. pigeon (properly, domestic bird). — Dagbese 
dagbese ti ipa apata eiyele, " He runs into debt, who 
cuts up a pigeon to sell it in parts ;" (L e. who buys 
an article wholesale at a high price, and finds it 
worthless in retail). 

Eja, s. fish. — Iku eja ni imu eja imo illu, eja ^Ogun iba 
se de Akessan, " It was the death of the fish that in- 
troduced it to the town ; what else would have 
brought it from the (river) ^Ogun to the palace ?" 

Ejje, s. blood. — Ohun gbogbo li adiyele, sugbon ko si 
enniti 9 mo iye ara ejje ara enni ; ejje ko fi oju rere 
jade, " Every thing has its price ; but who can set a 
price upon blood ? Blood does not willingly leave 
the body." 

Ejo , 5. matter ; dispute ; harm. 

Ejo, adj. eight. 

Ejo-Odun, s. the eighth month ; August. 

Ekadota (ekon-ewa-di-otta), adj. the fiftieth. 

Ekadorin ( — orin), adj. the seventieth. 

Ekadorun ( — orun), adj. the ninetieth. 

Ekan (ara-kan), adv. once. 

Ekka, s. neck-bone, collar ; ring round the handle of a 
knife ; branch of a tree. 

Ekke, s. rafter. — Bi ekke otosi ko to oke li oro ato 
li alle, " If a poor man's rafter (/. e. the plan proposed 
by a poor man for lengthening the rafter) does not 
reach the top in the morning, it will reach it in the 
evening ;" (A poor man is supposed to be looking on 
at the erection of a house, and recommends splicing 
two rafters together ; his advice is at first despised, 


because he is poor, but eventually adopted on the 
failure of all other plans. Cf. Eccl. ix. 16.) 

Ekke-aja, s. beam, joist. 

Ekke, s. trust, confidence, affiance. 

Ekke, s. cheek, jaw. See Ereke. 

Ekejo (ekon-ejo), adj. the eighth. 

Ekerin( — erin), adj. the fourth. 

Ekessan ( — essan), adj. the ninth. 

Eketta ( — etta), adj. the third. 

Ekettadilogun ( — di-ni-ogun), adj. the seventeenth. 

Ekewa ( — evva), adj. the tenth. 

Eko, s. Indian-corn meal, also called Agidi. 

Eko, s. teaching, instruction, doctrine. 

Ekokanla (ekon-okan-le-ewa), adj. the eleventh. 

Ekon, Ekun, s. supplement. 

Eku, s. snare made of bush-rope. 

Eku, s. a running plant, very much like Ajara. 

Ekuku, s. a very viscous vegetable. 

Ekule, 6*. back yard. 

Ekun, s. cry, weeping. 

Ekun, s. cessation, prohibition, pause. 

Ekun, s. the leopard ; region, neighbourhood, waste. — 
Akamo ekun o rii iyonnu, " It is difficult to encompass 
a leopard." 

Elebu, s. occupier of a house, tenant ; owner of a kiln. 

Ela, s. a small piece severed from a larger ; adj. cloven. 

Elebbe, s. advocate, intercessor, pleader. 

Eledde, ,s'. domesticated pig, swine. — •''Imado iba se bi 
eledde abilluje, eru iba jobba enia ko kiin, "A wild 
boar, in place of a pig, would ravage the town ; and 
a slave, made king, would spare nobody." 

Elefi, s. that which produces smoke, chimney ; a steam 

Elefo, s. one who deals in the herb Efo. 

Elegan, s. despiser, slanderer. 

Elegba, s. saviour, helper, succourer. 
' 94 


Elegba (enni-igba), s. a paralytic (lit one whose linibs 
have been seized). 

Elegbara, s. god of mischief, Satan. 

Elegbe-Ina ( — egbe), s. a bird that hovers over the flame 
when the bush is burning. 

Elegbe, s. the owner or sustainer of a company. 

Elege, adj, delicate, tender. 

Elegodo, s. a coarse plain calico. 

Elekerede, adj. infirm, weak, delicate. 

Elekun, s. mourner. 

Elemmi, s. a living man (lit he who owns breath) ; ser- 
vant (because his master's breath is at his mercy). 

Elemo (oni-emo) s. seller of palm wine. 

Elemoso (enni-mo-oso), s. one who has taste for neat- 
ness, a judge of dress and decoration. 

Elenga, s. grasshopper. 

Elepe,Elepere (enni-ipere), s. a kind of soft Indian corn. 

Eleri ( — eri), s. witness, eye-witness. — Eleri ni iwajo, 
eleri ki ise elegbe, " A witness speaks the truth ; a 
witness does not take (the liar's) part." 

Elessenille ( — esse-ni-ille), s. one having a firm foot- 
ing, a powerful person. 

Elese, s. sinner, offender. 

Elesin, s. rider, horseman. 

Elettan, s. deceiver, dissembler. 

Eleya ( — eya), s. ridicule, contempt. 

Eleye, s. a person for whom clothes are made to order. 

Eleyinju (eyin-oju), s. a person having large eyeballs, 
one with prominent eyes. 

Elewa, s. a handsome person ; one who sells a prepa- 
ration of Indian corn, called ^Ewa. 

Elew^on, s. one who wears a chain, a prisoner ; jailor. 

Eliri, Eluru, s. mouse. 

Elomtran, Eloml, /jraw. another. 

Elu, s. indigo ; mixture. Elu-iwase, s. small-leaf in- 
digo. Elu-ogbo,s. broad-leaf indigo (aclimbingplant). 
95 * ' ' 


Elulu, 5. kind of brown-feathered bird. 

Emeji (ara-meji), adj. twice. 

Emi, s. shea-butter, tree and fruit. — Kuduru li emi iso, 
" The fruit of the shea- tree is round." 

Emmi, s. life, breath, spirit, influence. — Ki Olorun ki ofu 
'9 li emmi gigun, *^ May God give you a long life !" — 
Emmi abata ni imu odo isan, '^ The influence of a 
fountain makes the brook flow." 

Emmo, s. a kind of brown rat. 

Emo, s. palm wine. 

EmewX (enni-mo-ewa), s. prime minister (lit. he who 
knows the mind). 

Emu, s. tongs ; capture, seizure. — Emu balle agbede, 
" The tongs are the governor in the smith's shop." 

En, adv. yes, so. 

Ena, s. an inversion of the order of letters, syllables, 
words, or sentences, under which the sense is con- 
cealed or changed : occasionally employed by parties, 
who may wish to communicate privately, and to dis- 
guise the sense from the bystanders; e.g. De mi 
babba, "Cover me, father," employed to signify 
Babba mi de, " My father is come." 

Eni, s. mat. — Te eni fun mi ki ndubulle, " Spread a mat 
for me to lie on." 

Enni, pi'on. Enniti, jwon. one, he who, a person, the 
person w'hich. — Enniti o ran 'ni ni ise li a iberu, aki 
iberu enniti aran 'ni si, " He ought to be feared who 
sends you on a message, not he to whom you are 

Ennikan, 2)ron. one, any one, a certain person ; one of 
two, one of many. 

Ennikeji, s. partner, companion, neighbour. 

Ennikenni, Ennitowu, pron. whosoever, whoever, any, 
either. — Ennikenni ti iwo ba ri, " Whomsoever you 
see." — Ennitowu ki se, " Whoever it be." 

Enni-Ipe, s. a person called, summoned, or invited. 


Ennirere, s. a good person. 

Enniti-adatan, adj. (lit. one completely or perfectly 
made, insomuch that every favour is bestowed on 
him), happy, blessed. 
Ennu, s. mouth ; opening. 

^N^\j followed hy Ra, (to perish) v. n. to have no appe- 
tite. — Ennu mi ra, " My appetite 
(lit. mouth) fails." 

Si (open), v. n. to have appetite, enjoy 

food. — Ennu mi si, " My appetite 
returns ;" (lit. my mouth opens). 

Ya (open), V. n. to wonder. — Ennu 

mi ya (si understood) won, " They 
wonder at me." 
Ennu-ya, v. n. (See the previous word.) 
Ennu-kokoro, s. bill, beak. 
Ennu-Onna, s. gate, doorway. 
Ennu-osoro, s. the eaves. 

• • • • • / 

Ennu-soro, s. long beak. 
Enyin, pron. ye, you. 
Enyin-na, pron. yourselves. 
Enyintikaranyin (enyin-ti-ika-ara-nyin), refl. pron. you 

yourselves, you. 
Epa, s. ground-nut ; ^Epa Bisan, s. the oil ground-nut ; 

^Epa Roro, s. the red ground-nut. 
Epox, s. testicle. 
Epon, s. ripeness ; flattery. 

Eran, s. the temples of the head. — Mo fi owo le eran, 
nwo won li oju, " I rest my temple upon my hand to 
watch their proceeding." 
Eran, s. meat, flesh, beasts ; Eran-Agutan, s. mutton ; 
Eran-Eledde, s. pork ; Eran-Galla, Eran-Agbon- 
RiN, s. venison ; Eran-malu, s. beef. 
Eran-Abekanna, s. carnivorous animals with claws ; 

(distinguished from those which have hoofs). 
Eranfun, s. a large animal of the buffalo kind. 
97 o 


Eranko, s. wild beasts. 
Eranla, s. ox, bull, cow. 
Eri, s. witness, testimony. — Eri je mi nso, " The evi- 
dence bears me out." 
Eri-Eke, s. false witness. 

Erin, adc. (used only in composition), '^ times ;" e.g. 

^Erinmeji, "Emeji, twice; 'E.metta, three times. Cf. 
Erin, adj. four. 

Erin-Odun, s. the fourth month ; April. 
Erin, s. laughter. — Bi aba sor9 tan erin li a irin, bi aba 
yo tan orun ni ikon 'ni, " When a joke is uttered, it 
creates laughter ; when one has eaten to the full, he 
falls a-dozing." 
Erindilogun, adj. sixteen. 
'Eru, s. fear, dread. 

^Eru followed by Ba, v.n. to be afraid, to fear, to be 
dismayed. — ^Eru ba mi, '^ I am afraid," (lit. fear 
fell upon me). 
Eru, s. the handle of an axe or hoe ; (not applied to any 

other tool). 
Eru, 5. load, cargo, goods. — Aki ipe e li eru ki ape e li 
oso, " What is (really) a load, should not be called an 
Eru, s. slave, captive. — Erii ko se ommo iggi, eru ku 
iya ko gbo omm9 ku igbe ta, eru se ommo ni ille iya 
re ri, "A slave is not a senseless block of wood (//^. child 
of a tree) : when a slave dies his mother hears no- 
thing of it, but when a (free-born) child dies, there is 
lamentation ; yet the slave, too, was once a child in 
his mother's house." 
Eru, s. a kind of spice ; a plant used for washing hide- 
bound animals ; a medicine provocative of appetite. 
Eru-ibille, s. a home-born slave. 
. / Ereke, Eke, s. cheek, jaw. — Ereke ni ille erin, " The jaw 
is the house of laughter." 



Ero, s. skill, art, contrivance. 

^Ero, s. softness, easiness, gentleness. — Bi iwo ko fe li ero 

iw9 afe li ele, " If you do not consent readily, you will 

(be compelled) by force." 

Ero-pessepesse, adv. exceedingly gentle. — Ero pesse- 

pesse ko mo bi ara nkan igbin, " (You may say 

that it is only a) gentle (stroke ; but) you do not 

recollect that it hurts the snail." 

Erre, s. mud, marsh, bog. 

Erun, Ewo-erun, s. the dry season. 

Erun, s. chip, broken pieces, crumbs. 

Erun, s. the name of a tree ; much used in making char- 
coal, and also as a medicine both internally and ex- 
ternally : an excessive dose acts as a poison, against 
which shea-butter and palm-oil serve as antidotes. 
There is a superstition that a fumigation made of the 
bark of this tree drives away evil spirits and sickness. 

Esan, Essan, s. payment ; vengeance, revenge, retaliation. 

^Eson, s. accusation ; law-suit. 

Essan, adj. nine. 

Essan-Odun, s. the ninth month ; September. 

Esse, s. foot, path, track. 

Esse, s. row, order ; things arranged in a line. 
Esse-Esse, adv. orderly, regularly, in rows. 

EssiN, Essi, s. shame, reproach, ridicule ; secret. — Ma 
fi essi mi han, " Do not reveal my secret." 

Esso, s. carefulness, gentleness. — Ohun ti afi esso mu ki 
ibaje, ohun ti afi agbara mu ni ini 'ni lara, " A matter, 
dealt with gently, is sure to prosper; a matter, dealt 
with violently, causes vexation (to its author)." 

EsE, s. blow with the fist; a broken part of any thing 

EsiN, s. spear. — Esin ri ogun jo, oko ri ogun o yo, " At 
the sight of the battle the spear quivers : at the 
sight of the battle the lance rejoices." 

EsiN, s. horse ; Esin-Oye, s. grey horse. 


Eso, s. smelted iron. 

Esse, s. sin, crime, offence, iniquity. 
Esse-Obra, s. treason, crime against the sovereign. 

Eta, s. bulb, tuber, under-ground fruit, as the yam and 
potatoe ; head of maize ; the act of extension ; coarse 

Etta, adj. three. 

Etta-Odun, s. the third month ; March. 
Ettala, adj. thirteen. 

Etta, s, a kind of leopard. — Mo so awo etta mo idi, o 
ki yi ota mi, " I have tied the etta skin round my 
waist ; you cannot sell me :" (i. e. I have the protec- 
tion of powerful friends; you cannot involve me in 
ruinous law expenses.) 

Etta, s. remains of a dead body. — Bi enia enni ba ku li 
okere apa etta re wa ille, " When a relative dies at a 
distance, a small fragment of his remains (such as his 
hair or nails) is brought home," over which funeral 
rites are performed. 

Ettan, ^Etan, 5. enticement, decoy, deceit, dissimulation, 

Ette, s. disgrace, shame, reproach. — Asonmo di ette, 
okere ni idon, "Familiarity breeds contempt; dis- 
tance secures respect." 

^Ette, s. leprosy. — Amu 'ni se essin ette ti imu 'ni li 
agogo imo, " Leprosy, desiring to disgrace a man, 
attacks him on the tip of the nose ;" (said of one 
who tells another's faults in public.) 

Ett], s. difficulty, failure in performing one's wish ; a 
standing still. 

Etton, 6". branch, bough. 

Ettu, s. guinea fowl, check cloth. See Aso-ettu and 

Ettu, s. a kind of deer. 

Etu, s. gunpowder ; medicinal powder ; that which re- 
lieves pain. 


EwA, adj. ten. 

Ewa-Odun, s. the tenth month ; October. 

EwA, 6-. beauty. 

^EwA, s. corn or beans prepared for sale ; grain. 

EwA, ^Ewo, s. jest, joke, fun. 

Ewe, s. a kind of bean. 

^EwE, adv. again, on the other hand. — IW9 si t9n de ewe, 
" You come back again." 

EwiRi, s. smith's bellows. 

Ewo, s. a select company ; caravan. 

'EwoN, s. chain ; thorny bush ; bondage. 

EwoN-EiioRO, s. a prickly bush, the same as Egun Ikoko. 

"Ew^u, s. shirt; any loose upper garment. 

Ewu, s. pleasure, delight, taste. 

EwuRU, 5. a pit slightly covered with earth. 

Eya, s. a small leopard. — Bi eya ba di ekun eran ni 
ipa je, " When the eya has reached the ferocity of a 
leopard, he will kill animals to feed upon." 

'Eya, 5. tribe, division, distinct part of a people or thing; 
seed, offspring ; member. — 'Eya oibo ni Fulani, "The 
Fulahs are a tribe of the people from over the sea." 

Eye, s. fitness, worthiness, suitableness. 

Eyi ! interj. Yes, Sir ! Yes, Madam ! (a respectful reply, 
employed only by males.) ^ee He. 

Eyin, s, egg. — Eyin ni idi akuko, " The egg becomes a 

Eyin, s. coal, charcoal. 

Eyin, s. the ripe palm-nut, from which the yellow palm- 
oil is made. 

Eyinju, s. the eye-ball. 

Eyinkolo, Erinkolo, s. the evacuations of the worm 

Eyinogi, s. starch (of Indian corn). 

Eyon, Keyon, s. disease under the toes, produced by 
walking barefoot on wet ground. 






Fa, X). a. to wipe, shave, clean, scrape. — Mo fa 'ri ommo 
mi, "I shave my child's head." — Ako le ifa'ri lehin 
olori, "You cannot shave a man's head in his absence." 
Vkfollowedby Ille (ground), to gather earth into small 
heaps (for the purpose of cultivation). 
— Ille oko ti awon agbe fa o po, " The 
ground which the farmers have pre- 
pared is sufficient." 

La (lick), to lick up, lap. — Imogunju9 li 

afi ifa pbbe la, " With the fore-finger 
one licks up the palaver-sauce." 
Fa, v. a. and n. to draw, lead, pull ; crawl (as a snail) ; 
be viscous ; ebb, abate, diminish. 
¥\ followed h\j Mora (mo-ara, close to the body), to 


Sehin (si-ehin, towards the back), to 

draw back. — I wo fa iggi sehin, " You 
draw the wood back." 

Ti (aside), to draw aside. — Fa eyi ti ako 

fe ti si apakan, "Draw that which we 
don't want aside." 
Fa, Fati, rt6?i;. freely, without restraint; leisurely; ex- 
ceedingly. — Arin fa li oju akegan, ayan kasa li oju 
abu 'ni, abu 'ni ko li okowo ni ille, " A man walks at 
his ease in the presence of his defamer ; a man steps 
proudly in the presence of his abuser ; (when he 
knows that) neither of them has {Jit. the abuser has 
not) twenty cowries in his house." 
Fadaka, s. silver. — Fadaka babba oje, wura babba ide, 
"Silver is the father of lead, gold is the father of brass." 
Fajere, s. the dawn. (So called by the Mahommedans.) 
Fajuko (fa-oju-ro), v. n. to look sad, be displeased. 
Fari (fa-ori), v. a. to shave the head. 
Fari, s. display, parade, boast. 


Fasehin, v. n. to draw or keep back, abstain from. 
Fati, v. n. to draw aside, keep aside. — Bi nwon ko ba fe 

o ni 1S9 nwon fati si apakan, " If they do not want 

you in their company, go aside." 
Fatelle, s. a small canoe. 
Fe, adv. for ever ; long, a long time. — Kanrinkanrin f6, 

"A very long time." 
Febipa, Debipa, v. a. to famish. 
Fefe, s. confident boasting. 
Fere, s. asthma. 
Fere, v. a. to sip. 
Fere, Ifere, s. flute, trumpet. 
Ferese, s. air-hole, aperture in a house, window. 
Feriballe (fi-eri-ba-ille), v. n. to surrender {lit. to put 

down the head), submit to ; worship, adore. 
Feribo, Foribo ( — bo), v. n. to venture, dare. — Ipon ri 

iku o feribo o, " The spoon is not afraid of scalding 

water ; (lit. seeing death, ventures its head into it)." 
Feriti, Foriti (fi-ori-ti), v. a. to endure ; persevere. 
Fetisi ( — eti-si), v. a. to listen, hearken. 
Fetisille ( — ille), v. n. to listen, incline the ear, listen 

with great attention. 
Fe, v. agree, be willing, like, love ; consent, want, 

wish, incline, desire ; woo, court. 
Fe folloived hy Je (eat), v. a. to seek for something to 

eat; to take meals. 

KuN (deficient), v. a. to miss a thing, 

lose. — Mo fe ewure mi kun ni ijetta, 
" I missed my goat three days ago." 
Fe, x>. n. to blow (as the wind); love, wish, will, consent. — 

Afefe nfe ara tutu, "The wind blows; the body is cool." 
Fe, v. a. to fan, winnow, blow the fire. — Ewiri ni ife ina 

agbede, " The bellows blow the blacksmith's fire." 
Fe, v. n. distort the face at work ; breathe heavily. 
Fefe, Ferefere, adv. nearly (used of time). — Ojo wa kun 

fefe, " Few of our days remain." 

• FEF 

Pefe (fe-efe), v. a. to seek occasion to find fault; be cen- 
Feiiinti (fi-ehin-ti), v. n. to recline, lean the back on. 
Fe-idi, v. a. to investigate a secret matter. 
Fejefeje, food, provision, subsistence. 
Feju (fe-oju), V, n. to blow much, blow vehemently. 
Feju, v. n. to look sternly or with distortion of the face. 
— Afeju toto ko mo okonri, " (Much) gesticulation 
does not prove manliness." 
Felefele, adj. soft, of fine and delicate texture. 
Felefele, Belebele, adj. thin and fiat, elastic. 
Fennukonu (fi-ennu-ko-ennu), v. a. to kiss ; agree. 
Fennusi ( — si), V. a. to answer, reply to ; meddle with. 
Fere, adj. light, not heavy ; adv. almost, nearly. 
Fe-rekoja, v. n. to blow vehemently. — Afefe anna fere- 
koja, "The wind of yesterday blew beyond mea- 
Feri, v. n. to be less hot, cool a little. 
Fi, verbal prefix, used only in composition, conveying 
the idea of putting, or leaving in a place. It gives a 
definite verbal meaning to the word in conjunction 
with which it is employed ; e.g. Fi aso sille, "Put the 
clothes down." — O fi mi si oko, " He left me in the 
farm." The i often is contracted ; e.g. Fetisi, for Fi- 
ETisi, to listen to, incline the ear. 
Y\ followed hy Balle (ba-ille, to touch the ground) v. a. 
to do away with, to put away. 

Bo (dip), V. a. to soak, steep, dip. 

Bun (give), v. n. give, grant. 

Eran-rubo, v. a. to sacrifice a beast. 

FojuAiYE (fu-oju-aiye, to give up to the 

world), V. a. to deliver up to be gazed 
upon by the public. 

Fun (give), v. a. to give to, to ofier. 

• • FuNi(give to one). iJ.a, togive, to present 

to one. 


Fi/oUoivedb^GBO'NA (gbo-ina, at the fire), v. a. to warm 
a thing at the fire. 

Ha (suspend), v. a. to hook on, hang on a 

pin or between a forked stick. 

Han (appear), v. a. to show, exhibit, reveal, 

discover ; direct. 

Ji (to), v. a. to forgive, give as a favour. 

Jewo aiye (je-ew9-aiye, a prohibition to the 

world), V. a. to condemn to death, de- 
prive of the privileges of life. 

Jona (burn), v. a. to burn in the fire ; 

scorch ; consume to ashes. 

Je (eat), V. a. to eat, devour ; make a king, 

or headman ; place in post of authority ; 
reign, govern. 

Ka (upon), V. a. to place one thing upon 


K6 (hang), v. a. to hang up on a pin, rope, 

or hook ; hook on. 

KoN or KuN (addition), v. a. to add to, aug- 

Le (place), V. a. to put, lay upon ; deliver 

up. — Fi kinni na le mi lowo, " Deliver 
that into my hand." 

Mo (on), V. a. to suspect; attach to. — 

Okonri na fi oran na mo mi, " The man 

• • • • 

suspects me of that matter." 

OW9-TA (touch slightly with the hand), 

V. a. to search slightly ; touch carelessly. 

RE(curse),v.a. to curse, execrate; imprecate. 

Ro (swing), V. a. to hang, suspend. 

Ro (sprain), v. a. to sprain. 

Ron (chew), v. a. to devour ; masticate : Ron 

(dip), V. a. to dip into sauce. 

RuBO (ru-ebo, make sacrifice), v. a. to sacri- 
105 p , 


Fi followed bi/ San (pay), v,a. to estimate, value. 

San-owo-kan (estimate at a cowry), v. a. to 

contemn, treat with contemptuous si- 
lence. — Iwo ko da mi li oliun, o fi mi san 
owokan, '^ You did not answer me, 
you despised me." 

Si (to), V. a. to put, add to. — Fi omi die si i, 

" Put a little water to it." 

SiLLE (si-ille, to the ground), v. a. to put 

down ; acquit, release, leave, forsake. 

SiNO (si-ino, to the mind), v. a. to put into ; 

keep in mind, harbour in the mind. — 
Fi eyi sino re, " Put this into it." 

Sin 07' SiNsiN (secretly), v. a. to hide so 

as not to be traced in any way, conceal. 

SoLLE (so-ille, dash on the ground), v. a. to 

strike down ; lay the foundation of a 

Son (accuse), v. a. to accuse, complain of. 

Se (do), change, constitute, appoint, 


Selleya (se-eleya, to ridicule), v. a. to ridi- 
cule, mock. — Ma fi mi selleya, " Do not 
mock me." 

Sessin (se-essin, cause disgrace), de- 
spise, bring into public disgrace. 

Sura (su-ara, collect near), i^ a. to treasure 

up, lay by. 

Ti (by), v.a. lean against ; suspend a mat- 
ter ; fix finally. 

Tore (ta-ore, detach a gift), v. a. to give 

away as a present, make a present of. 

We (twist), V. a. to compare, resemble, 

illustrate ; enwrap. 

Fi, v.a. to swing, wave to and fro, be unsteady, incline 
to one side. — Iggi ti mo ru f i siwaju, spn o sehin die, 


" The wood which I am carrying is too far forward ; 
push it back a little." 

Fi, aux.v. were, did. — Nigbati iwo yio ha fi I9, ta li o 
wi fun, " When you were going, whom did you tell ?" 
— Nigbati ofi fi fun mi, iwo ko ri i, " When he 
gave {lit. did give) it to me, did not you see it ?" 

Fi, prep, by, to, with . 

FiDiBALLE (idi-ba-ille), v.n. to sit down. 

FiFAYA, adj. torn, rent in pieces. 

FiFi, FiNFiN, adv. dimly, darkly ; s. the dawn, twilight. 

FiFO, adj. blind ; broken as a vessel. 

Fi-FUN, s. FuN-FUN, adj. whiteness, the white part ; adj. 
white . 

FiFUNi, v.a. to grant, vouchsafe, give. 

Fi-K ANN AK ANNA, V. a. to sliug a sHng. 

FiLLA, s. a cap, country cap like a night cap. Filla 
Abeti, Eti Aja, a cap with two flaps for the ears. 
Filla Jofolo, a hunter's cap. 

Fin, v.a. to engrave, mark calabashes or bowls ; fill a 
hole with smoke, smother ; seek so as to find out 

Fin A, s. a thin piece of leather cut length-wise (such as 
is inserted in the handle of an umbrella). 

Finiga, s. {Eiig.), Vinegar. 

FiNJu (fin-oju), V. n. to be clean, neat, snuggy, tidy. 

FiNRAN ( — oran),u.w. to aggress, seek occasion for dispute. 

FiOFiOjacZv. exceedingly high, (conjoined with the adjective 
Ga). — llle giga fiofio, " An exceedingly high house." 

FiRi, adv. far, greatly, much ; qualifying verbal adjec- 
tives. — llle yi ga ju tiwa lo firi, " This house is much 
higher than ours." 

Fitilla, s. lamp. 

FiYEDENo (fi-iye-de-ino), v. a. to be patient under vexa- 
tion or grievances. 

FiYESi (fi-iye-si), v. a. to attend to. — Fiyesi ohun ti o 
nse, " Mind what you are doing." 


FiYEsiNi (fi-iye-si-ni), l\ h. vouchsafe, 

Fo, V. n. To fiy (as a bird), jump, skip, leap ; beat (as 

the heart from fear), pass or break off (as rainy 

clouds), pass over.— ^Ojo o fo, " The rain passes off." 

— Aiya fo mi, " My heart beats." 
Fo, V. a. to feel (emptiness or loneliness). — Ofo 9mm9 

mi fo mi," I feel loneliness on account of my child's 

FoFo, s. foam. — Fofo fo li oju omi, " The foam floats on 

the surface of the water." 
FoFO, adv. glittering, dazzling. — Wura njo fofo nino awo 

fadaka, "The gilding inside the silver plate glis- 
FojisoN (fi-oji-son). Yon followed hy Son, v. a. to sue or 

accuse for adultery. 
FojuDi, (fi-ojudi), -y. a. to be saucy, to be insolent. 
Foju-KAN-wo (fi — ), V. a. to squint. 
Foju-PE (fi — ), V. a. to wink with the eye, beckon. 
Foju-To (fi — ), V. a. to superintend . 
Fojusi (fi — ), V. a. to attend to. 
FoLOFOLo, s. the lungs, the lights. 
FoRiBALLE (fi-ori-ba-ille), v. n. to bow the head, submit ; 

adore, worship. 
FoRi-si, V. a. to pay attention to. 
FoRESiGGi (fi-ore-se-iggi), s. an ungrateful person ; one 

who does not acknowledge kindness, but returns evil 

for good. 
FoRiTi, Feriti (fi — ), V. a. to endure, persevere. 
FosoKE, (fo-si-oke), v. n. to jump, skip, float. — Omm9de 

fosoke fun ayo, " The child jumped for joy." 
FoYA, V. n. to fear, be dismayed. — Mo foya jojo, " I was 

very much afraid." 
Fo, v.a. to wash clothes ; wash by rubbing or scrubbing, 

rub hard with water and a brush or the fibres of 

plants ; speak, talk a language. 
Fo, V. a. and n. to break a vessel ; destroy a town or 


nation by war ; reduce to a state of confusion ; ache 
(as the head) ; be blind. — Ogun li o fo Igbo Egba 
ati ille Yoruba, "War destroyed the Yoruba and 
the Egba country." — Mo soro titi ori nfo mi, "I 
spoke so long that my head ached." 
Fofolloived hy Pettepette, v. a. to destroy. 

Raurau, v. a. to destroy entirely. — 

Nwon fo gbogbo re raurau, "They 
destroyed the whole entirely." 

RuRU, Tutu, v. a. to destroy utterly. 

Yany AN, -y. <?. to break to pieces. — ^Gbo- 

gbo ikoko ille nwon li a fo yanyan, 

" We broke all the pots in their 

house to pieces." 

FoHUN (fo-ohun), v. n. to speak. — Aki igbelle ki ama 

fohun si 'ra enni, " We cannot dwell in a house to- 

gether without speaking one to another." 

Foju (fo-oju), V, n. to be blind, be in the dark, be 

FoLLE (fo-ille), V. a. to break a house open, rob a house. 
FoNFON, adv. soundly (qualifying the verb sun). — Emi 

sun fonfon, " I slept soundly." 
FoNGBiN, FoNRUGBiN, V. a. to SOW, Scatter, disperse. 
FoNKA, V. a. to scatter, disperse. 
FoNu, s. an elastic tree used for bows. — Fi iggi fonu han 

mi, " Show me the fonu tree." 
FoNNA, V. a. to take fire from the hearth. 
FoNNAiiAN, V. a. to guide, show the way. — Fonnahan mi 
ki nma wo igbe, " Show me the way, that I may not 
err ;" {lit. go into the bush). 
FoNNu, V. n. to boast, brag. — Enni ti fonnu po ko le ise 

nkan, " He who boasts much can do very little." 
FowoBA, FowoKAN (fi-owo-ba), V. a. to touch, feel with 

the hand. — Ma fowoba a, " Do not touch it." 
FowoKo (fi-ow9-ko), V. a. to embrace, hook, go hand-in- 


t FowoLE ( — le), V. a. to take in hand, place the hand 

against or upon. — O fi ija fun Olorun ja fowole eran, 
"Leave the battle to God, and rest your head upon 
your hand;" a favourite proverb of one of the Yoruba 

FovyroLE-ERAN, V. 11. to placc the hand against the temple 
while the elbow rests on the thigh or on the table. 

FowoRANO, interj. Hush ! Patience ! — F9worano, ma je ki 
oran na ki o don 'wo, " Be patient, let not the matter 
grieve you." 

Fu, adv. at once, quickly (qualifying Dide, to arise). — 
Dide fu, " Arise quickly." 

FuJA, s. brag, empty proud boasting. — ^Mase fuja mo, 
" Do not boast any more." 

FuKEFUKE, ach. pit-a-pat (used with the verb njo, " to 
palpitate," to describe the increased action of the 
heart produced by running). — Aiya mi njo fukefuke, 
" My heart is palpitating." 

FuLE, adj. soft. 

FuLEFULE,[ac?v. softly. 

FuLUFULu, s. the leaves which enclose a head of Indian 
corn (sometimes called Epo, Aso) ; a term usually 
applied to it when ripe and dry. 

Fun, Fu, prep, for, to, on behalf of. — Se kinni yi fun mi, 
" Do this thing for me." — O wi fun mi, ^' He told it 
to me." — Ofi fun mi, " He gave it to me." Often used 
elliptically. — Fun mi, " (Give) to me." — O fun mi li 
aso meji, " He (gave) me two pieces of cloth." — Fun 
u li owo oja re, " (Give) him money for his goods." 
Fun, Fu, followed hy Nisese, v. a. to employ, to give 
one work to do. 
Fun, -y. a. to be white. — Owu na fun rekoja, " The cotton 

is exceedingly white." 
Funfun, Fufun, adj. white. 

FuNLE-FOLORUN (fun-illc, fuu-olorun, lit. for the earth's 
sake and for God's), adv. of one's own accord, of one's 


own choice. — Mo se e funle-folorun, " I do it of my 

own choice." 
Fun, Fon, v. a. to strew, scatter, sew ; squeeze, choke, 

bind tight. 
FuN-KON, FoNKON (fun-ikon), v. a. to discharge mucus. 
FuN-OMMO, FuN-WARA, V. a. to milk. 
Fun, Fon, v. n. to grow thin, abate. — Ommo na fun poju, 

" The child is very thin." 
FuRA(fu-ara),v./ be suspicious. — O nfura bi elefo tette, 

" He is as suspicious as the seller of the herb tette." 
FuRA, FuLA, s. a cool beverage made from Indian corn 

or rice mixed with honey. 
FuRU, adv. silently, quietly. 
FuTEFUTE, adv. easily (used with the verb ja, " to break," 

to describe the ease with wdiich any fragile texture is 

torn). — Aso nja futefute, "The cloth tears very easily." 
FuYE, adj. light, not heavy. — Eru ti emi fuye ju ti re lo, 

" My load is lighter than yours." 


Ga, s. a title of office. 

Ga, v. n. to be high, tall, lofty (qualified by the adverb 
FioFio, " very "). — Iggi arere ga fiofio, " The arere 
tree is very lofty." 

Gagaje, Adere-odo, s. a tree found near the water, many 
of W'hose roots are above ground. 

Gaga, adv. closely (qualifying the verb Ha, to press or 
squeeze). — Aye ha gaga, " The room is crammed 

Gagalo, 5. stilts made of bamboo or other kind of wood, 
from six to twelve feet long, used by native show- 
men. — Gagalo subu owo te opako, " (When the man 
on the) stilt falls, then the hand (of another) gets 
possession ' of the bamboo (of which the stilt was 
made) ;" applied to any aspirant who monopolises for 
awhile some desired object, which, on his overthrow, 


falls into the hand of some one else ; Cf. ' Pride will 
have a fall.' 

Galla, s. deer, stag. 

Gamugamu, s. a long sharp hatchet used by warriors. 

Gan, v. a. to sew coarsely ; cut a forest, strike with the 
point of a thing; take by little at a time. — Gan as9 yi 
fun mi, " Stitch this cloth for me."- — E 'ma gan obbe, 
" Do not dip your sop too deep into the dish ; (lit. 
Dip the sauce by little)." — Awa ngan igbo, " We are 
cutting a forest." — I wo gan mi li okoto, " You struck 
me with the point of your top." 

Gan, v. a. to contemn, despise, backbite. — Enniti a ko fe 
li a igan, " E[e who is not loved will be despised." 

Gan, Gangan, adv. upright, straight, exactly, perpendi- 
cularly ; the middle of the day ; very. — Balogun 
duro gangan loju ogun, "The war-chief stood up- 
right in the face of battle."— Alejo ba mi li ossan 
gangan, "A stranger came to me in the middle of the 
day." — Obbe mu gangan, " The knife is very sharp." 

Gangan, s. a small bit or drop (applied to soup, sauce, 
or stew). — Bu omitoro gangan si i fun mi, " Give me 
a little more soup." — Son gangan le e li 9 wo, "Give 
him a small bit." 

Gangan, s. drum, w^ar drum. — Gangan ko ni saworo, 
" The gangan is destitute of ornament (lit. bells)." 

Ganganrangan, adj. very large ; bulky and high. — 
Akuko ganganrangan, " A very large cock." 

Ganigani, s. a despiser, contemner. 

Ganran, adv. straight, direct. — Ma lo li okankan ganran, 
" Go on straight forward." 

Gari, s. saddle. (This word seems to have been bor- 
rowed from the Haussa or Nufi.) 

Gariki, Ganiki, s. (Haussa) shield. 

Gba, v. a. and n. to sweep, cleanse ; slap, strike with a 
stick or something flat ; drift. — Iggi ngba kiri nin9 
omi, " The stick is drifting about in the water." 


Gb.\ followed by Kmi (about) to be driven or tossed 

Mora (close to the body), v. a. to em- 

Mu, V. a. to hold, to grasp, gripe, 

seize. — Mase gba enniti o yo obbe 

mu, " Do not lay hold of a man 

who has drawn a knife." 

Gba, v. a. to take, admit, deliver, save, rescue ; receive ; 

help ; strain ; wrap in leaves. 

Gba followed by Adura (prayer), v. n. to pray to God ; 

(not applicable to false gods). 
DuLUMo (slander), v. a. to slander, ac- 
cuse falsely. See Dulumo. 

Gbo (to hear), v. a. to believe, obey. 

Idaraya (exercise), v. n. to take ex- 
La (to save), v. a. to save, rescue, de- 
liver. — Nigbati mo b9 sino omi, 
apoti ti mo dimu li o gba mi la, 
"■ When I fell into the water, the 
box which I held saved me." 

Lejje (ni-ejje, by blood), v. a. to bleed, 

cup. — Onisegun gba okonri na 
lejje, ^' The doctor cupped the man." 
Lowo (by the hand), t\«. to help, de- 
liver ; shake hands. — Gba mi lowo, 
" Shake my hand." 

. , NiYANJU (ni-iyanju, encouragement), 

V. a. to encourage, exhort. 

Pada (back or return), v. a. to receive 

back. — Gba ada re pada, ^' Take 
your billhook back." 
Gba, adr. loudly, (describing the sound produced by 
slamming a door). — Mo se illekun o ro gba, " The 
door slammed when I shut it." 
113 Q 


Gbagbandidi, s. a dry uncut calabash. 

Gba-gba-ro, s. the edges of the roof projecting over the 
walls, eaves. 

Gbagbe (gba-igbe, to receive oblivion), v. a. to forget, 

Gbai, adv. very, vociferously, loquaciously. — Obiri na 
nso gbai, " The woman is always brawling." 

Gbaja (gba-oja"), v. n. to bind oneself with a girdle. 

Gbajamo, s. trade of a barber. 

Gbaje, Gbejje (gba-ejje), v. a. to take blood, cup, 
bleed = 

Gbajumo ( — oju-mo), adj. neat, decent, clean (applicable 
to persons only). — Gbajumo enia, " He is a tidy per- 

Gbako, adv. exactly, fitly, suitably, precisely. — Mo gbe 
ibe li odun kan gbako, " I remained there exactly 
one year." 

Gballe, Gbille (gba-ille), v. n. to overspread, increase, 

Gbamgbam, adv. tightly, compactly. — Di okete re 
gbamgbam, " Tie your load together tightly." 

Gbangan, s. a spacious airy room, hall. 

Gbangba, s. a plain, open place ; demonstration ; adj. 
plain, open, evident. 

Gbani, Igbani, s. (proi)erly)aspan, (used also to signify) a 
cubit. — Mo lu aso na ni gbani meji, " I gave tw^o 
measures to the cloth." 

Gbara, v. a. to boil slightly, parboil. 

Gbati (gba-ti), V. a. to crowd after. 

Gbawe (gba-aiwe), v. n. to mourn for the dead ; fast. 

Gbe, v. a. and n. (jminaiy idea, to lift), to move, accom- 
[^ plish ; be, abide ; be lost, perish. — Aki ida owo le 

ohun ti ako le igbe, " A thing which cannot be ac- 
complished (lit. lifted) should never be undertaken." 
— Igbo li eranko igbe, " Beasts inhabit the forest." — 
Ommo mi gbe, " My child is lost." 
114 ' 


Ghi followed hi/ Ga (to be high), v. a. to raise or lift 

up, magnify, exalt, make much of, 
advance in rank. 

Ha (to suspend), r. a. to hang or place 

upon. — Gbeeru mi ha li pri palaka, 
" Suspend my load upon the bough 
of the tree." 

Ka (upon) V. a. to set or place upon. 

— Gbe apoti ka ara won, "Place the 
boxes one upon another." 

Kalle (upon the ground), v. a. to put 

down. — Emi ko fe igbe agbon mi 
kalle, " I do not wish to put down 
my basket." 
KuRO (away) v. a. to take from, re- 
move. — Gbe okuta kuro li oju onna, 
"Remove the stone out of the way." 

Ml (to swallow), V. a. and n. to swallow, 

absorb, be lost in the midst of other 
things. — Adire gbe owokan mi, "The 
fowl has swallowed a cowry." 

Soke (si-oke, on top), v. a. to lift up, 

hoist, set up, exalt, magnify; support. 

Sanle (san-ille, to dash), v. a. to dash 

with violence. — Ekute ille ni ti enni- 
ti 9 pa on ko don on to ti enniti 6 gbe 
on sanle, " The rat said, ' I do not feel 
so much offended with the man who 
killed me, as with him who dashed 
me on the ground afterwards :' " (i.e. 
who added insult to the injury). 
Gbe, v. n. to be contiguous, advantageous, helpful to ; 
annex ; be difficult. — Nwon ko ille gbe ara won, 
'^The houses are built close to each other." — Ohun 
elege ki igbe ibaje, "A delicate thing is easily {lit. not 
difficult to be) injured." 


Gbe, conj. that. (This particle gives the force of the past 
tense to the verb which it precedes.) — -Niwaju afin li 
awa gbe ko'ra wa, " It was in the front of the palace 
that we met one another." 

Gbede (gbo-ede),!;. n. to understand a language ; know ; 
be sagacious. 

Gbedegbevo ( — gbo-eyo), s. an interpreter. 

Gbere, s. leave-taking, farewell, salutation. 

Gbero (gba-iro), v. a. to consider, intend, purpose, calcu- 
late, reckon. 

Gbe, adj. dry. — Omi gbe li odo Sokori, " The Sokori 
brook is dry." 

Gbe, v. n. to sharpen (a stick) ; to make a noise, or cackle 
like a hen. 

Gbedu, s. a drum beaten in honour of the king or great 

Gbedugbedu, adv. extensively ; covering a large space, as 
water. — Omi 'Ogun kon gbedugbedu, "The'Ogun 
water spreads extensively." 

Gbejje (gba-ejje), v. a. to bleed. 

Gbekkele (gbe-ekke-le), v. a. to trust or depend upon. 

Gbenagbena (gbe-onna), s. a carpenter, sawyer; one who 
works in wood. 

Gbengbe, adv. flatly, evenly. — O te aiya gbengbe, " He 
has a well-expanded chest." 

Gbengbe, adv. largely. — Adire gbengbe ige, "A fowl with 
a large breast." 

Gbengbegbengbe, adj. very large, bulky, fat, heavy ; (ap- 
plied to fowls or other birds.) 

Gbessan (gba-essan), v. a. to take vengeance, revenge, 

Gbese (gba-ese), v. n. to incur guilt. 

Gbi-gba, verbal adj. that wliich is to be received, folded 
in leaves, or strained. 

Gbi-gbe, verbal adj. that which is to be carried ; s. a loss. 

Gbi-gbo, verbal adj. that which is ripe ; s. maturity. 


Gbigbo, verbal adj. that which may be heard ; s. a hearing. 

Gbihin, Gbohin, (gb9-ihin), v. n. to hear news. 

Gbija (gbe-ija), v. a. to defend, take one's part. 

Gbimoran, Gbimo, to counsel, think, consider, meditate. 

Gbin, v. n. to breathe with difRculty. 

Gbin, Gbi, v. a. to plant, sow. 

Gbina (gba-ina), v. n. to catch fire, kindle. 

Gbingbtndo, s. the name of a tree found near the water, 
whose fruit is eaten only in time of famine. — Onille 
nje eso gbingbindo alejo ni ki ase on li owo kan 
ewa, " (Though) the master (of the house) may be 
obliged to live upon gbingbindo fruit, (yet) the guest 
expects to be supplied with a handful of maize (at 
the very least) ;" said of those who are unreasonable 
in their demands. 

Gbingbiniki, adj. stout, bulky, huge ; s. bulk, corpulency. 
— Obbatalla gbingbiniki, " The huge Obbatalla." 

Gbinikon, v. n. to fester, rankle. 

GbIro, Gbero (gba-iro), v. a. to reckon, calculate. 

Gbiyele, Gbekkele (gbe-iye-le) (ekke), v. a. to rely on, to 
trust. — Ma gbiyele ogun ti 0W9 enni ni ito 'ni, " De- 
pend not on an inheritance ; what one gains (by 
industry) is sufficient." 

Gbo, v. n. to ripen, come to maturity ; old, worn out. 

Gbo, v. a. to bark. 

Gbo folloived by Lennu (ni-ennu, at the mouth), v. a. 
to contradict. 

GbodogI, s. the yaws. 

Gbodogi, s. the name of a plant. 

Gbogbo, adj. all, every, the whole. 

Gbohin (gb9-ihin), v. n. to hear news. 

Gbohungbohun (gba-ohun), s. the echo. — Bi ake iggi ni 
igbo gbohungbohun agba a, " When a tree is cut in 
the forest the echo repeats the sound." 

Gboju (gbo-oju), V. 71. to be impudent, daring, fierce, 


Gbojule (gbe-oju-le), v. a. to fix the eye upon ; to put 

confidence or trust in. 
Gbolohun (gbo-ni-ohun), s. a word, a mere word. — Mo 

fo gbolohun kan, " I spoke a single word." 
Gbona (gbo-ina), v.n. to be warm, hot. 
Gbongbo, s. root ; bottom of a matter. 
Gbonu (gbo-ennu), v. n. to deny, insist on in opposition 

to advice. 
Gboro, adj. wide, broad. 
Gboro, Igboro, s. a snare for beasts. 
Gbonju, v. n. to arrive at an age when the memory begins 
to develope itself; (a term marking a particular 
period of childhood.) 
Gbo, v. n. to hear, attend, listen. 
Gbo, v. n. to flourish, grow luxuriantly. 
Gboddo, aitw. V. dare not, shall not, must not. 
Gbon, v. n. to be wise, clever, sensible, cunning, crafty. — 
Enniti o gbon iu 'ni lo ni ite 'ni ni Ifa, " (The priest) 
who is more crafty than another, induces him to 
adopt the worship of Ifa." 
Gbon, v. n. to bale out water; strike with a stick or 
Gbon foiloived hy Lese (ni-ese, fist), v. a. to smite with 
the fist, box. 
Gbon, v, n. to shake violently, be in adverse circumstances, 
agitate. — Mo gbon li 9W0 mo gbon lesse temi tan, " I 
am reduced to extreme poverty ; (lit. My hands and 
feet are shaken.") 
G'&h^ followed hy Kanakana, u a. to sling. 

Lo, v. a. to surpass, exceed. — On gbon 

mi lo, " He is greater than I." 
Gbon, v. a. to move to tears. — Ekun gbon mi, " I was 

moved to tears." 
GB0NGB9N, adv. very (applied to depth). — Koto na jin 

gb9ngbon, " The pit is very deep." 
Gbongbon-Gbongbon, adj. clumsy. 


Groro, s. sprouts of the pumpkin, called also Isi. 

Gboro, adj. long and slender. — Iggi gboro, "A long 
slender stick." 

Gburo (gbo-iro), v. a. to hear of. — Awa gburo won lanna, 
" We heard of them yesterday." 

Gburu, adv. in torrents, violently, without cessation. — 
'Ojo nro gburu, " The rain pours in torrents." 

Go, V. a. to puzzle, perplex. — Oran na go mi jojo, " That 
word puzzled me very much." 

Go, adj. stupid, dull. 

Go, V. n. to be long and slender (as grass) ; stoop, hide 
in a stooping position. — O go lehin okuta nla, "He 
hid himself behind the large rock." 

GoGGO, -5. horse's mane ; casting of lots (a children's game 
played with pieces of grass, of which one is bent: 
he who draws the bent one is called guilty) ; a hooked 
stick used for plucking fruit off trees. 

GoGGOwu, s. a large country cloth, a sheet. 

GoiGOi, adv. untidily, sluggishly. 

GoMBo, 5. a small iron spoon used for retailing snuff. 

GuDEGUDE, s. cloudiness, damp atmosphere. — Gudegude 
ko je orun ki 9 ran, " Clouds prevent the sun from 

GuDUGUDU, s. a poisonous wild yam. — Gudugudu kan li 
egbo kanrinkanrin, " The gudugudu is very acid at 
the root." — Gudugudu ko se ibe elubo, " The 
gudugudu will not do to be made into flour," 

Gudugudu, s. a kind of small drum producing a tenor 

Gudugudu, adv. in a scrambling way. 

GuFFE, V. n. to belch, eruct. 

Gun, Gu, v. a. to beat, pound, stick with a pointed thing, 
pierce ; u. n. to come to harbour, anchor, land. — 
Okko meji gun loni, "Two vessels arrived to- 

Gun, Gu, adj. long ; v. a. to mount. 


GuNLE (gun-ille), v. n. to land ; run ashore ; run 

GuNRON ( — iron), v. n. to recline on a cushion. 

GuNUGUNU, s. the turkey buzzard. 

GuNYE (gun-iye), v. n. to be fledged. — A won ommo eiye 
ko to ifo, sugb9n gbogbo W9n gunye," All the young 
birds are fledged, but they cannot fly yet." 

Gusu, s. {Hanssa) south. 


Ha, s. amazement, astonishment. — Ha se mi si oran na, 

" I wondered at the matter." 
Ha, v. a. to lock, wattle a house, get entangled between 
woods or in a narrow passage, to be crowded or 
straitened. — Aye ha fu mi gaga, " I am much 
straitened for room." 

\{k followed hy Laye (ni-aye), v. a. to throng, squeeze, 

press for want of room. — Awon enia 
ha mi laye, nko le iwo ille, " I am 
pressed by the people, I cannot go 
into the house." 
Mo, V. a. to lock, block up, keep in, en- 
Ha, v. a. to bruise, scratch, scrape. 

Ha, adv. indeed, then ; (used emphatically in interrogative 

and negative sentences.) — Nkan wonyin ha ri behe 

bi, " Are these things indeed so '?" — Nkan wonyin ko 

ha ri behe ba, " No indeed, they are not." 

Ha, adv. {emphatic) no indeed, {always followed hy Ba). — 

Ki ihci se emi ba, " Not I ; no indeed." 
Ha! iw^er/. expression of surprise. 
Halle (ha-ille), v. n. to boast, brag. 
Hamora (ha-m9-ara), v. n. to put on armour, be encum- 
Han, v. n. to be unfruitful, sandy, worn out ; v. a. to scrape 


Han, v. n. to appear, be in sight, be visible. 

Han, v. n. to scream. — Ommo de yi ban goro, "This 

child gave a shrill scream." 
Han followed hy Lemo (ni-emo), v. a. to treat one badly. 
Hanahana, Hanyiiianyi, adj. coarse, rough, uneven. 
Hanna, s. an idiot, madman, fool ; a wicked person, a 

vile person. 
Hantuuu, or Hantu, v. a. {Haiissd) to write. 
He, v. a. to gather together things scattered, to pick up 

one by one. — ^Awa nhe ere li oko, " We are gather- 
ing beans in the farm." 
He, E, s. Sir, Madam ; (respectful answer made by 

females to elders or superiors). 
Hevi, s. Sir, Madam; (respectful answer made by males 

to elders or superiors). 
HiiiA, verbal adj. that which is to be scraped ; scraped. 
Hiiia, verbal adj. narrow. 

^n\^, verbal adj. that which is to be picked up. 
HiHo, verbal adj. that which is to be stripped off, or 

peeled as the fibre of trees. 
Hinu, s. conduct, behaviour. 
Ho, v.n. to boil, ferment, bubble, froth, foam; make a 

noise, shout. — Ose nho putu, " Tiie soap lathers well." 
H6, V. a. to peel off (the rind of yams or fruits). 
Ho, Ha, adj. narrow, strait. — -^Onna ho, esse ko gba eji, 
"The path is too narrow to admit two feet (side by side).'' 
Ho, V. a. and n. to scratch ; peel off bcirk ; run, turn tail. 
Ho, adv. not, (used often for Ko). 
Ho, inierj. a contemptuous exclamation. 
Hoiio, s.abirdlike the crow with white streaks on the head. 
Hoiiu, Howu, interj. a w ord expressing surprise. — Holm ! 

Iho ti ohii li esin akun u ; (a play on the word 

Hohu untranslateable). 
HoNRUN (h9n-orun), v. n. to snore. 

Hu, V. n. to shoot, germinate ; rot, as clothes, rope, or 
wood ; come to notice. 
121 H 


lit followed bi/^ IwA, IIuwa, v. n. to behave, conduct 

Hu, V. a. to pull out of the ground, disinter that which 
was buried. 
Hu folloivcd hy Iko, Huko, v.n. to cough. 

HuMO (hii-imo), V. n. to think, meditate, originate a 

Hun, s. the grunting of the pig ; a contemptuous ex- 

HuwA (hu-iwa), v. See above, Hu followed hy Iwa. 

HuYE (hii-iye), v. n. to fledge. 


T, used as a nominal prefix, giving to the radical verb to 

which it is prefixed the signification of an action still 

in progress ; e. g, — v. Ba, to hide, — s. Iha, the act of 

hiding. See E. 
\,2iron.,{?iheY a verb ending with i) him, her, it. 

— Mo fi iggi ti i, " I pushed it with a stick." — Ki i 

molle, " Press it down." 
Iba, s. a hit, the act of meeting, a coming in contact 

with ; a lucky chance. — Iba ti mo bii a ko se iba, 

oju rere, " I did not meet him in a happy condition." 
Iba, defect, v. had, would have. — On iba de emi alo, 

" Had he come I would have gone." 
Iba, Igbona-ara (gbo-ina), s. fever. — Iba li o da mi 

bulle lati anna wa, " Fever has prostrated me since 

Iba, s. the act of hiding, ambuscade; the act of plaiting 

or weaving coarse grass into a mat. 
Ibade, s. accordance, suitability. 
IbadI (iba-idi), s. hip, joint of the thigh. 
Ibafin, s. eunuchs. See Bafin. 
Ibaiyeje (ba-aiye-je), s. the act of spoiling the world ; a 

turning the world upside down. 


InAJE,(ba-je), s. the act ofeating,associating,ordealing witli. 

Ibaje, s. the act of destroying, spoiling, or corrupting; 
injury, corruption. — Ibaje isu ni ibaje obbe. Enniti o 
se ibaje enia, o se ibaje ara re, " The badness of the 
yam is (laid to) the badness of the knife (but it is 
soon discovered that it is the yam that is in fault ; so) 
he who injures another (only) injures himself." 

Ibaje-Ino, s. grief, sorrow. 

Ibaka, s. mule. — O' ni ika nino bi ibaka, " He is as stub- 
born as a mule." 

Ibakasie, s. camel ; also called Rakumi {Haussa). 

Iballe (ba-ille), s. flow of a garment, the loose part of a 
dress, a train ; quietness, settlement, 

Iballe-oko, s. a stone's cast. 

Ibalogun, Balogun (9bba-ni-ogun), s. captain, head 
warrior, officer, war-chief. 
Ibalogun-orun, s. centurion, captain of a hundred. 

Ibalo (ba-lo); s. the act of going with ; accompaniment. 

Ibaluwe, s. a wash-house. — Ibaluwe gbe ille se bi akuro, 
'^ A scullery is a part of the house, but (yet) it is (as 
wet as) a garden by the waterside." 

Ibamolle (ba-mo-ille), s. ambuscade. 

Ibanije ( — enia-je), s. the act of polluting or corrupting. 

Ibanise ( — se), s. the act of helping or acting with. 

Ibante, s. an apron worn by males ; Ibante Alayekan, 
s. a- kind of narrow apron ; Ibante Etiaja, s. an 
apron made in imitation of a dog's ear ; Ibante 
Gambari, s. a kind of apron introduced from the 
Haussa country ; Ibante Olojumeji, s. a kind of 
apron with two openings ; Ibante Salala, s. a supe- 
rior kind of apron. — Salala babba ibante, "Salala is 
the chief {Ut. father) of all aprons." 

Ibapade (ba-pade), s. a chance meeting. 

Ibaptismu, s. (Gr.) baptism. 

Ibare (ba-re), s. the state of being friendly with, friendship. 

Ibasopo ( — so-po), s. communication, communion with. 



Ibatan ( — tan), s. a being related to, belonging to the 

line of a family ; relation, kindred. 
Ibawi, Ibawijo (wi-ejo), s. the act of calling to judg- 
ment ; judgment ; rebuke. 
Ibasorun, Basorun (obba-se-orun), s. prime minister. 
iBAGBE(ba-gbe), 5. theactof living with, or dwelling together. 
Ibeji (bi-eji), 5. twins. 

Ibepeje (ba-epe-je), s. oath-breaking, perjury. 
[y^ Ibere (bi-ere), s. inquiry. — ^"Ibere ki ije ki enni ki 6 
sinna, enni ti ko le ibere li o npmi 'ra re li ojn, " In- 
quiry saves a man from mistakes : he who makes no 
inquiry gets himself into trouble." 
Ibe, adxi. there. 

Ibebbe, (be-ebbe), s. prayer, supplication. 
^Ibekke, s. name of a bird. 

Ibepe, SFbo, s. pawpaw tree and fruit. — O ha mora bi 
ibepe, " He encumbers himself like the pawpaw tree 
(when laden with fruit)." 
Ibere (be-ere), s. beginning, commencement, stooping. 
Iberu (ba-eru), 6-. fear, dread. 

Iberubojo (ba-eru-ba-ojo), s. fear, dread, trembling. — 
Iberubojo ni mo fi pe e, ** With fear and trembling I 
called him." 
Ibetelle (be-te-ille), s. bribery, beggary. 
''Ibewo, s. visitation, visit, a peeping at. 
Ibi, s. the act of pushing or vomiting, a violent push. 
' Ibi, s. evil, ill use, ill treatment. — Enia ki ise 'ni ni rere 
ki afi ibi su u, " He who has done you a kindness 
should never be ill-used." 
Ibi, 5. inquiry, question ; place. 

Ibi, s. birth, child-bearing. — Ibi k"i iju ibi, bi ati bi eru li 
abi ommo, " Birth does not differ from birth : as the 
freeman w^as born, so was the slave." 
Ibille (bi-ille), s. one home-born, a domestic. 
Ibille (bi-ille), s. aborigines. 
IbI-mbf, .9. as one is born, in a state of nature. 


Ibino (bi-ino), s. wrath, anger, rage, passion, vexation. — 
Ibino ko se nkan fu 'ni suru babba lua. Ibino ni iyo 
ofTa li apo, obun rere ni iyo obi li apo, "Anger does 
nobody good : patience is the best (lit. father) of dis- 
positions. Anger draws arrows from the quiver : 
good words draw kola nuts from the bag." See Obk 

Ibinoje, s. sorrow, regret, vexation, anger. 

IfirROGBOKu, s. couch, sofa. 

Ibisi, s. increase, addition. 

Ibo, s. breadth, width ; a kind of banyan tree. 

1b6, s. the name of a trailing plant ; and its fruit. 

^Ibo, s. a casting of lots or dice, used by the priests in 
consulting the gods. 

Iboji, Boji (ibi-oji), s. grave, sepulchre ; lair, den. 

Iboju (bo-oju), s. veil, covering for the face ; cloak ; dis- 

Ibojuwo (be-oju-w6), s. visit, visitation, superintendence. 

Ibolowo (bo-ni-owo) s. a shaking of hands ; freedom from. 

Ibon, s. gun, musket, pistol. — Ibon ko soro ira bi etu, 
iJ9 kan li ara ibon igba gbogbo li ara etu, etu ko si 
ib9n di opa, "A gun is not so hard to buy as pow- 
der ; (for) a gun is bought once for all (lit. one day), 
but powder must be bought again and again. With- 
out powder a gun is nothing but a rod." 

Iboni, s. support, sustentation. 

^Ibosse (bo-esse), s. a common shoe or sandal with an 
upper leather ; socks, stockings. 

Ibowo, s. bracelet, armlet in general ; applied also to 

Ibomolle (bo-mo-ille), s. concealment, that which is to be 

Ibori (bo-ori), 5. cap, covering for the head. 

^Iborisa (b9-orisa), s. worship of idols, idolatry. 
Iboye, Ibo, s. a climbing plant. 

Ibu Ibubu, s. side ; breadth, diameter ; abyss, channel ; 
fall, abuse, curse. 



Iijuuu, ado. sidewise, obliquely, alongshore. — Ibubu li 
atu Okun, ododo liatu'Ossa, ibi ti a ba li atu Oyan, 
"Alongshore you must navigate the ocean : down the 
channel you must navigate the (lagoon) Ossa : 
where you please you may navigate the (river) Oyan." 

Iiju, s. abstraction of a part. 

•luujoKo (ibi-ijoko), s. a dwelling-place, abode. 

Ibuke, s. carver of posts and doors. 

Ibukon (bu-kon),5. adding to; a blessing, increase. — Ibu- 
kon ille, ibukon oja ki 9 ba '9, " May the increase of 
the house and the increase of the market befal you !'' 

^Ibukun (bii-kun), s. deficiency, subtraction. 

Ibulle (ba-ille), s. a recumbent position. 

Ibun, s. the act of giving or rewarding; donation, pre- 

Ibura (bu-ara), s. oath, the act of swearing or taking 
Ibura-Eke, s. perjury, false swearing. 

Iburu, s. wickedness, evil. 
, Ibusi (bu-si), s. an addition to, a blessing. 

Ibuw^on (bu-won), s. aspersion, sprinkling. 

Ida, 5. creation, formation ; cessation, division, a break- 
ing, decision ; payment of taxes ; good health. 

Ida, s. bees' wax, wax, tar ; Ida-Eti, ear wax. 

Ida, s. time, interval, season, a given space. — Ni ida 
yi anna o ti d^, "About this time yesterday he ar- 

Ida, .y. cutlass, sword. 

Ida-Assa, s. remnant from the loom, remnant, piece of 
cloth to patch with. 

Idado, Adado, s. an island. 

Ida-duro, s. a being stopped or hindered, deten- 

Idacuri, s. an alarm. 

Idagudde, s. cold, gloomy, damp weather. 

Idaiioro, s. the state of being desolate, desolation. 


Idaiiun, s. answer, reply. 

Idaji, Idameji (da-meji),s. half, moiety; a flaw in cloth. 

Idajo (da-ejo), 5. judgment, sentence pronounced. 

Idajo (da-jo), s. a collecting, a collection, a putting to- 

Idajo-lu, s. the act of condemning. 

Idakoja (da-koja), s. the act of passing over a thing by 
lifting the foot over it, (as over a tree lying across 
the road). 

Idake, Idakke, Idake-je, Idake-roro, s. rest, quietness ; 
silence, stillness, a calm. 

Idakkoro, s. anchor. 

Ida-meji, s. half, moiety. 

Ida-merin, s. a fourth part, a quarter. 

Ida-mewa, s. a tenth part. 

Idamoran (da-mo-oran), s. a device, a plan. 

Ida-mo, s. a mistaken view, an opinion supposed correct 
and affirmed. 

Ida-mu, s. the act of perplexing, perplexity, confu- 

Idan, s. sleight of hand ; a joint, a knot of grass or straw ; 
gloss, brightness ; a piece of cloth sewn to the bot- 
tom of native trowsers. 

Idana, s. a feast, the act of cooking. 

Idande (da-ni-ide), s. redemption, the state of being re- 
deemed from bondage. 

Idanilara, Idaniloju (da-enia-li-ara) s. the act of dis- 
appointing, mortifying, or annoying ; certainty, 

Idanrawo (dan-ara-wo), s. exercise, exertion. 

Idan-wo, s. attempt, trial, temptation. 

^Ida-po, s. mixture ; union ; communion, fellowship. 
Idaran (da-oran), s. transgression, offence, trespass. 
Idaran-Obba, s. treason [lit. offence against the sove- 
Ida-ra, s. goodness, beauty. 


Idaraya, s. cheerfulness, liveliness ; agility, activity. 

Idariji (da-ori-ji), .s. forgiveness, pardon. 

Idaro ( — aro), s. anxious concern, anxiety. 

Idaronsille ( — aron-si-ille), s. that which creates disease 
or pestilence. 

Ida-ru-da-po, 5. the act of mingling in a confused mass, 

Ida-si s. gleanings, remnants ; officiousness. 

Idasille (si-ille), s. commencing, invention ; ordinance. 

Ida-se, Adase, s. venture, risk, hazard. 

Ida-w6, s. consultation of the gods, or oracles. 

Ida-wo, Ida-ro, s. iron dross. 

Idawopo, s. a joining of hands together, union. 

^Ide, s. the act of being confined, bondage, bond. 

Idebipa, Ifebipa (da-ebi-pa), s. starvation. 

Idehun (de-ohun), s. bargain, agreement. 

Idele (de-ille), s. guardianship; medicine for family 

^Idena (de-onna), s. a resident officer who sees after the 
interest of his sovereign within the limit of his terri- 
tory ; the act of watching the road ; ambuscade ; 
custom-house ; hinderance. 

Ideri (de-ori), s. cover, lid. 

IdetI (idi-eti), s. the temple of the head. 

Ide, s. chase, game, hunting, baiting ; setting a trap, 
tempting, decoying. 

Ide, 5. brass. 

^Ide, s. the act of slackening, loosening, softening, or 
ripening; glass bottle holding from three- to five 
gallons, called by sailors a demijohn. 

Idebbi (da-ebbi), s. judgment, sentence. 

Idegbe (de-igbe), s. a hunting, chase. 

Ideru (di-erii), s. See Jdi. 

iDERUBA(da-eru-ba), s. alarm ; discouragement. 

Ideti (deeti), s. inclination of the ear, listening, hearken- 


Ideti (di-eti), s. failure, inability to accomplish. 

Idewo (de-wo), s. temptation, trial, snare. 

Idi, s. eagle. — Idi babba eiye, idi babba akosa, " The 
eagle is the prince of fowls ; the eagle is the prince 
of birds of prey." 

'Idi, Edi, the act of binding or packing ; bundle ; bud ; 

IdI, s. waist, rump ; cause, reason, conclusion, end ; foun- 
dation ; diminution. — So idi re fun mi. " Tell me the 

Idi-agbado, Apo-agbado, s. a shock of corn. 

Idi-de, s. the act of rising, resurrection. 

Idijii (da-iji), s. fear, fright, alarm. 

Idi-mu, s. grasp. 

Idin, Idi, s. name of a tree, the root of which is 

Idin, s. maggot. 

Idina (di-onna), s. that which shuts the road ; hinder- 
ance, obstacle. 

Idino (di-ino), s. anger, passion. 

Idinu (di-ennu), s. the act of binding the mouth ; fasting. 

^Idi-po, 5. union, unity, combination. 

Idiron (di-oron), s. neck-band. 

Idiron, s. the act of plaiting the hair. 

Idiyele (da-iye-le), 5. the act of estimating, valuation. 

Idigbaro (da-igba-ro), s. continual standing, an erect 

Id6, s. invasion, encampment, colonization ; heap, copu- 
Ido, ^Idoro, s. the plant called the Indian shot. 

Idodo, s. the navel. 

Idofun, s. a kind of plum-tree. 

^Idugbolu, Adugbolu, s. stumbling-block. 

Iduro, s. erect position. 

Idokkoduro, Idokkoro (da-okk9-duro), s. cable, anchor. 

Idon, s. the bug. 

129 s 


Idon, 5. the act of sounding, a sound, cry as of a bird or 

^Idon, s. sweetness, flavour, beauty, grace. 
^Idugbolu, s. stumbling-block. 
^Ifa, s. ebbing, crawling ; good luck, advantage, gain. — 

^Ifa nla ni iya oluwa re li apo, " Inordinate gain 

makes a hole in the pocket." Cf. Haggai i. 6. 
Ifa, s. that which is scraped ofT, shaving, the act of 

wiping ; the god of pahn-nuts ; a tool with two handles 

(used to scoop out the pulp of green calabashes). 
Ifani (efFa-oni), 5. six days.- — Ifani li ojo esu bi 9 ba ko 

tan o wi fumi, " The club collection will be due six 

days hence : when you have taken your share 

let me know." 
Ifar.\han (fi-ara-han), 5. appearance, discovering of one's 

self, a vision. 
Ifara-pa, s. the act of hurting or bruising the body. 
Ifaraw^e, s. emulation, variance. 
Ifaron, Ifarun (fa-orun), s. an iron guard for the fingers 

used to assist in drawing the bow with full force ; 

(called Imatiko by the Igbomna tribe). 
Ifasse (fa-esse), s. a withdrawing of the foot. 
Ife, s. a small sized bird. — -Bi ife fo on li amo li akko 

eiye, " The ife is noted by its flight as the bravest 

among birds." The feather is said to be much valued 

in the Egba country. 
Ifefe, s. a kind of hollow reed. 
Ifere, s. flute, pipe ; a sip. 
Iferu, Feru, s. the bush rope, a trailing plant, used for 

all purposes of tying or binding. 
Ifetisi (fi-etisi), s. obedience, attention. 
Ife, s. love, wish, will, desire. 
^Ife, 5. belch, eructation. 
Ifojupe (fi-oju-pe), s. a beckoning, a winking with the 

Ifosoke (fo-si-oke), 5. jump, leap. 


Ife, s. a tribe from which the human race, as well as the 

whole Yoruba nation, are said to have sprung. 
Ifekufe (fe-ki-ife), s. lust, irregular desire. 
Ifemonikeji (fe-9mm9-enia-keji), s. brotherly love. 
Ifeni (fe-enia), s. charity. 
Ifennukonu (fi-ennu-kd-ennu), s. (Ut. the act of putting 

mouths together), mutual agreement, kiss. 
Ifeseji, s. forgiveness of sins. 
Ifi-bun, Ifi-fun, s. gift, present. 
Ifiji, s. the act of forgiving, forgiveness, absolution. 
Ifi-mo, Iforanmo (fi-oran-mo), s. suspicion, a fastening 

Ifi-son, s. accusation. 
Ifitore (fi-ta-ore), s. gift, present. 
^Ifiwo (fi-iw9), s. bait. 
^ Ifo, s. the act of flying as a bird, or passing off as a 

rainy cloud. 
Ifofo, s. foam, froth. 
Ifole, s. home-born slave, not born from the original 

stock of the family. 
Iforiballe (fi-ori-ba-ille), s. submission, obedience. 
'Ifo-ri-fo, s. flake, sparks. 
^Ifoya, Ifoiya (fo-aiya), s. fear, dread. 
Ifo, s. a breaking, as of a vessel ; plenty, abundance ; 

bawling, a loud cry. 
Ifokko, s. wreck of a ship or canoe. 
^Ifo, s. the act of washing or speaking ; utterance. 
Ifoju (fo-oju), s. blindness. 
Ifokkansin (fi-okkan-sin), s. devotion, soul-service. 

Ifokkanso ( so), s. confidence, reliance. 

Ifolle (fo-ille), 5. house-breaking. 
Ifon, Ifun, 5. bowels, tripe. 

Ifonfon, s. a kind of small fly which makes honey. 
^ Ifonna (fon-ina), s. a taking of fire from the hearth ; one 

who takes fire from the hearth. — Apadi ni isaju 

ifonna, " The potsherd (on which live coals are 


usually carried) goes in front of him who has taken 
the fire from the hearth with it ;" i. e. every enter- 
prise must have a leader ; (the potsherd being used 
as an emblem of courage, because it can withstand 
the action of fire.) 
Ifonnaiian (fi-onna-han), s. the act of showing the way, 

Ifon-po, s. crowd. 

Ifoavoba, s. a touch, the act of touching. 
Ifowoko, s. embrace, 
Ifowota", s. careless search. 

Ifun, Ifuni, s. the act of giving, a gift ; Ifun, white- 
Iga, s. height, stature. 
'Iga, s. a stretching forth, full stretch, in order to reach 

an object. — Emi na iga, " I stand at full stretch." 
'Igan, s. the act of contemning or reproaching. 
''Igan-^Imaddo, s. male wild boar. 
Igangan, s. a kind of yellow yam. 
Igangan, a(^. gigantic, bulky. 

Iganna, s. w^alls around premises, a walled enclosure. 
Igara, 5. thief, robber. 

Igara-Okun, s. piracy. 
'Igba, s. admittance, reception, time ; a definite period, 
interval, duration ; opportunity. 
^Igba Ikokojo Oko, ^Igba-Ipallemo Oko, s. time of 

gathering, harvest time. 
^Igba-Irugbin, s. seed-time. 
Igba, s. calabash cut into halves. — Igba li apa akrpa awo, 
"A calabash may be cut into parts, but not an earthen 
Igba-Ogodo, s. a very large and strong calabash which 
grows in the province ofOgodo, a tribe ofYoruba. 
Icba-Ori, 5. the skull. 
Igbaje, 5. a large calabash. 
W Igba, s. the acacia or locust tree and fruit ; tide, current ; 


a sweeping. — Aka igba ta o nawo iki'i, " He who 
gathers igba fruit spends money which he has 
risked his life to get {lit. money of death) ;" the 
wood of this tree being very brittle. 
Igba-Odo, Igba-Omi, s. tide, current. 

Igba, adj. two hundred. 

Igbaiye (gbe-aiye), s. {lit. a state of living in the world) 

Igbaja (gba-oja), s. greegree belt ; soldier's sash, girdle", 
narrow slip of cloth tied round the loins. 

Igba-kan, s. once, at a certain time. 

^ Igbako, s. a spoon. — Igbako sanno, eleko ko sanno, igbako 

iba si, awamu eleko, ko je, " The spoon is liberal, 

(but) the pap-seller is not ; the spoon would have 

given plenty, but the grasping pap-seller would not 


Igbakugba, adv. many times, often, frequently. 

"Igbala, s. deliverance, salvation. 

Igbamu (gba-mu), s. the act of seizing by the hand. 

Igbana (igba-na), adv. then, at that time. 

Igbani ( — m), s. time past, the time of old. 

Igbani, s. See Gbani. 

Igba-pupo, adv. many times. 

Igba-ro, s. a standing posture. 

Igbaroko, s. hip, joint of the thigh. 

Igba-t1, adv. when. 

Igba-gbe (gba-igbe"), Igbagbera, s. forgetful ness, negli- 
gence ; oblivion. 

Igba-gbo, s. faith, belief, obedience, attention. 

Igbe, s. the act of taking up, attempting, being ; perdi- 
tion ; forgetfulness, oblivion. — ]\Io gba igbe, " I for- 

Igbe, 5. loud cry, howl, shout. 

Igbede (gbo-ede), s. understanding, wisdom. 

Igbekun, s. mas. a male captive ; fern. Igbesin. 

Igbelebu (gbe-le-ibu), s. the act of laying crosswise. 




Igberi (gbe-ori), s. nearness, proximity. 

Igbera ( — ara), s. self-defence, vindication. 

Igberiko ( — ori-ko), s. neighbourhood ; province. 

Igbeyawo ( — iyawo), s. the act of taking a wife ; mar- 

Igbe, s. bush, field, grassfield. — Enia lassan po o ju igbe 
enni rere won 6 ju oju lo, " Ordinary people are as 
common as grass, but good people are dearer than an 

Igbe, Igbonse, s. faeces, (a decent expression). 

Igbe, s. the act of drying, dryness. 

'Igbeiiin (gbe-ehin), s. the last time, latter part; adt. 

Igbekkele (gbe-ekke-le), s. trust, confidence, reliance. 

Igbetu, s. a fibrous plant, having red sap. 

Igbesin, s.fem. a female captive. 

Igbessan, s. the act of retaliating, recompensing, or pay- 
ing back, vengeance. 

Igbimo (gba-im9), ^- ^ counsellor, an adviser. 

IgbIn, s. snail, conch. — Igbin ko mo ije ato okowo, 
" Had not the snail known where to feed in safety, it 
would never have grown so large as to be worth 
twenty cowries." — Bi igbin ba nfa kawon re ate le e, 
" When the snail crawls, its shell accompanies it." — 
Bi ati yin awon li ayin igbin, " As the tortoise meets 
with due regard, so should the snail." 

^ Igbin, 5. planting, sowing. 

Igbin, s. retching, effort to remove any inward obstruc- 

Igbinikon (gba-ini-kon), s. inflamation, festering. 

' Igbiro (gba-iro), s. a reckoning, calculation, counsel, 

Igbiyanju (gba-iyan-oju), .s. perseverance, exhortation, 

Igbiyele (gbe-iye-le), s. trust, confidence, reliance. 
Igbo, s. forest, wood, grove. 


Igbo, s. old age ; the act of barking like a dog. — Je igbo, 
je ito, " May you enjoy many days ; {lit. eat old age, 
and longevity)." 

'Igbo, s. name of a bird, which feeds on the eggs of other 
birds. — -'Igbo wa ille ei'yekeiyo tu, " The igbo 
searches the nests of other birds to plunder them." 

Igbo, Egbo, s. the act of rubbing so as to peel off the 

Igbo, s. an idol-sacrifice ; assembly of priests ; idol-wor- 
ship ; food of the sacrifice. 

Igbodu, s. a grove dedicated to the gods Odu and Ifa. 

Igbogian, s. the name of a bird. 

Igboiya (gbo-aiya), s. courage, boldness. 

Igboju ( — oju), s. boldness, audacity, ferocity. 

Igboku (gba-oku), s. a stale article ; that which has lost 
its scent or flavour. 

Igbokun ( — okun), s. sail, canvass. 

Igbona (gbo-ina), s. heat, warmth, fervency. 
Igbona-Ara, s. heat of the body ; fever. 

^Igboro, s. old farm overgrown with jungle. 

Igboro, 5. street. 

Igbose (igba-ti-o-se), adv. by and bye, till another sea- 

Igbonwo, Igbon-ron (gbon-owo), s. elbow ; a measure from 
the tip of the middle finger to the elbow ; cubit. 

Igbonwu ( — owu), 5. a bow used for the purpose of card- 
ing cotton. 

Igbo, s. attention, trust, obedience. 

Igbonra (gbon-ara), s. a shaking of the body, (to free 
one's self of dust, &c.) 

Igboran (gbo-oran), s. obedience, attention. 

Igbonse (gbon-esse), s. See Igbe. 

Igbokkanle (gbe-9kkan-le), s. confidence, trust, affiance. 

Igbowo, (gba-ow9), ^' witness, pledge, token. 

Igburo (gbo-iro), s. news, intelligence. 

Igede, s. mystery (applied only to superstitions, charms, 




&c.). — Babbalawo nfo igede, " The priest is speaking 
a mystery." 

^Igere, 5. fish-pot. 

Ige, s. breast, chest. 

Igepa, s. bird-snare. 

Ige, 5. the act of sitting (as a bird on a tree). 

Iggi, s. tree, wood. — Iggi damo mi, " I am made to feel 
it," {lit. "The stick strikes me.") 
Iggi-^ Ogedde, s. the banana. 
Iggi-Ope, s. the palm. 

Iggimo (iggi-imo), s. snout, prominent nose. 

Iggina ( — ina), s. fire-wood, brand. 

Igiso, s. a hairy worm, which poisons the foot if trodden 

^Igo, s. bottle, decanter. 

^Igoke, s. the act of climbing up, ascension. 

^Igongo, s. worm found in dunghills, eaten by natives. 

^Igongo-Ofon, s. throat, windpipe, trachea. 

Igunle, 5. landing-place, wharf; the act of landing. 

Igo, s, perplexity. See Isu. 

Igo-Iggi, s. large roots, which spring from the trunk of 
trees of the mimosa-tribe, at some distance above 
the ground, and serve as supports to the parent 

Icon, Ojugon, s. the shin ; the corner. — ^"Oran ko ba oju- 
gpn 6 li on ko li eran, " When the shin is not hurt, it 
says that it has no flesh (to protect it) ;" i. e. When 
circumstances do not arise to call forth a man's re- 
sources, he is apt to think he has none. 

Igon-Ehoro, s. the wattle tree. 

Igon-Ille, s. the corner of the house. 

^Igun, s. the act of climbing up. 

Igun, s. the act of pounding or piercing ; turkey buz- 
zard. — Igun ti ogun mi ko J9 ti egun, " Piercing 
(me with a lance) is not like piercing me with a 



— Igun iyan ko jo ti elubo, mimii ni iyan imu kiku 
li elubo iku, " The pounding of iyan is not like the 
pounding of elubo ; iyan becomes more adhesive ; 
elubo separates into powder." 

Igunwa, s. a sitting in state. 

Iguso, s. a tobacco pipe ; an instrument for torturing, a 
forked stick. 

"Iha, s. side, loin, region. — ''Iha ibo li awa oyi si, " To 
which side shall we turn?" — ^^Iha so mi, "My side 
pains me." 

Iha, s. the act of locking, crowding, pressing ; the act 
of stripping a house of its roof. 

Iha-epo, s. palm-nut, chaff. 

Iha-gaga, s. press, crowd. — Emi ko ri aye wolle nitori 
ihagaga, " I have no room to go into the house be- 
cause of the crowd." 

Ihaho (iha-ih9), s. the crust or burnt part adhering to 
the pot or saucepan. 
[y Ihalle (ha-ille), ^.need, necessity, poverty, strait. — Ihalle 
ba oso enia je, " Poverty destroys a man's repu- 

Ihalle ( — ille), s. empty boast, brag. 

Ihamora ( — mo-ara), s. armour, war equipment. 
. ^Ihin, 5. news, tidings, declaration, narration. — Li ennu 
onihin ni ihin idon, " News is interesting from the 
mouth of him who tells it first." 
Ihlnrere, s. good news, glad tidings, gospel. 

Ihinyi (ihin-eyi), adv. hither, here. — Ihinyi ni mo ran o 
si, iwo se d6 ohun, " I sent you here ; how came you 

Iho, 5. noise, boiling ; a bubbling noise like a running 
brook or river. — Iho odo o bo iho ijo enia molle, 
"The noise of the river drowns the noise of the people." 
wind, 5. hole, pit. — Enni ti o nsure kiri ni papa on li o 
wa nino ewu ati ji si iho, " He w^ho runs about the 
fields is in danger of falling into a pit." 
137 T 

''Iho, 'Ihoho/Ihoriho, s. nakedness. 
J Ih6-imo, s. the nostril. — 'Ti ossan ti oru iho imo ko gbe 
ille li aise, bi o ba dake aje pe 6 pin, "Day and night 
the nostril is always at work: wlien it stops, (life) is 
at an end." 

Iho, s. grass field spared for the sake of hunting. 

^Ihuhu, s. feather down. 

Ihulle-hulle (hu-ille), s. origin, first beginning. 

Ihura (hu-ara), s. weakness. 

'Ihuwa ( — ^iwa), 5. conduct, behaviour. 
^ ^Ija, 5. strife, war, fight, battle, evil. — -''Ija ni ije pe illu 
npe'o gbogbo won li o ni oruko, "Every one in the 
assembly has a name ; but when you are summoned 
' in the name of the assembly ' (instead of being 
summoned in the name of some individual in it, you 
may be sure that) evil awaits you." — 'Ija ko bimmo 
ki o ro, " Strife never begets a gentle child." 

'Ija-iji, s. the action of the whirlwind. 

Ijaba (ja-ba), s. trouble, annoyance. 

Ijadan (je-ada), s. remnants of fruits eaten by bats ; 
gleaning. — Awa ko ri ese he, ijadan li ansa kiri labbe 
iggi, " We had no shea-nuts to gather ; we w^ere 
obliged to seek about to pick up the remnants eaten 
by the bats." 

^ I ja-du, s. scramble, eager contest for a thing. 

Ija-fara (ja-ifa-ara), s. negligence, sluggishness. 

Ijaje, s. rascal, scoundrel. 

Ijakadi, s. a wrestling, a struggling. 

Ijanna, s. coming into the way ; return to the right 

Ijannu, s. bit ; instrument used in kidnapping ; (also 
called Kanga). — Ologbon ogbon li aro ijannu, oko- 
kan li amo iwa enia ; aba mo iwa enia aba bun 'o 
ko fe adoni jojo bi abajo, "On different plans bits are 
made ; one by one men's characters are known ; 
when the character of a man is once known (to be 


bad, even) were he to be given to you lor a present, 

. you would not have him, for he is as painful to you 
as a vexatious matter." 

^Ija-pati, s. pitched battle, struggle. 

Ija-pati, s. the act of snatching suddenly from the hand. 

Ijaro, s. detection of falsehood. 

Ijasan, s. leather-guard worn by archers on the left 
wrist to prevent the bowstring from injuring the 

Ije, 5. a kind of cane used for arrow shafts. 

Ije, s. the seventh day. 
C^Ije, s. race, competition. — Bi aba ndije ni bi ise owo ama 
ya ni, " When we compete in working, we work 
faster {lit. our hands quicken)." 

Ijejila (ijo-eji-la), s. the twelfth day. 

Ijeni (ije-oni), s. seven days hence. 

Ije, Ijeun (je-ohun), s. manner or act of eating : corro- 

Ije, s. effect produced, answer. 

'Ije, Ijesin, s. fodder, hay. 

^Ije, Ijere, 5. the flower of Indian corn. 

"Ijeka, s. snoring. 

Ijeri, s. the act of bearing witness, testimony. 

Ijerinla (ijo-erin-le-ewa), s. fourteen days ago, fort- 

Ijesin, .?. See "Ije. 

Ijeun, s. See Ije. 

Ijew^o, s. confession. 

I J I, Ijin, s. shadow, shade. 

Iji, s. fear, dread ; any thing startling, surprise. 

Iji, s. the act of waking, either from sleep, or sluggish- 

Iji, s. whirlwind ; tornado. 

Ijiandudu, Ejinrin, s. a plant used as medicine for in- 

'Ijigonron (ji-gonron), s. valley, ravine. 
139 - 


Ijila, Ijinla, s. a famous or notorious person, (used both 
in a good or bad sense). 

Ijille, Ijinle (jm-ille), s. depth, profundity. 

"Ijiya (je-iya), s. suffering, passion. 

Ijisepalle (iji-se-pa-ille), s. afternoon, (lit. the time the 
shadow begins to increase as the sun declines). 

^Ijin, Jijin, ^Ijinna, s. distance, depth. 

'Ijigbo, 5. chief priests, head worshippers of the gods. 

Ijo, s. dame. — Ti ijo ti ayo ni ise idin, wuye wuye ni ise 
1/ igongo anjo anyo ommo banabana ure oko iggi, "With 
dancing and with joy moves along the reptile ; wrig- 
gling to and fro moves along the worm ; (such a move- 
ment being considered indicative of pleasure) ; but be 
there dancing or rejoicing, the child of banabana (?) 
(probably an insect constantly carrying about small 
chips of wood) toils on at its woodcutting ;" /. e. others 
may amuse themselves, but the poor man has no 

^Ijo, s. the act of leaking. 

Ijogun (je-ogun), s. succession to an inheritance; Ijo- 
GUN, Ajagun (ja-oguii), s. soldier, warrior. 

Ijoko, 5. settlement, abode, estate. 

Ijoko-je, 5. quietness. 

^Ijokun, s. name of a trailing plant. 

Ijowu (je-owu), 5. jealousy. 

Ijoyf (je-oye), s. a man of title ; the act of being in- 
vested with a title of rank. 

Ijo, Ajo, s. assembly, meeting, congregation. — Ijo ni ti 
ly illu, obba li o li agbo, "Tiie public assembly belongs 

to the town, (but) a select council belongs to the 

Ijo, s. day, a single day. 

Ijo-agba, s. meeting or assembly of the elders. 

Ijokanlegbon (ijo-kan-le-ni-ogbon), adv. seldom, now 
and then, (lit. the space or interval of thirty-one 


Ijomiran (iJ9-omiran), s. another day, future time. 

Ijoni (ijo-oni), s. eight days hence. 

Ijo-gbogbo, s. daily, every day. 

Iju, s. wilderness, desert, ocean. 

^Ijuno (ju-no), s. a throwing away, rejection, the act of 
being lost, 

Ika, s. a winding, folding, surrounding ; curtsey, a cross- 
ing of the arms (mode of salutation used by women) ; 
the act of plucking fruit from the tree ; circle. 
y ^Ika, s. cruelty, wickedness. — -"Ika ko je se 9mmo re behe, 
" The wicked man would not treat his own child as 
(he treats others)." 

'Ika, Ikaw^e (ka-iwe), s. the act of counting or reading. 

Ika, s. finger. 

Ikamo, Akamo ( — mo), s. the state of being encompassed; 

Ik.\n, s. a dropping or dripping like water. 

Ikan, s. the white ant. — Ikan nje ille agba nsoso agba 

^ na ti ikan ti ikan, " The white ants are destroying a 

house ; the old man (who owns it) complains : but 

the old man himself will (soon) be the white ants' 


Ikandu, s. a large ant furnished with a sting. 

Ikan, s. the egg plant. — Olori buburu ki ire oko ikan bi 
oba re oko ikan ila ni ika wa ille, "An unlucky man 
should never go to gather the ikan ; he will be sure 
to bring home the ila instead." 

Ikan, s. a war title. 

Ikangun (ka-igun), s. utmost extremity, corner. 
^/ Ikanju (kan-oju), s. hastiness, hurry. — Ma fi ikanju jaiye, 
aiye mi ehin li o po jojo, " Do not be in (too great) a 
hurry to enjoy the world ; you have life enough be- 
fore you yet." 

'Ikani (kan-ni), s. the band of a leather tassel. 

Ikanilara (kan-enni-li-ara), s. power, efficacy, force ; 
pith ; (applied in this sense only to words). 



Ikanno, s. severity, violence. 

Ikanu (ko-anu), s. sorrow, grief, repentance. 

Ikara (ka-ara), Ika, s. garden, square. — Enniti aba ni 
ikara li o li ateteba, "He who owns the inner square 
is the owner of the outer." 

^ Ikasi, adj. stale, not new ; cooked the day before ; sour. 

Ikawe (ka-iwe), s. the act of reading ; (/It counting 

Ikawe, Akawe, s. the act of winding any thing on a 

Ikawo (ka-9wo), s. power, control, governance. 

Ike, s. ivory, bone in imitation of ivory. 

Ike, s. cry ; division ; partitioning. 

Ikede (ke-ode), s. proclamation. 

Ikede-afiji, s. proclamation of the repeal of a law. 
Ikede-ofin, s. proclamation of prohibition. 

Ikele (ke-ille), s. partition. 

Ikehin (ko-ehin), s. end, issue, termination. 

Ikekun, s. snare. 

Iki, s. salutation. 

^Iki, s. compression ; laudatory recital of a family 

Ikigbe (ke-igbe), s. cry, howling. 

Ikillo (ki-iUo), s. warning, exhortation. 

Ikimolle (ki-m9-ille), 5. pressing tight down, compres- 

Ikiri, s. roving about, wanderinsj^. 

Ikir9\ (ki-oron), s. prayer ; (lit. saluting heaven). 

Ikiweje (ka-iweje), s. wrinkle. 

Ikka, s. finger, toe. 

'Ikki, s. an animal with large eyes and small erect ears, 
which lives on the kola nut. — Iwo le iie obi o ise 
ikki bi? "You are always eating kola nuts: are 
you an ikki ?" 

Ikko, s. bamboo-fibres woven by women into cloth. 

Ikko, 5. the red tail of the parrot : a stroke on the head 


with the knuckles. — ^"Ojo pa odide aluko ny6, aluko 
se bi ikko baje ojo niu ikko woso, " (When) the 
rain beat upon the parrot, the woodcock rejoiced, 
thinking that his red tail was spoilt, but the rain 
only increased its beauty." — Mase kan aburo mi ni 
ikko mo, " Do not strike my brother with the knuckle 
of your hand any more." 

Iko, 5. the act of gathering, taking a large number toge- 
ther. — Iko ekuru ewo Ife, aja ki igbo ni iboji ekun, 
" (As) carrying dust is forbidden in Ife, (so) no dog 
dares to bark near the leopard's lair." 

Iko-anu-Ikanu, s. sorrow ; (whether on account of faults 
committed or in consequence of affliction). 

Ikobe, s. silk tassel-band. 

Ikogun (iko-ogun), s. spoils, trophy, any thing taken in 

Ikojo ( — ^J9), s. the act of gathering together, accumu- 

Ikojo-oko, s. harvesi, in-gathering of farm produce. 

Ikoko, Ikoriko, s. wolf. 

"Ikoko, s. pot, saucepan. — Agbara odo ko J9 agbara ikoko, 
bi agbe odo ka ina ajo, bi asi gun iyan ni ikoko alu, 
" The strength of a (wooden) mortar is not like the 
strength of an (earthen) pot ; place a mortar on the 
fire, and it will burn ; pound a yam in a pot, and it 
will break through (the bottom)." 
"Ikoko-isa, s. a small pot. 

^Ikoko-taba, s. pipe, bowl of a pipe, (called also 

Ikolo, s. a carrying away. 

Ikonkoso, s. rat trap (baited with corn or yams). 

Ikokuko, s. bad teaching, false doctrine. 

Ikoti, s. pin of iron, bone, or wood, used by women for 
combing the head and adjusting the hair. 

Iko, s. cough. — Oniko ko sa lumo, "A man troubled 
with a cough can never hide himself." 


Iko, s. the act oif roofing or erecting a building ; the act 
of teaching ; entanglement ; skein of cotton. — Mo se, 
iko own merin, " I bought four skeins of cotton." 

Iko, s. the act of crying aloud ; cock-crowing ; the act of 
shovelling ; the act of writing. 

^Iko, s. refusal. 

Iko, s. messenger, ambassador, delegate. 
>/^Ikoko, s. private corner, secret place. — •'Ikok9 aiye ya 
ju ikoko ti orun lo, "The corner in the world (of 
sense) is better than a corner of the world of spirits." 

Ikola (ko-ila), s, the act of tattooing ; circumcision. 

^Ikolle ( — ille), s. head farmer. 

Ikollu ( — lu), s. assault, attack. 

Ikon, Ikun, s. squirrel. 

Ikon, Ikun, s. fullness, swelling, rising, addition. 
Ikondo (ikon-odo), s. swelling of a brook, flood. 

Ikon, Ikun, s. mucus. 

Ikoni, s. instruction. 

Ikonwosille (kon-wo-si-ille), s. overflow. 

Ikosille (ko-si-ille), s. rebellion, revolution. 

IK9SSE (ko-esse), s. the act of tripping ; stumbling-block ; 

Ikosse-ba, Akosse-ba, s. chance, unexpected occurrence. 

Iku, s. death ; that which may cause death ; a worm 
which eats the kola nut. 

""Iku, s. gable end. 

/ Ikudu, s. a clay pit filled with water (also called 'Ogoddo). 

'^ Ikudu pa esin e' nyo o mb9wa ipa ommo enia, "(When 

your neighbour's) horse falls into a pit you should not 

rejoice at it, for (your own) child may fall into it 


Ikuku, s. fist, clenched hand. 

Ikun, s. belly, stomach, abdomen. — Ikun babba orisa, 
^ "The belly is the chief of the gods;" because it 
claims the first attention. 

Ikun, s. See Ikon. 


Ikun, 5. See Ikon. 

Ikunle (kun-ille), s. the act of kneeling. 

Ikun-na, s. fineness, smoothness (used in describing fine 

Ikunra, Ipara, s. ointment to rub with. 
Ikunra (kun-ara), Ikonra, s. weariness, sensation of 

^Ikusa, s. neighbourhood. — Ma te ni ikusa mi, " Do not 

come near me." 
Ikujare (iku-je-are, death is right or may be justified), s. 
the gathering of the locust fruit ; (so called because 
an exceedingly dangerous employment). See Igba. 
"Ila, s. state of salvation ; escape from danger ; the act 
of splitting ; fissure ; making one's way through a 
crowd ; opening ; rising of the sun ; riches. See 
Ila, s. tattoo, national mark ; circumcision. 
Ila, s. name of a vegetable ; (also called Okro). — Eko 
ila gba ara re lowo obbe Ila ti akokiki ko so, gboro 
ti akokiki ko fa, ommo ife mi ti mo gbekke le ko se 
bi mo ti ro, " The Ila, which was so celebrated, does 
not bear fruit; the pumpkin, which was so cele- 
brated, does not trail ; the beloved child, of whom I 
expected so much, does not answer my hopes." 
Ilasa, 5. the ila leaf. 

Ilasado, s. the name of a plant used for sauce. 
Ilasagun, s. a wild plant of the ilasa tribe. 
Ila, s. the act of licking up with the tongue. 
Ila-orun, s. dawn, sun-rising, day-spring. 
Iladi (la-idi), s. proof, explanation. 
Iladon (la-odon), s. first-fruits. 
Ilaiya ( — aiya), s. boldness, courage, fearlessness. 
j^'^Ilaja (la-ija), s. peace-making, reconciliation ; peace- 
maker, reconciler. — ^Ilaja ni igba 9gbe, " A peace- 
maker (often) receives wounds." 
^Ila-kaka, s. forcible compression. 
145 u 



Ilamoran (la-imo-oran), 5. a proposer, one who makes a 

^Ilanna ( — onna), s. a marking out of a path or road ; 

Ilara, 5. envy. 

Ilari, s. king's messenger, herald. 
Ile, s. addition. 
Ileke (le-oke), s. that which is uppermost, top stone, 

upper garment. 
Ilera ( — ara), 5. health, strength. 

Ileri ( — eri), s. promise, agreement, boasting, assurance- 

Ille, s. house, room, home, abode. — Iwo ni ille ode, 

Ibara ni ille awodi ati ipe ille aganran, "Iwo is the 

abode of the parrot, Ibara is the land of the hawk ; 

but where is the territory of the green parrot ?" 

Ille-abere, s. needle-case. 

Ille-ase, Ille-idana, Ille-onje, s. kitchen, cooking- 
Ille-ato, s. bladder. 
Ille-ero, s. inn. 
Ille-idana, s. kitchen. 
Ille-ide, s. custody, place of security. 
Ille-Igbejo, s. court, judgment hall. 
Ille-iso, s. watch-house, watch-tower, tower. 
Ille-ikewu, Ille-iwe, s. school-house. 
Ille-iyawo, s. bride-chamber. 

Ille-emu, s. lock-up house, cell where persons ar- 
rested for debt, &c. are kept. 
Ille-iso, s. stall, stable, fold. 
Ille-ejo, s. court, court- room. 
Ille-e'iye, s. bird's nest, cage. 
Ille-enni, Ille-eyin, s. war-tent made of mats. 
Ille-oyin, s. beehive. 
Ille-orisa, s. house of the gods. 
Ille, s. a kind of bird snare, baited with a cricket. 
Illeru, s. iron furnace. 


Illeto, s. town, village. 
Ille, s. earth, land, ground, a town. 
Ille-babba, 5. fatherland. 
Illedudu, Illedu, 5. manure, black earth. 
Ille-ini, Ille-nini, s. inheritance, a possession. 
Ille-obba, s. a kingdom, territory. 
Illepa-oku, s. grave covered up, surface of a grave. 
Ille-oku, s. burial ground. 
Illese, s. beginning, commencement. 
Ille-su, defect, v. it is dark. 
Illewu, s. soft hair; soft down on a palm tree. 
Illeke, s. beads, 

Illeke-opolo, s. frogs' spawn. — Illeke opolo ko yin ole 
li oju, " Frogs' spawn (which resembles beads) does 
not attract the attention of the robber." 
Illekun (ille-ekun), s. door. 

Illu, s. nation, country, town, village, language, a people ; 
assembly of the elders, court. 
Illu-aigbede, s. one not understanding another's lan- 
guage, a barbarian. 
Illu-nla, Illu-obba, s. capital city. 
Illu-keje. s. hamlet, village. 
^Ilo, 5. the act of using, usage; the act of bending, elasticity. 
Ilo, Iloro, s. porch at the entrance of a compound or 
square. — Iloro li awo ki ato wolle, " One must go 
through the porch before entering the square." 
Iloso (loso) s. a peculiar sitting posture. 
Ilo, Alo, s. departure. 

Ilo, s. the act of twisting or wresting, a deviation from 
the right path, 
y Ilo, s. warning ; public inquiry after a thing. — Bi ankilo 
fun'9, ki okilo fun 'ra re, " When you are warned, 
warn yourself." 
Iloloron, Iloloronpa (lo-ni-or9n-pa), s. the act of stran- 
Ilora, s. sloth, tardiness. 



Iloro, 6'. wealth, riches, 
'luj, s. drum ; stroke, blow. 
Ilu, s. awl, gimlet, any instrument to bore with. 
Iluiia, Ilumo, s. being hidden ; concealment. 
"Imado, s. wild boar. — Akanse li ofFa imado j%an oro ki 
J ipa aso, " The arrows intended for the wild boar 

must be made to order ; a common poisoned arrow 

will not kill that savage (animal)." 
Imalle, 5. a Mahommedan. — Bi o ti wu' ni li ase imalle 
V^ enni o fi apa eledde je sari, " Any one may practise 

his Mahommedan worship as it is 'most convenient : 

he may make his breakfast off a pig's foot." 
Imaraduro (imu-ara-duro), .v. continence. 
Imatiko, s. an instrument to assist in drawing a bow with 

greater force. 
Imawo, s. the act of taking a form or likeness, incarnation. 
Imelle, s. idleness, indolence. 
Imeri, Imu-eri, s. removal of filth, purification. 
^Imi, s. the act of shaking. 

Imille (mi-ille), Iselle (se-ille), s. a shaking of the 

earth, earthquake. 
'Imi-p9, s. a shaking together, 
Imi, s. the act of breathing, respiration. 

Imisi, Amisi, s. the act of breathing into, inspiration. 
Immi, s. dung. See Igbe. 

Imojuo, Imogunjuo (mo-gun-ju-o), s. the fore-finger. 
I move, s. providence, foresight, perception. 
Lmo, 2>e7's. pron. I. 
Imo, s. the nose. 

Imo, Imu, s. the act of drinking ; the act of building. 
^Imo, s. knowledge ; interpretation. — Tu imo oro na ki o 

le iye' ni, " Interpret the word to me that it may be 

Imo-oson, s. a small-leaved plant found by the waterside 

and in mountain regions (used symbollically, to in- 
dicate that a miatter is well known). 


Imolle, s. mason, day-labourer. 

'Imojum9 (mo-oju-mo), s. daylight, morning. 

IMOM9, Imumu, Omu, s. the root of a species of grass, a 
kind of ground nut. 

Imolle (mo-ille), s. light, brightness, brilliancy. 
^ Imolle, s. secret bargain, conspiracy ; treaty, covenant. 
— Im9lle ko gboddo tan ara vvonje, imo ennikan ko 
yan, " Covenant makers should not deceive each 
other ; (for) one man's counsel is not sufficient." 

Imolle-osupa, s. moonliarht. 

Imopara (mo-pa-ara), s. excessive drink, drunkenness. 

^Imoran, ^Imo ( — oran), s. knowledge, opinion ; sage, wise 
person. — Afinju ni ijiwo, imoran ni ije obi marimaje 
ni ije ahusa, " A man of fashion eats the iwo (a 
kind of bitter fruit) ; a man of wisdom eats the kola 
nut ; a man of vulgar taste eats the ahusa." 

Imota, defect, v. I have sold. 

Imotelle, s. foreknowledge. 

^Imoju, s. drunkenness; superior knowledge. 

Imu, s. seizure, a taking hold of ; sharpness, ferocity ; 
severity (said of cold). 

Imu-kuro, s. a taking away, remission. 

Imunibino, (mu-enia-bi-ino), s. that which makes one 
angry, provocation. 
,, Imunmuna (mu-mu-ina), s. glow-worm, fire-fly. — Imun- 
muna abi idi sembe sembe, imunmuna ko dana ri, ti 

• • • • • • ' 

ina ti ina ni mba ikiri, " Though the glow-worm 
never kindles a fire, yet it travels with glowing fire 
at its tail." 
' Ina, s. flogging, punishment by whipping, lashing. 
Ina, s. fire ; flower ; the louse ; kind of black worm. — 
Ina njc) ogiri ko sa ama gba gere gere si omi, 
" Though the fire is burning, the walls do not shrink 
from it, and yet the fire is trying to consume the 
water :" said of those who aim at the greater, when 
they cannot accomplish the less. 


Ina-eweko, s. blossom. 

Ina, s. expenditure of money ; barter, bargain, trade. 
Inabi, s. a kind of plant which produces blisters. 
Inaja, s. trade ; trader, merchant. — Oyibo babba inaja, 
aje babba teni teni, " The white man is the father of 
merchants, (want of) money is the father of disgrace." 
Inaki, Iro, s. the baboon, the Uran-utan. 
Inakuna (ina-ki-ina), s. wastefulness, profligacy. 
Inan, Iran, s sight, seeing ; vision. — Mo ri iran, " I saw 

a vision." 
Inaro ( — iro), s. standing posture. — Naro, " Stand up." 
Gbogbo won mbe ni inaro, " They are all standing." 
Inawo, Ina (na-owo), s. expenditure of money. — Oku 

inawo, " Thank you for your kindness." 
Inawo ( — 0W9), s. the act of stretching out the hand. 
Ini, s. possessions, goods. 
InIla (ni-ila), s. magnitude, size, vastness. 
Inira, Ilara ( — ara), s. freedom, liberty. 
Inira, s. difficulty, strait, perplexity ; need ; poverty. 
Iniran ( — Iran), s. reminiscence, remembrance. 
Ino, Inu, s. the inside, mind, thought, womb. 
Iso foUoived hi/ Baje, v.n. to be sorrowful. 
Inobibi, adj. irascible. 
Ino-buburu, s. a wicked heart. 
Ino-didon, s. gladness. 
Ino-dudu, s. a bad heart. 
Ino-funfun, s. a pure heart. 

Ino-nibini, s. persecution, unprovoked annoyance. 
Ino-nron, s. pain in the stomach. 
Ino -HERE, s. candour, benevolence, (lit. good heart). 
Ino-y6, Inuyo, liso followed bi/ Y6, v. n. to feel a melting 
of the bowels, yearn, feel compassionate, be tender- 
Ipa, s. track, way, path, footstep ; course. 

Ipa-Galla, s. the slot, or track of a deer. 
Ipa, s. the act of killing, murder ; the act of hatching or 


producing; peeling off the bark of a tree; slovenly 
Ipa-Imolle, s. assassination. 

Ipa, s. kick ; rupture, strength, force, ability ; epilepsy, 
(called also Warapa). 

Ipa, s. name of a bird. 

Ipa-da, s. return. 

Ipade (pa-ade), s. a meeting, a coming together. 

Ipafefe (pe-afefe), s. the act of taking the air ; recreation. 

Ipaiiin, s. the act of sharpening the teeth. 

Ipallemo (pa-ille-mo), s. preparation. 

Ipakara, Ipaka (ipa-ika-ara), s. a spacious back yard 
enclosed with mud walls. 

Ipahinkeke (pa-ehin-keke), s. gnashing the teeth. 

Ipaiya (pa-aiya), s. panic, great fear. 

IpAKA(pa-okka), 5. cornfloor, barn. 

Ipako, s. the hollow between the back of the head and 
the neck. 

Ipapa, Papa, s. leaf of the plant Keke (used for pa- 
laver sauce) ; plain, grassfield. — Aki ifi 9ran ipapa 
lo eja, aki ifi oran odd ilo afe, " No one should ask 
the fish of what takes place in the plain ; nor should 
the rat be asked of what takes place in the water." 

Ipallemo-oko (pa-ille-mo), s. harvest, in-gathering. 

Ipa-mo, s. act of keeping a thing securely, act of hiding. 

Ipamora ( — mo-ara), s. forbearance. 

Ipani, Ipania (pa-enia), s. manslaughter, murder. 

Ipankoro Ommo, s. girl, lass ; a plant, called also Ko- 


Ipanna (ipa-onna), s. place, room. — Iwo mbe ni ipanna 

mi, " You are in my room." 
Ipanpa, s. bargain ; arrangement by which the price of 

any article is fixed by all traders ; mutual agreement 

between traders. 
Ipapa, s. grassfield, pasture-ground. 
Ipa-po, s. the act of mingling. 


Ipara (pa-ara), s. suicide ; the act of anointing oneself; 

rust, corrosion. 
Iparamo (pa-ara-mo). 5. lowliness, submission. 
Ipari ( — ori)^ s. the act of completion, termination, end, 

Ipari, s. baldness. 

Iparubo ( — pa-ru-ebo), s. the act of killing for sacrifice. 
Ipa-run, s. destruction, annihilation. 
Ipasse (ipa-esse), s. track, footpath. 
Ipe, s. call; act of calling; the horn used for that purpose. 
Ipe, s. a state of being right, or perfect ; perfection. 
IpEji (pa-eji), s. an opening between the upper front 

teeth ; a flaw in cloth, produced by dropping the 

thread in weaving. 
Ipele (pa-ele), s. a distant relation. 
Ipele, s. addition, that which is put in the top of other 

Ipeje, s. invitation to a feast. 
Ipelejo (pe-ni-ejo), s. act of calling to judgment. 
Ipe-npe-ju, s. eyebrow, eyelash. 
Ipere, s. small snails. 
^Ipese (pa-ese), s. provision, providence. 
Ipete (pa-ete), s. intention. 
"Ipe, s. supplication, entreaty. 
Ipe, s. sojourn, the act of staying ; ear of Indian corn ; a 

fish scale ; small flat stick on which raw cotton is 

Ipepe, s. fish-scale ; scab. 
Ipefon (pa-efon), s. name of an officer in the capital ; a 

Ipefongbese, 5. petty debts. 
Ipeka (pa-eka), s. shooting forth branches. 
Ipekun (pa-ekun), s. end, termination. 
Ipepekun (pepe-okun), s. small sea-shell ; shell. 
Ipere, s. younger members of a community ; young peo- 
ple, especially such as are unmarried. 


y Ipeta, s. name of a tree, the root of which is used for 
washing and bleaching cloth. — Ipeta li ose apon, 
" The ipeta is the bachelor's soap." 

^Ipeti, s. kind of wild beast snare. 

Ipille, Ipillese (pa-ille), s. foundation. 

I PIN, s. the sand-leaf tree ; a good genius. 

'IpiN, Ipinfuni, Iwari, s.the act of dividing, division, share, 
lot, distribution. 

Ipinhun (pin-ohun), s agreement, bargain. 

Ipinle (pin-ille), s. the boundary of a territory, a land- 

Ipinnu (pin-ennu), s. end, conclusion, bargain, agree- 
ment, determination, purpose. 

'Ipitai:^ (pa-itan), s. act of telling traditions ; oral tradition. 

Ipo, 5. place, room. 

Ipo-oku, s. place of departed spirits ; hades, hell. 
Ipo-Olla, s. place of honour, chief room. 

'Ipojo (pa-ojo), s. cloak, cloth used as protection against 

Ipo, s. abundance. 

^Ipo, ^Ipon, s. irony. — Emf ni iwo ran ipon si? " Do you 
speak ironically ?" 

Ipon, s. thickness. — Awo yi ni ip9n, "This place is 

Ipon, s. wooden spoon. 

Iponju (pon-oju), s. difficulty, distress, necessity, afflic- 
tion, adversity. 

Ipori (ipo-ori), s. the great toe, (worshipped by the 

Iposi ( — si), s. contempt, scorn, worthlessness, meanness. 
— Okonri na yan mi ni iposi, " That man holds me 
in contempt." 

^Ira, s. the name of a tree ; (called also Wusma). 

'Ira, 5. the act of buying ; decay ; rottenness ; depression, 

Ira, s. morass, bog, fen. 

153 X 


Ira, s. the name of a species of horse ; the act of rolling 
on the ground like the horse. — Esin mi nyi ira nino 
yanrin, "My horse rolled on the sand." 

^Iraddo, s. tender emotion, lively compassion. 

Iralle, s. laths. 

Iralle, s. evening, afternoon. — Ojo di iralle dedde, "The 
day is near eventide." 

Iran, s. sight, spectacle, exhibition, vision ; generation, 
race, progeny. — Ati iran di iran babba wa ko bo iru 
orisa wonyi ri, " From one generation of our fathers 
to another we never worshipped such a God as this." 

Irandiran, s. generation after generation. 

Iranlowo, Iranw'o (ran-ni-owo), s. help, aid, assistance. 

^Iranna, s. the act of purchasing a right of way ; pass- 

Iranu, s. loss of appetite. 

Iranse, s. messenger, servant, officer, constable ; the act 
of sending or despatching ; mission. 

Iranso, s, the act of sewing ; one who sews ; tailor. 

Iranti, s. remembrance. 

Iranwu ( — owu), s. spinner. See Aranwu. 

''Ira-wo, s. star. — Irawo san san san alommo lehin bi 
osupa, " Twinkling, twinkling, twinkling stars, like 
so many chicken behind the moon." 
Iraw^o-titan, s. bright star. 

Ira-wo-ille, Iwaje, s. plant used as medicine for infants. 

Ire, Ore, s. goodness, favour, benefit, a blessing, well- 
wishing. — Ire ki li orisa se fun abuke ti obi omm9 ti 
o so li Orisagbemi, "What good have the gods 
done to the hunchback, to make him name his child 
Orisagbemi (The gods have blessed me)?" i.e. Why 
should I acknowledge kindness where I have only 
experienced evil ? 

Ire, s. curse, execration, imprecation ; the act of spring- 
ing or going off, as a snare or the lock of a gun. — 
Ibon mi re ire ojiji, " My gun w^ent off suddenly." 


Ire, s. play, amusement ; the act of running. 

Irede-oru, s. revelling. 

Iregun, s. a term of reproach applied to an ungrateful 
person. — ^^Oro ti emi nso ki ise iregiin ki ise ire, 
"The word I have spoken is neither a curse nor a 

Ireke, s. sugar cane. — Ireke ni iwa ju esu, adu iggi ki 

/ ise omi si 'ni li ennu, " The sugar cane has a better 

quality than the bullrush : there are not many plants 

{lit. trees) which can supply the mouth with such saj)." 

Ire-koja, s. a passing over, pass over ; transgression, 

Ireni (re-oni), s. four days hence. 

Ire-pa, s. trespass ; transgression. 

Ire-pe, s. fragments or remnants of cloth. 

Irera (re-ara), s. pride. 

Ireti ( — eti), s. hope, expectation ; a cleansing of the ear. 

'Ire, s. a kind of cricket, which burrows under ground ; 
consolation, comfort ; fatigue, weariness : fall of the 
leaf; gloominess. — ^lyan mu ire yo, lyan ro ire rii, 
" When there is famine the cricket is fat ; when the 
famine is over the cricket is poor." This sentence is 
simply a play upon various sounds difhcult to pro- 
nounce in rapid succession. Cf. Apata, Kanakana. 

Ire, s. friendship, agreement, concord ; adhesion; the act 
of cutting with a knife ; carving. 

Ire, s. the name of a tree. 

Ire-je, s. cheat, deception, imposition. 

Irelle (re-ille), -s. the state of being low, submission, 
humility, humiliation. 

Irepo, s. concord, agreement, friendship. 

Iri, s. sight, vision. 
•^ ^Iri, s. dew, mist. — Oni li egbon olla, iri wowo ni ise 
egbon ojo, " To-day is the elder brother of to-morrow, 
and a copious dew is the elder brother of the rain." 

Iriju, 5. trustworthy servant, steward. 


^Irin, 5. walk, life, conversation, conduct ; ticklinjsj. 
"Irtn-opa-ipo, s. rapid journey, expeditious travel. 

Irin, 5. iron, iron nail. 

Irin, s. a kind of rat trap ; fruit of a certain trailing 
plant (sometimes called Agbarin). 

Irinan, Ihiran (ri-iran), s. sight, spectacle. 

'Irindo, s. nausea, sickness ; (lit. a tickling of the liver). 

Irinle, s. dampness, moisture. 

Irira, s. dislike, hatred. 

^Iro, Irono, s. narration ; consideration ; agitation ; vexa- 
tion ; calculation ; cdunsel, advice. 

Iro, s. the act of dropping or dripping. 

Iro, Inaki, s. the Uran-utan. 

Iro, .9. sound, noise made by collision ; news, intelli- 
gence ; standing posture ; erection of a roof. 

Irobinoje (r9-ba-ino-je), s. remorse, pain, grief, anguish. 

Iroju (ro-oju), s. sorrow ; vexation ; perplexity ; inde- 
cision . 

Iroko, s. farm labour ; agriculturist. 

^Iroko, .S-. a species of the Okro. 

Iroko, s. a running vegetable, whose leaf is used for 

Iroko, s. the name of a tree used in building. — Ni ke- 
kere li ati ipa ekan iroko, "The sprout of the iroko 
tree must be plucked when it is yet tender." 

Irokuro (ro-ki-iro), s. concupiscence, evil desire. 

'Irona (ro-onna), 5. the act of meeting by appointment ; 
a spy who reconnoitres an enemy's position. 

Irono, s. consideration, or stirring up the mind, 

Ironopiwada, s. repentance. 

Irora, s. aches, pains, produced by wounds or bruises. 

^Irogba, s. assembly of the elders, consultation of elders. 
Iro, s. equal, companion, fellow. 

^Iro, s. a kind of cake ; comfort, ease. See Irora. — 
Ani ki aie iro ki oro 'ni o si nfon 'ni li oron, 
" The iro was presented to us as something which 


might be readily swallowed, but instead of that it 
chokes us." 

luo, s. untruth, falsehood (not so strong an expression as 

Iro, s. a rush (as of a multitude of people) ; web, tex- 
ture, warp ; removal ; interpretation of a dream. 
^ Iroju (ro-oju), s. patience, perseverance. — Ir9Ju li ohun 
gbogbo, "Perseverance is every thing." 

Iro-kekke, s. to be tumultuous, make an uproar. 

Iron, s. hair. 

Iron-gaungaun, s. bristle. 

Iron, s. prayer. 

Irono (ro-ino), s. abstinence from food, power of long 
abstinence from food. 

Ironno (ron-ino), s. pain in the stomach. 

Irora (ro-ara), s. ease, comfort, improved condition. 

Irogbaka (ro-ogba-ka), s. the state of being encompassed. 

Irogboku ( — igb9ku), s. the act of reclining on a couch, 

'Iru, s. tail ; the pointed end of a knife or sword which is 
inserted into the handle; the act of carrying or bear- 
ing. — ^Iru esin ki ipe idi iru enia, bi esin ku afi iru si 
aiye, " The horse's tail soon becomes a man's tail : 
(for) when the horse dies he leaves his tail behind him." 

Iru, s. gadfly. 
/ Iru, s. seed, race, kind, species ; the seeds of the locust 
fruit used as a seasoning; adj. such. — 'Opo iru ko ba. 
9bbe je, " Plenty of iru does not spoil the stew." 

Iru, s. the act of stirring up ; germination ; putting forth 
of leaves ; water-spring. 

Iru, s. a boiling over as water ; ebullition of passion ; 

Irudi (ru-idi), s. bud, blossom. 

Irukerudo (ru-oke-ru-odo), s. uproar, tumult. 

^Iruke (iru-ke), s. tassel on the ear of Indian corn ; cow 
tail carried about by the babbalawos. 


Irula (iru-ila), s. the okro or ila seed. 

Irullu (iru-illu), s. the act of stirring the town into an 
uproar; insurrection. 

Irummo, Iru-ommo (iru-ommo), s. seed, offspring. 

Iru-omi, s. wave. 

Iruno (ru-ino), s, indignation ; (lit. stirring of the mind). 

Irunle (run-ille), s. the act of undermining the ground 
in order to rob. 

Iru-pepe, s. vexation, displeasure ; healthy growth. 

Iruru, Iruuru, s. variety, different kinds. 

^Iruya (ru-aiya), s. emetic. 

Irugbin (iru-igbin), s. seed (reserved for sowing). 

IsA, s. hole, rat's hole, burrow, grave ; name of a running 

IsA, s. flight ; the act of drying ; a pointed stick used for 
digging earth. See Isa. 

IsABOTi (sa-boti), s. outer court. See Atellebosi. 

IsAKODO, IsAKO, s. name of a plant used for sauce. 

IsA, s. attempt made by a weak to attack a stronger per- 
son. — Mo ku isa si i, " I made an attempt at him." 

''IsALLE, adv. down, below, beneath. 

IsAN, s. payment, retaliation. 

IsAN, .s. the act of splitting or making a fissure ; thun- 

Isan, s. nine days' space ; name of a snake. 

''IsAN, s. improved health, convalescence. 

IsANNi (isan-oni), s. nine days hence. 

IsANSA (sa-sa), s. fugitive, deserter. — Isansa ko yan egun, 
isansa ko ikawo obbe, "A fugitive never stops to pick 
the thorns from his foot, neither does he make choice 
of his sauce." 

IsA-OKU, s. grave, sepulchre, tomb. 

IsA-PA-MO, s. the act of hiding, concealment. 
Isi, s. a new thing invented or created ; a memorable 

^IsE, s. inquiry of a stranger; distilling like dew. 


^IsELLE (se-ille), s. earthquake. 

Isi-Mi, s. rest, pause. 

IsiMi, s. rest, cessation from work. 

'IsiN, s. service, the act of serving another ; the act of 
tending cattle ; religion. 

IsiN, s. the act of burying or hiding. 

IsiNKU (sin-oku), s. burial, funeral, burying of the dead. 

Isi-si-Yi, adv. lately, now. 

Iso, s. the act of tying ; the state of being tied. 

Iso, 5. a breaking wind. 

IsoFiN (so-ofin), s. prohibition. 

IsoKO (so-okko), s. moorage, that by which ships are 
made fast. 

Iso-Yi-Gi, s. marriage. 

Iso, s. the act of throwing with the hand; a telling 
forth ; a shooting forth ; a joining together of divided 
parts, (as of a calabash or the wound of a person or 

^Is9, s. quarter, station, place allotted to a person or 
thing ; quarrel ; murmuring, grumbling. — Aki iwa 
alaso alia ni iso elepo, " A man in white linen is 
never looked for in the palm-oil market." 

Iso-AGBA, s. the resort or seat of the elders. — Kuro ni is9 
agba, " Away from the place of the elders." 

IsoDOMMO (so-di-omm9), s. adoption. 

IsoKA, (so-oka), s. bird-snare set with guinea-corn. 

IsoKALLE (so-ka-ille), s. descent, a going down. 

IsoKtJN, IsoNKUN (son-ekuu), s. a mourner (a name ap- 
plied to female children, as they are the chief 
mourners on the death of a parent). — O bi is9kun, o 
bi iwalle, " He begat a mourner {L e. a daughter) and 
a grave-digger (i. e. a son)." 

IsoKuso (so-ki-iso), s. mischievous or evil word, idle tale, 
unmeaning talk. 

"IsoLLE (so-ille), s. foundation (whether of stone or 


IsoYE, AsoYE (so-ye), s. explanation. 

IsoN, s. fountain, spring — ^Aki ire ni ison lo ida si ibu, 

i/ " No one should draw water from the spring to 

supply the abyss ;" /. e. No poor naan should deprive 

himself of his small property to make presents to 

the rich. 

^IsoN, s. accusation. 

IsoNNU (so-ennu), s. the first meal of the Mahommedans 
in the evening of their fasting days. 

^IsoTTE (se-otte), s. rebellious act, sedition. 

Isu, s. the act of puzzling, perplexity, wearisomeness ; 
scorbutic eruption ; retailing of liquor. 

^IsuN, s. act of sleeping; (an euphemism for "death") ; 

Is A, IsA, s. a running plant used medicinally. 

'IsA, Oru, s. a pitcher for conveying water ; the act of 
gathering things scattered by picking them up indi- 
vidually ; choice. 

IsAJO (se-ajo), s. anxiety, perplexity. 

IsAJu (se-iwaju), adj. the foremost. 

IsA-GERE, s. name of a plant. 

IsALOGBE (sa-ni-ogbe), s. a being wounded, wound. 

IsANA (sa-ina), s. flint and steel. 

^IsAN-OMi, s. tide, current. 

IsA-OGBUGBu, s. name of a kind of plant. 

IsANu, (se-anu), s. manifestation of pity or compassion. 

IsANWO (san-owo), s. emptiness, the act of being empty- 
handed ; the motion of the hand in walking. 

IsAPA, s. the sorrel. 

Is APE (sa-ape), s. the act of clapping hands. 
I IsAsuN, s. a sauce-pot. — ^lya ni ti ommori isasun iya 

nje didon ommo nje oru, " The pot-lid is always 
badly off ; for the pot gets all the sweet, and the lid 
nothing but the steam." 

IsEKusE, IsEKisE (se-ki-isc), s. unlawful action, wicked 


f IsE, s. character, action, custom, fashion, deed. — Onise 
ki ifi ise re sille re ebi, " Wherever a man goes to 
dwell, his character goes with him." 

IsEUN (se-ohun), s. kindness. 

Ise, s. work, labour, duty, business. 
V Ise, s. trouble, hardship ; victory. — Ise ko muokko laya 
ki o ma ran 9mmo, asise ki ili ara, " Poverty never 
visits a husband without visiting his children : a 
poor man has no relatives." 

^IsE, s. offence, transgression. See 'Ese. 

IsE-AMMi, s. sign. 

IsE-ASE, 5. miracle. 

• • • • ^ 

IsE-iPA, s. hard labour, toil. 

IsE-iPA, s. rough work. 

IsE-iRiJu (ri-oju), s. stewardship. 

IsE-IsiN, s. duty assigned to one who serves. 

Ise-Iyannu, s. wonder. 

IsEGUN (se-ogun), s. victory, conquest. 

IsEJu, s. twinkling of an eye, moment. — Ni igba iseju 

kan, " In the twinkling of an eye." 
IsEKisE (ise-ki-ise), s. wicked work ; any kind of work. 
IsE-KEKE, s. casting of lots. 
IsENo (se-ino), s. abortion. *» 

IsEPE (se-pe), s. withered twigs, or branches. 
IsE-po, s. a double, repetition, twin. 
IsEPOLOHUN, 5. name of a tree ; a kind of grass. 
Ise-Ogero, s. easy work. 
Ise-Olorun, 5. God's work. 
Iseti (se-eti), s. hem. 
Isi, 5. kind of fruit tree. 

Isi-AGBUGBo, s. a spccics of Isi. 
Isi, 5. the act of opening, removal, change of place. 
^Isi, s. paleness, discoloration. 
IsiGUN, s. aromatic root of a trailing plant found in 

IsiKKO (si-okko), 5. the state of being under weigh. 
161 * ' Y 


IsiKo (isi-oko), s. See Isiagbugbo. 
IsiKUN (si-kun), s. remainder, remnant. 
IsiN, s. a kind of running plant ; a kind of pump- 

^IsiNNA (si-pnna), s. error, missing of the road. 

^IsiNNu (si-ennu), s. appetite. 

^ Isiro,^Iro (se-iro), s. account, reckoning. 

IsiSE (si-se), 5. wrong action. 

IsiYEMEJi (se-iye-meji), s. doubtfulness, scruple. 

Iso, 5. iron nail. 

IsoNO (so-ino), s. passion, peevishness. 

'Isowo (se-owo), s. trading, the act of trading ; trader. — 
Isowo mbe li orun nawonawo mbe ni iboji, " The la- 
bourer is always in the sun, the landowner is always 
in the shade ;" i. e. one toils, the other reaps the 

IsoRo (se-oro), 5. difficulty. 

IsoRO, s. severity ; provocation. 

Iso, s. watch, guard ; governance, superintendence ; 

IsoKAN (se-okan) (se-okan), s. concord, union, agree- 

^IsoNNA (s9-onna), s. the act of doing any mechanical 

'IsoNNA-AWO (se-onna), 5. tanner ; leather- worker, one 
who works in leather. 

^IsoNNA-ASO, 5. tailor. 

IsoRA (s9-ara), s. caution, watchfulness. 

"IsoRAN (se-9ran), s. a faulty person, one who has com- 
mitted himself. — 'Isoran ni ise ajo, " He who commits 
himself is always anxious." 

'isoTTE (se-9tte), s. sedition, the act of making a divi- 

^ Isu, s. ball, or lump of any thing round ; loaf. 

Isu, s. yam ; soft part of a fruit, pulp. 

Isu, s. emission, evacuation. 


Isu, s. the state of being dark (as a condensed rainy 
cloud) ; darkness. 

IsuRA (su-ara), s. treasure; the act of entrusting to one's 

IsuBu (se-ibu), s. fall of a heavy thing. 

Isu-ODDE, s. a wild yam, eaten by hunters. 

Isu-OPE, s. palm-cabbage. 

^ Ita, s. act of selling, sale ; a kind of yellow ant, called 
also Otta, or^lTTA, a formidable foe to the white 
,' Ita, s. street, an open place in the front of a building ; 
the open air. — Itta metta ko konno ebo, " The junc- 
tion of the roads does not dread sacrifices." Sacri- 
fices intended to avert calamity are always exposed 
in a place where several ways meet, whereby the 
impending evil is supposed to be altogether dissi- 

Ita, s. name of tree much used for firewood. 

Ita, s. woof, the thread that crosses the warp ; warmth ; 
heat (of the sun) ; pungency (as of pepper) ; the hang- 
ing up of clothes or curtains ; the act of hoisting a 
sail ; fulness. 

Ita, Itani, s. sting, pain. 

Itadogun (etta-di-ogun), s. a space of seventeen days. — 
Itadogun li ajo Egba, " A round of seventeen days is 
the meeting of the Egbas." There are many 
savings' clubs among the Egbas : the members meet 
to deposit their contributions (called Esu) at a cer- 
tain fixed interval of time, usually every fifth market- 
day : each member in turn takes the whole of the sum 
contributed on a single day, until the rotation is com- 
pleted. Those who come first on the list secure in this 
way a larger capital to dispose of than they would have 
been able to command from their own unassisted 
resources ; and the members whose turn comes late, 

by contributing to the common stock, have saved the 


sums which they would otherwise have expended on 
trifles by little and little. The markets occur every 
fifth day, reckoning inclusively ; from one market- 
day to the fourth succeeding, the first and the last 
both inclusive, the interval is seventeen days : hence 
the proverb. The day on which the payment is 
made is reckoned a second time as the commence- 
ment of a new series. See Dawo-esu. 

Itagbokun (ta-igbokun), s. sailing, the state of setting 

sail, being under canvass. 
^Itaje (ta-ejje), s. bloodshed. 

Italle (ta-ille), s. a kind of worm or grub bred on a mud 
floor, which attacks any who lie down there. 

Itallema, Itallemo (ta-ille-ma), s. the ancients; ances- 
tors, forefathers. 

Ita-ma-ha, 5. (Haiissa), hope, expectation. 

Itametta (ita-mo-etta), 5. a place where three ways 
meet. — Pere mo ja itametta, '' On a sudden I came to 
the junction of the three ways." 

Itamora, Ihamora (ta-mo-ara), s. war-equipment, ar- 

Itan, 5. the act of lighting fire, shining, spreading abroad 
(so as to lay open what is hidden) ; narration of old 
traditions; recording past events. — IW9 ko le ipa 
mi ni itan nkan wonni, " You are not able to in- 
struct me in those ancient things." 

Itan, s. thigh, lap. 

Itan, 5. completion. 

Itanna (tan-ina), s. the act of lighting a lamp ; flowers, 
(so called from their brilliant colour). 

Itanje (tan-je), s. deceit, guile. 

Itara (ta-ara), s. hastiness ; anxiety for another's 
safety ; zeal. — Itara mi po ju, " My anxiety is 

' Iti, s. timber, any large piece of wood ; the act of sup- 
1/ porting or propping. — Bi iti ko w6 9W0 ki iba isepe, 



" Unless the tree falls, one will never get at the 

Ixi, s. a small bundle of grass, a handful of grass bound 

Iti, s. the act of breaking a portion of any thing brittle. 

Itiju (ti-oju), s. disgrace, shame ; bashfulness, modesty. 
Bi o ba tiju o ti i fu ra re, " If you are modest, you 
are modest to your own advantage." 

Itilehin ( — 'ni-ehin), s. support, help, assistance^ counte- 

Itisse (te-esse), s. footstool, 

Ito, s. a running plant like the Eggusi. 

Itori, s. reason, account, cause. 

Itoye (to-iye), s. a sufficient value, merit, worth. 

Ite, s. bed, cradle, place to rest on ; throne ; a nest ; 
flatness or insipidity ; disgrace, humiliation, defeat. 

^ Ite, s. the act of treading on, pressing down, gelding. 

Itedo, s. encampment. 

Itehin, s. pad or saddle-cloth. 

Iteddo (te-eddo), 5. patience, leisure. — Fi iteddo sille 
se e, " Do it patiently." 

^Itelle (te-ille), s. the leg (of an animal). 

Itelle (te-ille), s. foundation, that which is underneath. 

Itelledi ( — idi), 5. cloth for common use, under-cloth. 

Itelesse ( — ni-esse), s. private intimation (as a nod, 
wink, or tread on the foot) ; sign, token, beckoning. 

Itemolle (te-m9-ille), s. a pressing down, a trampling 

Iteniloron ( — enni-ni-oron), s. satisfaction. 

Itenumo (te-ennu-m9), s. the act of urging the same sub- 
ject by constant repetition of it. 

Iteriba (ori-ba), 5. bending of the head, bow, submission. 

^Itesse (te-esse), 5. part of a loom, treadle ; any thing to 
place the foot on ; a private informant. /S^^^Otesse. 

Itewo, Itewogba (te-9wo-gba), s. acceptance, reception. 

Itori, 5. cause, reason. 


Itori, s. share. 

Itoju (t9-oju), s. superintendence, overlooking. 

Itokun (to-okun), 5. the act of being a guide. 

Ito, s. spittle, small creek ; straightness ; act of bring- 
ing up ; endurance ; old age. 

^Ito, s. urine ; the act of following ; approach, arrival. 

Itokko (to-okko), s. rudder. 

Itonriran, Itonrinan (ton-ri-iran), s. recovery of sight. 

Itore (ta-ore), s. present, gift. 

Itowo (to-wo), s. the act of tasting, foretaste ; first-fruit, 
earnest, anticipation. 

^Itu, s. ease, comfort, cessation from acute pain. 

Itu, s. the act of loosening, (as a knot tied) ; budding or 
bursting of a flower ; appearance of the ear from the 
stalk ; eruption (on the body) ; adjournment of an 

Itu, s. eradication, overthrow of a plan. 

Itura (tu-ara), s. comfort, ease ; the refreshment of a cool 

Itu-eddo, s. consolation. See Ituno. 

Itu-ka, s. dispersion. 

Ituno (tu-ino), s. comfort, consolation, (lit. the act of 
making easy in the mind). 

^IwA, s. conduct, behaviour, disposition, character. — ^^Iwa 
ni ijo oniwa loju, " Every man's character is good in 
his own eyes." 

^IwA, s. creation, a state of being, existence ; the act of 

IwA, Awa', s. the act of coming. — Ayun awa re di eri- 
metta, " He made four journeys backward and for- 

IwA, s. trembling. 

IwABUBURu, s. wickedness. 

IwAui (wa-idi), s. investigation, examination., 
IwAJE ( — ^je), s. the act of seeking something to eat ; 
gain, profit. 


IwAJu ( — oju), s. presence, front. 

IwAKUWA, s. caprice, unsteadiness. 

^IwALLE ( — ille), s. a digger, one who digs, (applied to a 

male child). See Isokun. 
IwALLE ( — ille), s. the act of searching the house. 
^IwA-Mi-MO, s. holiness, sanctity. 
IwARA, s, hastiness, rashness, impatience. 
IwA-Ri, s. homage, worship (rendered to a king). 
IwA-wi, AwAW^i, s. excuse. 
IwA-YA-iJA, s. struggle, close combat, agony. 
IwAsu, s. preaching, address. 
IwA-SE, s. the finest grain ; very fine powder ; the 

IwE, s. book, paper ; a comparison ; the act of passing 

one thing round another. 
IwE, Ollo-ino, s. the kidneys. 
IwERE, s. foolishness, silliness. 
IwERi (we-ori), s. headband. 
IwiN, s. ghost, spirit, spectre. 
^IwE, s. the act of washing the body. 
IwE, s. a species of frog ; fineness (applied both to grain 

and cotton); the act of bruising or crushing (as of 

grain, or any hard substance). 
IwEFFA (iwe-efFa), s. eunuch, chamberlain. 
"IWE-N9, IWE-N9-M0, s. purification, washing. 
'Iwo, s. look, appearance ; carnivorous bird, raven : (a 

flock of these birds is supposed to be an intimation 

of a recent or impending war in the neighbourhood). 

— -'I wo ologbon ko J9 ti asiwere, " The appearance of 

the wise differs from that of the fool." 
Iw6, Owo, s. a disease in the mouth of infants, which 

prevents them from sucking the breast. 
Iwo, Owo, s. a horn. 
Iwo, Orogbo, s. a tree, the fruit of which is called the 

bitter kola. 
' Iwo, s. the act of falling (as a house or tree). 


IwoLULLE (wo-lu-iile), s. the act of felling trees or 

destroying a house. 
"IwoRo, s. a worshipper of the gods. 

^IwoRo-oRisA, s. an eater of sacrifices ; one who has 

taken idols to worship. 
IwoYE (wo-oye), s. a look out : foresight, providence, 

Iwo-Yi, s. the present time or season, 
Iwo, s. poison which may be administered in food ; a 

tree, the sap of which produces blisters. 
Iwo, Idodo, s. navel ; crookedness ; the act of dragging 

along on the ground, or from one place to another. 
"Iwo, s. suitableness, fitness ; entrance ; fishhook. 
\vfOy pers.pron. thou. 
IwoFFA (wo-9fFa), s. one in pawn ; an insolvent debtor 

who becomes for a certain period the property of his 

^IwoN, s. measure, measurement ; a certain quantity ; 

adj. so many. 
IwoN, s. act of weaving ; act of descending on as a curse. 
IwoN, s. scarcity, dearth ; the narrow neck of a calabash, 

called IwoN-iGBA ; the act of catching any thing 

thrown before it falls to the ground. 
IwoNDO (won-odo), s. measurement of water, the act of 

Iwo-NA, pers. pron. thyself. 

IwoN-woN, s. dry twig, small branch of a tree, broom- 
IwoRA (w9-ara), s. greediness, ravening. 
Iwosi, s. contempt, wrong, injury. 
IW9S0, Okuku (wo-asp), s. heap of cotton drawn towards 

the weaver whilst at his work. 
Iwo-TiKARAWO, IW9-TIKARA-RE, reflec. pvon. thou thyself, 

^Iwu, s. choice, love, desire, pleasure. 
Iwu, s. act of swelling ; act of defilement (said of water). 


IwuKARA (wu-akara), s. leaven. 

^IvA, s. calamity, loss; innocent suffering of evil; the 
act of giving way, turning aside. — Tse ko don iya 
ko fobun ki amo enniti iya ndon li ara, '' Calamity 
has no voice ; suffering cannot speak to tell who is 
really in distress, (and who is complaining without 
Iya, s. madam, mother, mistress ; pot, basin, calabash, 
covered vessel ; haste, quickness. 
Iyagba (iya-agba), s. matron, elderly woman. 
Iya-la, 5. grandmother. 
Iyalle (iya-ille), s. mistress, wife ; the first or elder 

wife. The other wives are called Iyawo. 
Iyalle-ero, s. hostess, landlady. 
Iyalode ( — ni-ode), s. title given to wise women. 
Iya- wo, s. newly-married woman, bride. 
Iya, s. a tree, the leaf of which is used in wrapping up 

Iyalleta ( — ille-ta), s. the early part of the morning, 

about eight or nine o'clock. 
Iyan, s. pounded yams. 

^Iyan, s. act of neighing like a horse, act of gaping. 
Iyan-rindide, s. quicksand. 
Iyan, s. fear, anxiety; denial, negation, contradiction. — 

Ma diyan, " Fear not." 
^Iyan, s. famine, dearth, scarcity of food ; choice, the act 

of choosing. 
Iyanju (iyan-oju), s. encouragement, exhortation, perse- 
Iyannu (ya-ennu), s. wonder, amazement. 
^Iyangbo, s. chafT. 
Iyangbe, adj. dry, void of moisture. 
Iya-pa, 5. division, separation. 
Iyara, s. activity, liveliness. 

Iyari, s. vivacity, activity ; manifestation of pleasure. 
^Iyatto (ya-otto), s. difference. 
169 z 


Iye, s. number, value, price, cost. 

Iye, s. mind, faculty, understanding, memory. 

Iye, s. reed on which cotton is wound. 

^Iye, s. the act of living, life. 

Iyebiye (iye-bi-iye), adj. valuable, of great price, pre- 

Iyekanbiri (iye-kan-obiri), s. female relative on the mo- 
ther's side. 

Iyekankonri ( — okonri), s. male relative on the mother's 

Iyekuru (eyi-ekuru), s. the very dust ; adj. of the dust. 

Iyemeji (iye-meji), s. doubt, uncertainty, suspense. 

Iyeni, Awi-\;e (ye-enni), s. interpretation ; understand- 

Iyere, s. a kind of spice. 

Iyere, .s. the locust-seed in its raw state. 
Iyeye, s. a kind of sour plum. 
Iye, s. fitness, comeliness, meetness. 
Iye, s. booty, forage. 
^Iye, 5. dust of worm-eaten trees. 

Iye, s. feathers, quill, pen, dow^n ; the act of making 
much of. — Awodi lo ire iye nwon li eiye si lo, " The 
hawks go away for the moulting season, and (the 
ignorant) suppose that these birds are gone for 
Iyefun, s, flour prepared from yams parboiled and 

dried ; flour in general. 
^Iye-wo, s. investigation, examination, visit. 
Iyin, s. esteem, praise, honour. 
Iyi-pada, s. turning, conversion. 

Iyiso (yi-aso), s. the pin inserted through a hole in the 
weaver's beam in order that he may turn it round 
with ease. 
Iyoju (yo-oju), s. appearance, a showing the face. 
Iyoku, s. (Eng.) yoke. 

IvoKiJN (eyi-ti-okun), s. the rest, remainder. 


IvoN, 5. coral. 

IvoNo (yo-ino), s. yearning of the bowels, tender com- 
Iyonu (yo-ennu), s. difficulty, trouble. 
Iyo, s. salt. 

Ivo-oviBo, s. refined sugar (lit. white man's salt). 
I^oKONRi (eyi-9konri), s. the very man, the same man. 


J A, V. a. to break (a rope) ; drop (from aloft) ; v. n. to 
break (as a rope) ; separate by violence ; come to 
the road ; find out ; snatch. 
Ja followed hy Lekanna (ni-ekanna), to pinch with the 

nails of the fingers. — ja mi le- 
kanna, " He pinched me." 

Lennu-Ommo (ni-ennu), v. a. to wean 

from the breast. 
J A, V. n. to fight, war, quarrel, dispute. 

JAfolloived hy LoLE (ni-ole), v. a. rob, plunder. 
NiKORo, V. a. contradict, gainsay, op- 
J A, adv. through. 

Jade (ja-ode), i\ n. to walk, go out. 
Jagan, adv. roughly, cuttingly, vexatiously, harshly. 
Jagudapali, adv. on any account, any how. 
Jagudujagan, Jagidijagan, s. evil-doer. 
Jafara (ja-ifa-ara), v. n. to be negligent. 
Jagun (ja-ogun), v. n. to fight a battle. 
Jagun, s. title of a warrior. 
Jahin-jahin, a(/y. throughout, from one extreme point to 

Jaka, s. cup, mug. 

Ja-koro, v. a. to contradict, oppose by answer. 
J ALE (ja-ole), V. a. to steal, rob. 
Jalle, v. n. to go through. 
Ja-lu, v. a. to attack unawares. 


Jama (je-aniona), s. soldiers, marauders. See Amonna. 

Jamba (ja-ba), 5. damage, mischief. 

Janjan, adv. intensely (applied to the heat of the sun). — 

'Orun mu janjan, " The sun is intensely hot." 
Janduku, s. a wicked person. 
Jankavvo, s. soot. 

JannajA.nna, s. name of a disease. 
Janu (ja ennu), v. n. to boast, brag. 
Jangboro, s. knee-cap. 

Jaoke (ja-si-oke), s. name of a shrub. See Aka. 
Jare (je-are), v. n. to be in the right, be just, please. 
Ja-si, v. a. to lead to, drop into. 
Jagba (ja-ogba), v. n. to perform the task assigned one 

who is in pawn. See Iwoffa. 
Jagbajagba, adv. in great confusion, confusedly. 
Jata, d. n. to be negligent, unconcerned about. 
Jegbejegbe, adv. childishly, unmeaningly. 
Jenia-jenia, Ajenia, s. cannibal. 
Jere (je-ere), v. a. to deserve, gain. 
Jerejere, adv. sparklingly, dazzlingly. — Ide na ndan 

jerejere, " The brass is very brilliant." 
Je, v. n. to answer ; be ; comply with, be willing. 

jE/olloived bi/MA,atix. v. must, ought.— Emi ko je ma 
se ise na, " I ought not to refuse doing the work." 
Je, v. a. to permit, let. — Je ki nlo, " Let me go." 
Je, v. a. to eat, dine ; owe ; deserve, gain. 
Je, Jeje, adv. quietly, easily, softly, gently. — Se jeje, 

" Deal gently," 
Jeballe (je-obba-ille), v. a. and n. to receive the title of 

governor; govern. 
Jebbi (je-ebbi), v. n. to be guilty. — O jebbi oran won, " lie 

was guilty in the matter and then sat in a corner." 
Je-die-die, s. a bird so called from its cry. 
Jeguduragudu, s. worthless, good-for-nothing person. 
JiIje, adv. See Je. 
J e jeje, adc. verv gently, very softly. 

■ 172 


Je-ki, defect, v. mper.mood; let, permit. 

Jepe, defect, v. (always preceded by Iba), had. — Iba jepe 

emi ni, " Had it been I." — Iba jepe 6 lo, " Had he 

Jeri, v. a. to bear witness to. 
Jeiiun, Jeun (je-ohun), v. a. eat, eat food. 
Jewo, (je-owo), V. a. to acknowledge, confess ; affirm. 

See Tenumo. 
Ji, V. a, and n. to steal, pilfer ; awake, rouse, enliven. 
Ji, JiN, V. n. to fall into a hole or pit ; be far or deep. — 

Onna illu won ji, " Their country is far." 
Ji followed hy Lesse (ni-esse), v. n. to strike the heel, 

as one walks in front of another. 

Lese ( — ese), v. a. to strike with the fist. 

Jigbese (je-igbese), v. n. to owe a debt. 

Ji, JiN, prep. to. — Mo fi oran na ji o, " I forgive {lit. the 

matter to) you." 
JiHiN (je-ihin), v. n. to deliver a message, give account. 
JijA, adj. shining, lustrous, bright ; s. fight ; that which 

is to be fought 
JiJADu, V. 71. to scramble. 

JijE, adj. eatable, s. that which is to be eaten. 
JiJiN, s. depth ; distance. 
Jijo, s. resemblance, likeness. 

JiMiJiMi, adc, richly, wealthily, gorgeously, splendidly. 
JiMARATA, Ijimarata, s. a term of abuse. 
JiN, adj. far. See Ji. 

Jin A (ji-ina) v. n. to heal up ; be well cooked or roasted. 
JiNDE (ji-nde), v. n. to rise from the dead. 
JiNNA (ji-onna), adj. far distant. 
JisE (je-ise), v. n. to deliver a message. 
JiYA (je-iya), v. n. to suffer innocently. 
JiYAN (ja-iyan), v. a. to deny, contradict. 
JiGBiNi, adv. abundantly (applied to fruits). — Iggi yi so 

eso jigbini, "This tree bears abundantly." 
Jo, V. n. to dance ; whirl ; burn as fire. 


Jo, V. n. to leak out, drop from an opening or crack, 

suck out. 
JoGUN (je-ogun), v. a. to inherit the property of the de- 
ceased ; take possession of. 
JoKo, V. n. to sit, abide, stay, dwell. 
JoNA (jo-ina), v. n. to burn at the fire. — Ohun ti atejumo 

ki ijona, " If you attend to what is roasting it will 

not be burnt." 
JowERE (ja-6were), v. u. to try hard, struggle, endeavour. 
Jowu (ja-owu), V. n. to be jealous. 
Jo, V. n. to be alike, be similar, resemble. 
JoBBA (je-obba), v. n. to reign, be king over, govern. 
Jojo, adv, very, much, exceedingly (always after a verb 

of abundance). — Enia po jojo, "The people are very 

JoLLA (je-olla), V. n. to enjoy the honour due to another. 
JoLLo, 5. a kind of long-necked calabash. 
Jowo (je-owo), V. a. to let, permit. — J0W9 mi I9W0, " Let 

me (go)." 
Ju, V. a. to throw, cast, fling, be more than ; differ. 
Ju, sign of the comparative, more. The superlative is 

formed by the addition of Lo, — Julo, most. — IW9 

ju mi lo, " You are more than I." See Buru. 
Ju, V. n. to be worm eaten. 
JuBA (je-iba), v.a. to have a grateful remembrance of, 

respect, regard, think of 
JuDi-juDi, adj. not having a clear head, confused. 
JuFU, s. armlet or bracelet of silver or white met?^ (worn 

by the royal family). 
Juju, adj. confused, chaotic. 
JuMO (J9-imo) adv. together, in company. 
Jure, v. a. to point out, direct, show. 
Juwo, (j 11-9 wo), V. n. to beckon with the hand. 




Ka, v. a, to count, reckon ; read ; sit upon, set upon. — 
Ka ille, " Sit on the ground." 

Ka, v. reap, pluck fruits from the tree, roll, fold; fail. 

K'a, aclr. round, around, in a circle. 

Kabakaba, adv. irregularly, roughly, unevenly. 

Kabiyesi, defect, v. (a respectful expression used on the 
approach of a king or great personage) ; Let us be 
all attention. 

Kadun, v. n. to be about the space of a year. 

Kafo, s. a kind of tiglit trousers with long legs. 

Kahoro, s. the name of a shrub. 

Kainkainka, 5. husk of the guinea cornleft after threshing. 

Kaka, adv. instead of — Kaka ki okuku wipe, " Instead of 
his saying." 

Kaka, adv. forwardly, officiously, presumptuously (gene- 
rally qualifying V. La). — I wo la kaka lo li oddo agba, 
" Did you push presumptuously in to the rank of 
elders ?" 

Kakanfo, s. war-captain, title of a war-chief. 

Kakara, s. piece of shell, shell. 

Kaka, adj. strong, violent, forcible ; stiff, unyielding, 
stubborn. — Agbara kaka li afi mu u, " We took it 
with great violence." 

Kakansenla, s. plant called the monkey-kola (named also 

Kako, v. a. to curl, twist. 

Kalle (ka-ille), v. n. to set down, sit on the ground, 

Kalle, adv. around, abroad ; spreading abroad ; noto- 

Kalo (ki-ama-lo), defect, v. let us go ; may we go? 

Kan, adj. (contraction <9/*0kan), one, a certain one, one 
out of many. 

Kan, adj. sour, acid, morose, rough, violent, cross, 
peevish, sore, painful, v. n. to ache. 


Kan, adj. last, ultimate (applied to words of action). — 
Ase kan re li eyi, " This is your last action." 

Kan, v. n. to drop as rain, drip ; pluck, nip off. 

Kan, v. a. to reach, touch at ; nail, drive in with a 
hammer, knock at the door. 

Kanna (okan-na), adj. the same. 

Kanakana, s. a sling. — Enyi ni ki ama taffii, ki ni ki afi 

'^ le ogun, Kanakana li ofi le Boko, " You say that we 

should not shoot arrows : with what, then, shall we 

repel the enemy? 'Twas with a sling that one of old 

repelled the Boko people." 

Kanakana, s. a kind of crow with a white streak on the 
neck. — Kanakana eyi ti nre Ibara ni, efufii ta a ni 
idi pa, oni ise kuku ya, " The crow was going to 
Ibara ; a breeze sprang w\) behind : ' That will help 
me on famously,' (says the crow)." — Kanakana ba kana- 
kana ja,kanakana da kanakana. — Odi-eni ! " The crow 
J fought with the crow, the crow conquered the crow. 

— 'Once !" It is a favourite Yorubagame to repeat as 
many times as possible, without taking breath, sen- 
tences such as the foregoing, containing a recur- 
rence of similar sounds. The number of the 
repetitions is announced as each is completed. See 

Kanga, s. a well. 

Kangara, s. a kind of billhook with a perforated iron 
handle. — Enia kan ni iro kangara bo ni li 9W0, " One 
man makes billhooks to put into the hands of 
others :" i. e. every man has his particular trade. 

Kangi, v. n. to come to a hard point, be difficult. 

Kangun, v. n. to be at the end, be last. 

Kanju, v. n. to be hasty, or in a hurry. 

Kanju-Jaiye, s. one who makes haste to be rich ; a 
covetous man. 

Kanmukanmu, adv. sweetly, with a sweet flavour. 

Kankan, adv. hastily, quickly, fast. 



Kaniiun, 5. rock-salt. — Kanhun li ommo Haiissa, asara li 
ommo Oyibo, gombo li ommo Onire, " Rock salt is 
the produce of Haussa ; tobacco is the produce of 
the men beyond the sea ; the spoon (with which the 
mixture of rock-salt and tobacco is retailed) is the 
produce of the Chief of Ire." 

Kanhunkanhun, adj. sweet-scented. 

Kankan, Kanikan, s. fibres beaten soft, and used for the 
purpose of ablution in the room of sponge. 

Kanki, s. a kind of tight trowsers used by rich farmers. 

Kankun, v. n. to knock at the door. 

Kanno, v. n. to be morose, severe, peevish. 

Kanra, v. n. to be ill tempered, peevish ; fret. 

Kanri, v. a. to strike or touch the head with the victim 
for sacrifice ; nail the skull to a tree. 

Kanrin, Kanrinkanrin, adv. very far off, beyond the 
reach of sight, clean gone. — O lo kanrinkanrin, " He 
is gone quite out of sight." 

Kansoso, adj. alone, only, singly. — On ni kansoso li o lo, 
" He went alone." 

Kantikanti, s. the gnat, small flies which swarm about 
liquor, (supposed to make it sour.) — Kantikanti ko li 
oran akeregbe li pron, " The gnats have no quarrel 
with the calabash ;" i. e. they swarm about it only for 
the sake of the sweet liquor which it may contain. 

Kanu, v. n. to be sorry, feel grief for wrongs done. 

Kara, s. a thorny plant of the acacia tribe ; gland. 

Kara, adv. (usually qualifying the v. la, " to split "), on 
a sudden, precipitately ; loudly, dashingly. 

Karo, s. a bird, so named from its cry. 

Karo, defect, v. may we speak ? 

'KAs,n<iKK,mt€rrog.adv. Is there any thing the matter? I 
hope there is nothing the matter : (a question always 
put when something is suspected). 

Kasse, v. 11. to walk up and down as in the piazza ; 
walk slowly and leisurely ; measure by pacing. 

177 2 a 


Kasse, v.n. to terminate, come to an end. 

Katakata, a(h. here and there, widely dispersed, scat- 
tered about. 

Karawon, s. the conch shell. See Kawon. 

Kati, adv. at all, whatever ; (used chiefly after the words 
Ko st). — Kd si kati nibe, " There is nothing whatever 

Kawo, v. n. to observe things prohibited by the gods. 

Kawon, Karawon, s. the conch shell. 

Karun, v. n. to be the fifth. 

Kasa, adv. proudly. See. v. Yan. 

Kasa, v. 71. to recite the names of the gods. 

Kasa, v. n. to adopt a new fashion. 

Kasan, a running prickly plant, the fibre of which is 
used to mend calabashes. 

Ke, v. n. to exclaim, howl. v. a. to cut, chop. 

Kede, v. n. to make proclamation about the town. See 

Kede, adj. scarce, unfrequent. 

Keferi, s. unbeliever, heathen, pagan. 

Kegbe (ko-egbe), v. n. to associate, walk as friends, keep 

Kegio, Kegiro, 5, a bird, so called from its cry. — Ohun 
kegio ko de orun, " The cry of the kegip does not 
reach the sky ;" (said of one whose voice has not 
much weight). 

Keje, v. n. to be the seventh in order. 

Keke, s. small pieces of grass used for casting lots ; 
ticket ; the reed or grass on which carded or pre- 
pared cotton is suspended preparatory to spinning ; 
ticket by which custom is collected. 

Keke, adv. (representing the sound of hard substances 
struck together, by which their quality is tested.) 

Keke-Idi, Adilu, s. mode of casting lots (a child's game). 

Kekeke, adj. small, little (ones), s. name of an esculent 


Kekelenje, Okelenje, s. a small kind of lizard. 

Kekere, adj. little, small. — Akuko nla ko je ki keker6 
ki o ko, " A large cock does not suffer the small one 
to crow." 

Kerb, v. n. to be little. 

Ke-pe, v. a. to invoke loudly. 

Kere-owu, s. cotton-seed. 

Kerora (ke-iro-ara), v. n. to groan, cry out for pain. 

Ke-si, v. a. to visit, call on, call at. 

Ketiri, KetT (ko-etiri), adj. benumbed, void of sensation. 

Kewu (ke-ewu), v. n. to read ; (term used by the Ma- 

Ke, v. a. to indulge ; set a snare ; leave in a delicate 
state ; cherish. — Ake omm9 bi oju, " He indulges the 
child as (if he were) an eye ;" (said of an over-in- 
dulgent parent). 

Ke, v. n. to grow worse (as a sore); extend; glow; be 
hoarse. — Egbo ke, ina ke, ohun enia ke, " The sore is 
spreading ; the fire is glowing ; the throat is hoarse." 

Kedogun, v. n. to be the fifteenth in order or row. 

Kegan (ko-egan), v. u. to despise, to contemn. 

Kehin, v. 71. to turn the back. 

Keke, s. the cry of the hen ; a kind of black squirrel which 
preys upon birds ; adv. (qualifying Gbe, " to cackle 
as a hen"). — Agbebo ngbe keke, "The hen cackles." 

Keke, adv. gradually. 

Keke, s. profound silence. — Keke pa mp W9n li ennu ; 
or, Keke pa rere, " There is perfect silence." 

Kekke, s. wheel ; instrument used in spinning made of a 
small ball of baked clay, surrounding a small pointed 
stick on which the thread is wound ; spindle. 

Keke-pa, v. n. to be quiet, still, dumb. 

Keko (ko-eko), v. n. to be learned. 

Kelekele, s. spy, traitor, vanguard of an army. 

Kelleku, 5. printed muslin or calico in general. — Kel- 
leku tan okun je, ki ije behe, okun re don, " (The 


printed pattern of) the calico deceives the country 
cloth, (which is usually only dyed to conceal its 
coarse texture or some flaw in it) ; (the calico) is 
not in reality what (the country cloth) takes it to be : 
(for wdiilst the fact of its being dyed might make it 
seem a coarse fabric), the thread is (found on inves- 
tigation to be) fine ;" i.e. Further acquaintance often 
corrects first impressions. 
.1 Kerb, s. fool, one easily enticed or deceived. — Ma se ba 
mi sire ti kere ifi igba okun li oron, " Do not play 
me the trick by which the fool gets a rope round 
his neck." 

Ketta, v. n. to be the third in rank or order. 

Kettala, v. n. to be the thirteenth. 

Kettekette, Ketekete, s. the ass. 

Kewa (kon-ewa), v. n. to be the tenth in order. 

Ki, mter. pron. what ? [rel, pron. in composition ;) whoso- 
ever, whatever. — Ki ni la ? " What ?" 
\l Ki, V. a. to salute, greet. — Enniti ko ki 'ni abo, o pa 
adano e' ku ille, " He who does not salute (his friend) 
on his return from a journey forfeits the salutation 
(usually offered) to him who has remained at 

Ki, v. n. to be thick. 

Ki, V. a. to press tight ; load ; recite one's praises ; fulfil 
a term. — Mo kitta, " I fulfilled three days." 

Ki, conj. that ; though ; KI babba ki ole fu mi, " In order 
that my father may give me." (The latter ki is 
frequently omitted.) Ki awa ole ilo, " That we may 
be able to go." In interrogative sentences it often 
takes the sense of " may." — Ki awa ki oma lo ? 
" May we go ? (lit. be going)." — Ki aga, ki ago, ede 
ara wa li ako gbo, "We may express different 
opinions (^llt. talk this and that), (but) it is because 
we do not (clearly) understand one another." 

Ki, adv. before a certain time, previously. — Ki nto lo, 


" Before I go." — On ti se e ki emi ki oto lo, " lie 
did it before I went." 

Ki, Ki, adv. not. See Ko. 

KiBiTi, KiRiBiTi, adj. within a small compact compass. 

KiBiTi, KiRiBiTi, adj. enclosing a large and extensive 

KiGBE (ke-igbe), v. n. to howl, cry out, call with a loud 

KiJiPA, s. a coarse country cloth woven by women. 

KiKAN, adj. sour, painful. — Otti kikan, "Sour liquor." 

KiKAN, verbal adj. that which is to be dropped. 

Kikan, Kikankikan, adv. earnestly, strenuously, exceed- 

Kike, verbal adj. that which is to be cut off. 

Kike, verbal adj. that which is to be indulged. 

KiKi, verbal adj. one who is to be saluted. 

KiKi, verbal adj. that which is to be pressed. 

KiKi, adv. only, solely, nothing else but. 

KiKiEJJE, adj. bloody, full of blood. 

KiKiNi, adj. least, smallest. 

KiKORO, s. and adj. bitter. 

KIko, s. and adj. that which is to be taken or gathered. 

KiKO, verbal adj. that which is to be refused. 

KiKO, verbal adj. that which is to be learnt. 

KiKON, s. and adj. that which is to be filled ; s. fulness. 

KiKu, s. and adj. corpse, any thing dead ; dead. 

KiKUN, adj. hard, loud. 

KiKUN-KiKUN, adv. hardly, loudly. 

KiKUNNA (kun-ina), ac^. smooth, fine. 

KiLLo, Kilo (ki-ilo), v. n. to warn authoritively, correct 

by punishment. 
KiNi, 2)ron. any thing, something. 
KiNiJEBE, adv. nay ! not at all ! by no means ! in no 

wise ! {lit. what has such a name ?) 
KiNi-KiNi, adv. regularly, neatly, orderly ; accurately. 
KiNisi, s. carpet. 


KiNKiN, GiNGiN, adj. very little ; s. a very small por- 

KiNLA, inter. }iron. {emphatic) What ? 

KiNNiu, Keniu, s. lion. — Kinniu di elewon ki erankoki 
ki oma iso je, kinniu ko je eran ikasi : Bi yio ba don 
ani, bikose erin, bi-ko-se enia, bikose ohun dudu, on 
ko beru ennikan, " The lion is the snare {lit. net) of 
J the forest : let every beast take heed how he feeds, 

for the lion does not eat stale meat. When he roars 
he says, Except the elephant, except man, except 
the Uran-utan {lit. the black thing) I fear no- 

KiNRiN, v. a, to rub slightly as with a sponge. — Kinrin 
mi li ehin, " Rub my back." 

KiREJE, KiwEJE (ko-iweje), ?;. w. to twist, entangle ; curl 
like thread or silk. 

KiRi, KiRiKiRi, V. n. to wander, rove about at large. 

KiRiBiTi, adv. See Kibiti. Cf. Adagun. 

KiRiBiTi, adv. See Kibiti. 

Kmi-Mo, V. n. to press, insist upon, be urgent, be impor- 
tunate, apply hard at. — Okonri na kirimo ise aso ise, 
" The man applied closely to his weaving." 

KiRON (ki-oron), v. n. to pray {lit. to salute the heaven). 

KisAN (ki-isan), v. n. to fulfil nine days. 

KiTTA (ki-etta), v.n. to fulfil three days. 

KiuN, adj. very little. 

KiwEJE, V. See Kireje. 

KiYAN, adv. at once. — Mo dide kiyan lo si ibe, " I started 
at once and went there." 

KiYE followed h\) Si (ko-iye-si), v. a. to notice, behold, ob- 

Kivesara (k-oiye-si-ara), v. n. to take care of oneself 

Ko, y. a. to meet, come together face to face ; confront, 
oppose ; re-kindle a fire, by heaping together the 
half-burnt wood. 
Ko followed hif Lojr (ni-oju, on the face), v. a. confront, 


meet face to face. — Emi ko o loju, " I confronted 

K6, V. a. to gather, take in a large quantity. 

K6, V. n. to harden from overripeness. — Ila ko li oko, 
" The ila at the farm has grown hard." 

Kofolloived by Jo, v. a. to gather together. 
So, y. a. to govern, restrain. 

Ko, Ko, Ho, Ki, Ki, adv. not. Ko is the simple form 
of the negative, merely stating non-existence. — Babba 
ko de, "(My) father does not come." — Awa ko ja, 
"We did not fight."— Awon agba ko dide, "The 
elders did not stir." Ko denies a state or action 
attributed to one by another. — Iwo ni mo ri lode, 
" I saw you out." — Emi ko, elomiran ni, " Not me, it 
was somebody else." Ki, same signification as the last, 
but used generally, by euphonic attraction, before a 
word beginning with i. — Emi ki ije bi o pe mi, " I am 
not such as you took me to be." Ho, same signifi- 
cation as Ki. Ki is commonly used instead of Ko in 
interrogative sentences. — Iwo ki mo ri lode ? " Was 
it not you I saw out ?" 

Ko, adv. (expressing the sound of a hard hollow sub- 

KoBiKOBi, adv. (expressive of the mode of the eruption 
of pimples). 

KoBiKOBi, adv. (expressive of the mode of the eruption 
of boils). 

KoBiTA,5.a rider's shoes or boots on which spurs are fixed. 

KoiTO (ko-ti-to), adv. not yet, not enough. 

KoDEDE, adv. no wonder ! 

K6-JIN, adj. not far, not deep, shallow. 

KoKiKi, V. a. to magnify, speak the fame of. — Gbogbo 
aiye kokiki re yika, "All the world over do they 
speak your praises." 

KoKO, KoRiKO, s. grass. 

Koko-Gbigbe, s. straw, dry grass. 


KoKo, s. the cocoa, (an esculent root). 

KoKO, s. knot on a tree. 
K6ko-Ow6, s. knuckles. 
KoKo-EssE, KoKosE, s. anklc. 

KoKO, adv. very, much, exceedingly. — Ara ni mi koko, 
" 1 am exceedingly straitened." 

KoKORo, s. worm, grub, insect. — Kokoro jiwo jiwo, ko- 
koro jobi jobi lara obi li o wa, enniti nseni ko gbon 
'ni lo, " (As) the grubs eating the iwo, and the grubs 
eating the obi, lodge within the iwo and the obi 
nut ; so he that betrays you is not far from your per- 

KoLE (ko-ille), f . a. to steal in a dwelling-house, carry 
away from a house, (lit. to carry away a house). 

KoLERA, aclj. feeble, weak, infirm. 

KoLOLO (ko-ololo), v.n. to stutter, stammer. 

KoLOFiN, 5. a lawless person. 

KoMOREKOMORA. (ko-mo-ore-ko-mo-ora), s. an unthank- 
ful person. 

KoMOKUN, s. the cartilage which joins the right and left 

Ko-Ni-BABBA, s. Orphan on the father s side. 

Ko-Ni-LEKOLONNA (ko-ni-ille-ko-ni-onna), Asa, 5. vaga- 

KoNKOTO, s. name of a plant ; any thing used by chil- 
dren at play to represent the worship of idols. — 
Konkoto orisa ewe, " The Konkoto is the play-god 
of children." 

KoNwoKO, s. a bird so called from its cry. 

KoRiKO, s. grass, herb. 

KoRiRA (ko-iri-ara), s. to abhor, abominate, hate. — Ako 
rira ko ni nkan odun ko sian sokoto, " As the envious 
man is unfit for any society (lit. has nothing), so 
grass matting is unfit for trowsers." 

KoRo, V. n. to be bitter. — Akere koro bi idapa, '' He is a 
little man, but he is as bitter as gall." 


KoRo, Akoso, s. smelting-pot. 

KoRO, adv. very ; {qualifying v. Jalle, to go tlirough). — • 
Okuta la jalle koro, "The rock split to the very 

KoROKORo, 5. brass bells put on horses' necks. 

KoROPOMU, s. name of a plant. 

KosiAN, KosuAN, KosuwA (ko-son-ewa), adj. improper, 

Ko-si-NKAN, adv. there is nothing ; it is empty. 

Koso, s. drum. 

KosoRo (ko-se-oro), adj. easy, possible. 

KoTnro, Koito, adv. not yet. 

Koto, adv. not enough. 

Koto, s. pit, hole, ditch. 

KoTo-AiYA, s. the hollow between the breast-bone and 

the stomach. 
KoTO-jiGONRON, s. deep valley, ravine. 
Koto-Oke, s. valley. 

KowE, s. a bird so called from its cry. 

Ko, V. 71. to refuse, be unwilling, rebel, revolt. 

Ko followed hy Sille (si-ille), v. n. to abandon, refuse. 

Kd, Ho, adv. not. See Ko. 

Ko, v.a. to learn, acquire, teach, instruct ; build. — Mo ko 
ise kan, " I learnt a work." 

Ko, V. a. to emit flashes of light (as lightning) ; be vivid ; 
call one at a distance, write, make marks upon, 
tattoo. — Manamana ko san, " It lightens vividly." — 
Mo ko si 'o li oko ngko gbohun re, " I called out for 
you in the farm but did not hear your voice." 
Kofolloived hy Nila, v. a. to tattoo, circumcise. 

KoBBi, s. buildings in the king's palace, projecting build- 
ings, palace. — Enia lassan ko ni kobbi olowo ko ni 
ilari, " As no (subject, however) rich, may possess a 
herald, (a privilege belonging exclusively to the 
king) ; so it is not every man who may possess a 
185 2 B 


KoBRi-Konni, adv. with many projections. 

Ko-DE, adj. not ripe, not soft. 

Ko-FE, v.a. to dislike, refuse. 

KoiiAN, V. n. not to appear, not to shew. 

Koi-Koi, adv. indirectly, suspiciously. — Agalamasa o rm 
koikoi", " A rogue walks suspiciously." 

KojANNA (ko-ja-onna), adj. {lit.ywi of the way) ; absurd ; 
not ria:ht. 

KojA, V. a. to pass by, omit. 

Ko3A, prep, above, beyond. 

Kojusi, V. a. to turn the face to, pay attention to, face. — 
Babba koju rere si mi, " The father looks favourably 
towards me." — Obba koju buburu si aw on olotte, 
" The king looks at the rebels with an evil eye." 

KojujAsr, v.a. to resist, withstand, face, oppose. 

Ko-KARA, V. n. to howl aloud. — Ikokara, s. a loud howl- 

Kola, v. a. to tattoo, circumcise : {a decent express'mi to 

he used in translation instead of Dako). 
Kola, v. n. to be tattooed, be circumcised. 
KoLERu, adj. fearless, having no fear. 
Kolla, s. a kind of bitter fruit. 
KoLOKOLO, s. fox. — Kolokolo iba ku adire ko sokun : ko- 

l9kol9 ko gba adire sin, " When the fox dies, the 

fowls never mourn ; for the fox never rears up a 

KoLOFiN, 5. confined or secret place, corner. 
KoLu, V. a. to attack with impetuosity. 
K6n» v. n. to fill, be full. 

Km followed bi/ Lowo, v. a. to strengthen, assist. 
Ko'niko'ni, Ko'ni, v.a. to teach, instruct. 
KoNKOsso, KoKOsso, s. a straw-sieve. — Konkosso ko da 

ku elubo, " The sieve never sifts flour by itself, i. e. 

without some one to hold it." 
KoN, KuN, V. n. to grumble, murmur, hum. 
KoN, KoNRiN, v.n. to sing. 


KoNRON, KoRo, s. the bed of a brook or river, valley. 

KoKOROGUN ,5. an iron wire used to wind the warp- thread on. 

KoKiJ, adj. green. 

KoN-SA, v.n. to dart, pounce upon (as a bird upon its 
prey), descend with full force. 

KoRE, V. n. to disagree, be unfriendly. 

K9RISI (ko-ori-si) v. a. to move towards {lit. turn the head 

KosiLLE, (ko-si-ille) v. n. to refuse. 

KossE, (k9-esse), v. n. to strike the foot, trip, stumble. 

KossEBA ( — ba), V. a. to meet by chance, come upon 

KosoKO, s. a bird so called from the motion of its tail. 

KoTi, ado. heavily, gloomily, sullenly, with reluctance. 

Koto, adj. wrong, crooked, contrary. 

Ku, s. a word of salutation. 

Ku, V. n. to die, wither, be blunt. 

Ku, V. a. to sift. V. n. to be busy here and there, to thun- 
der low, blow into dust. — Ku si ille ku si ode, " To 
go in and out ;" L9 si ihin lo si ohun, "To go here and 
there ;" Re oke re odo, "To go up and down," — are 
synonymous expressions, all signifying, "to be busy." 
— 'Ojo kii, " It thunders." 

Ku, V. n. to terminate, end suddenly, come short. 

KuBusu, s. wool, blanket. 

KuDON, V. a. to be fond of, like very much. 

KuDURu, adv. in a small round body. 

KuFE-KUFE, s. confident boasting. 

Ku-GBE, V. n. to be undone, perish. — Mo kiigbe li ehoro 
idon li oko, mo mu owo ra li aparo idon li abbababa, 
'* 'I am perishing,' is the cry of the hare in the field; 
' I am a spendthrift,' is the cry of the partridge on 
top of the barn." 

Ku-GBU, V. a. to sally forth upon, rush upon without con- 

Kuiiu, adv. (qualifijing v. 116, to make a noise as of a great 



iniiltitude or a vast water-fall). — Nvvon nho kuhu, 

" They are making a great noise." 
KuKU, adv. rather. — Kukii lo, " Go rather (than stay)," 
KuKU, s. the part of the Indian corn on which the grain 

KuKUMO, 5. shirt, country coat with sleeves. 
KuKUNDUKU, s. potatoe, the sweet potatoe. 
KuKURu, adj. short. 

KuKUTE, s. stem, stock. See Ajagajigi. 
KuMo, s. a short stick for self-defence. 
K'jN, V. n. to remain ; v. a. to rub, daub, paint. 
KuN, V. a. to burn, set fire to, enkindle. 
KuN or KoN followed hy Loju, v. a. to appreciate, value, 

KuNKUN, adv. loudly, aloud. 
KuNLE, V. n. to kneel down. 

KuNUNKoiio, name of a tree very like the cotton tree. 
KuNLE, V. n. to kneel down, fall upon the knees. 
KuN-NA, V. n. to be fine (as pulverized flour). 
KuRo, adv. away, oiF. — Ya kuro, " Give way." — -Mu u 

kuro, " Take it away." — O kuro nibe, " He is away 

from the place." 
KuRu, V. n. to be short. — Ommode yi kiiru ju ti ohun lo, 

" This child is shorter than the other." 
Ki Ri BA, {ivord adopted from the coast) s. pail, bucket. 
KuRuiiu, 6'. sound of alarm to fowls at the approach of a 

a bird of prey. 
KuRUKu, KuKu, s. fog, vapour, mist, 
KusA (ku-isa), v. a. to make a courageous attempt. 
Ku-si, V. a. to terminate. 
KiiTA (kii-ita), v. a. to experience a dull market, find a 

bad sale. 
KuTUKUTU, s. very early in the morning. — Kutukutu ki 

iji *ni li erin meji, kutukutu ni ije owuro, biri ni ije 

alle, " The dawn does not come twice to wake a man ; 

the dawn is the time to begin work {lit. the earliest 


part of the day) ; (with) the evening tvviliglit conies 
the niglit." 
KuYE (ku-iye), v. n. to have a bad memory, be forgetful, be 
dull ; (lit. to be of a dead memory). 


La, v. a. and 71. to appear (as the sun or moon in the east) ; 
split into fissures, cleave, crack ; wade ; escape, be 
safe, be rich. — Mo la a, " I escaped it." — IW9 la, 
" You are rich." 

La, v. a. to lick with the tongue ; dream.- Alia ti mo la 
li oru dabi otito, " The dream which I dreamt in 
the night appears as a reality." 

Laba, s. bag, leathern scrip in which provisions are 

Labalaba, s. butterfly. — Tinotino tehintehin ni labalaba 
ifi iyin Olorun; labalaba kii bi ilewu, "Behind and 
before the butterfly praises God (/. e. is beautiful all 
over), though (when touched) it crumbles into dust 
like a cinder." 

Labbe (ui-ahhe), 2)rpp. under, beneath. 

Ladi (la-idi) v. a. to explain, prove. 

Ladiro, or Aladiro (ni-di-ro), s. a false-bottomed vessel 
through which country beer is strained. 

Lagamo, s. the part of the bridle which crosses the fore- 

Lagba, s. horse-w^hip. 

Lagbara (ni-agbara), v. n. to be strong, be powerful. 

Lagbedemeji, pre]), between, in the midst. 

Lagogo (lu-agogo) v.n. to ring a bell. 

La gun, v. n. to perspire, sw^eat. 

Lai, Lailai, adv. ever, for ever ; very, indeed ; never. 

Laiberu (ni-ai-ba-eru), adv. without fear. 

Laibo, adj. open, uncovered. 

Laifova (ni-ai-fo-aiya) adv. without fear, boldly. 


Laill:ri ( — ni-eri), adv. without defilement, purely. 

Lailo, adj. unused. 

Laimore ( — mo-ore), adv. ungratefully. 

Lairi, rtr^". unseen, invisible. 

Lainipekun (ni-ai-ni-ipekun), adv. without end. 

Laisettan ( — se-ettan), adv. without deceit, unfeignedly. 

Laiya (ni-aiya), adj. bold, brave. 

Laiye (ni-aiye), adv. in the world. 

Laiye, adj. unfit, unworthy. 

Laja (la-ija), v. a. to reconcile, make peace. 

Lajo ( — 'ejo) V. a. to settle a dispute. 

La-kaka, v. n. to strive with all one's might, press, 
struggle ; presume, intrude. 

Lakalaka, s. a hop on one leg ; a game in which chil- 
dren sing, ''' Lakalaka tombo, lakalaka tombo," as 
they hop along, 

Lakari, s. patience under vexation. — Lakari babba iwa, 
bi o ni suru ohun gbogbo li o ni, " Patience is the best 
of dispositions : he who possesses patience, possesses 
all things." 

Lakise, adv. however. 

Lako (ni-ako), v. a. to gain a prize, win a race. 

Lakoko (ni-akoko), adv. punctually ; exactly ; precisely 
(as to time or place). 

La-ku-egbe, s. a kind of rheumatism. 

Lakotan (ni-ako-tan), adv. finally, totally, altogether. 

Lala, s. trouble, distracting care, solicitude ; agitation, the 
act of wronging ; labour. 

Lalla (la-alla), v. n. to dream a dream. 

Lamoran (la-im9-oran), v. a. to propose, advise, plan. 

Lanna (ni-anna), v. n. to make a road or path ; propose, 
suggest; ordain, order. 

Lanna (ni-anna), adv. yesterday. 

Lara, prep, in ; by, through; on; among. ' 

Lapata, Massa, .<?. a kind of cake made of maize. 

Lara, s. the castor-oil plant. 


Lara (ni-ara), adj. stout, bulky. 

Lara, prep, from, by, in (Ut. on the body) . 

Larin ( — arin), jyrep. between, amidst, among. 

Larinka (oni-rin-ka), s. domestic rat. 

Lare (ni-ire), adj. tiresome, wearisome, fatiguing. 

Larekereke (ni-areke-reke), adj. crafty, cunning. 

Lassan (ni-assan), adv. in vain, for nothing, to no pur- 

Latetekose, adv. in the beginning. 

Latetekowa, adv. at the first coming. 

Lati ( — ati), j;rej;. from (a place or time); to; in order 

Latihinyilo, Latinhilo, Latisisiyilo (ni-ati-ihin-eyi-lo), 
adv. from henceforth, hereafter. 

Latori (ni-itori), conj. on account of, because, for. 

Lawani Rawani (ni-iwa-ni), s. belt, girdle. 

Lawu, adv. all 's well. (An answer to the salu- 
tation, Alalia ko? " Are you well ? " or, " Is it 
peace ?") 

Laye (ni-iye), adj. to be alive. 

Laye ( — aye), adj. capacious, roomy. 

Le, adj. able, powerful, possible. 

Le, aux. V. can, may, might. — Iwg le ilo, "You are able to 
go." — On le ipada, " He may return." 

Le, v. n. to appear (as a new moon), appear on the sur- 
face, blister, v. a. to drive, pursue. — Osu le, "The 
new moon appears." — Ommode le ei'ye li oko, " The 
boy drove the birds off from the farm." 

Le, v. n. to be more than the number specified; exceed. 

Le, v. n. to be hard, strong. 

Leke, v. n. to be above, be prominent. 

Legungoko, s. name of a tree, the leaf of which is pounded 
into powder and used for sauce. 

Lekeleke, s. crane. 

Lepolepo, s. name of a plant bearing a yellow flower. 

Lera (le-ara), v. n. and adj. to be healthy, be strong. 


Leri (le-ori) v. n. to promise ; boast, brag. 

Leri, Lori (ni-ori), adv. above, on the top. 

Le-ti (ni-eti), prep, near, by, close to, on the border of. 

Lewu ( — ewu), adj. dangerous, perilous. 

Le, v. n. to replenish ; patch, be elastic, pliable. — Le 

sokoto mi fun mi, " Patch my trousers for me." 
Le, v. n. to be lazy, indolent. 

Le, Lo, v. a. to transplant, ingraft ; to be night ; to lay 
any thing soft or flat lightly on another. — Alle le, 
" Night is come." 
J Lebbe, s. the fin of a fish ; any flat thing, used as a 
pendant.-^Bi apeja tan, lebbe eja ni iha eja li ennu, 
" When a fish is killed, its tail is inserted into its 
own mouth," applied to those who reap the fruit of 
their own misdoing. 
Leiie, adv. (a word of approbation), well; that is right; 

you have hit the mark. 
Leiiin (ni-ehin), pre}), after, behind, on the back. 
Leiiinleiiin, adj. backward, further back. 
Lerinkan, Lekan (ni-ara-okan), adv. once, at once, once 

more, still. 
Lekarun (ni-ara-kon-arun), adv. fifthly, the fifth time. 
Lekeji ( — eji), adv. second time, secondly. 
Lekerin ( — erin), adv. fourthly. 
Leketta ( — etta), adv. thirdly. 
Lekinni ( — ekinni) adv. first, in the first place. 
Lekun (ille-ekun), s. door. 
Lelle, adj. bending, pliant, yielding (applied generally 

to the wind). 
Lemeji, adj. twice. 
Lemarun, adj. five times. 
Lemerin, adj. four times. 
Lemetta, adv. thrice, three times. 
Lesse-esse, Lesse Lesse, adv. orderly, in a row. 
Lewit, s. down of the palm tree, used by the natives for 
tinder when striking a light with flint and steel. 


Li, L', an eiqiho)iic chanrje of the verb Ni, " to have," before 
words beginning with a, e, e, o, o, u ; e.g. Mo li owo, 
for Mo ni owo, "T have money." On li aso^/or On 
ni aso, " He has clothes." 

Li, h\pre]). {euphonic change from '^ijprep. as above), from, 
at, in. 

LiLE_, adj. solid, hard. s. hardness. 

LiLE, verbal adj. that which is to be driven. 

LiLE, verbal adj. that which is to be transplanted. 

LiLE, verbal adj. that which is to be increased ; elastic. 

LiLo, Ilo, 5. a going, departure. 

LilF, s. an animal of the porcupine tribe which lodges 
under rocks. (Hence the song, " Lili ommo abbe 
okuta, " LilT, a child from under the rock.") 

LiLiLi, adv. a little here and a little there. 

Ld, v. a. and n. to use, make use of; be elastic, bending. 

LoBOTUJE, Olobotuje (ui-ibo-tu-ejje), 5. the fignut tree. 

Lode (ni-ode), adv. outside, without. 

LoDi ( — odi), adv. on the contrary. 

LoGiDo ( — ogido), 5. monkey. 

Loju (ni-oju), prep, before, in the face of, in presence 

LojiJi (ni-ojiji), adv. suddenly, abruptly. 

LojojuMo, adv. day by day, daily. 

L,oju,prep. before, in front, in presence {lit. in the eye of). 

LojuRERE, adv. favourably, graciously. 

LoKE, prep, upon, on the top, above. 

LoKiTi, Olokiti, s. a false bottomed vessel used for 
straining potash. 

LoNi, s. to-day. 

LoRi, v. a. to whirl round. 

LoRi, Leri, jyrep. above, on top. 

LoRU (ni-oru), adv. by night, during the night. 

LoTO (ni-olit9), adv. surely, truly, verily, justly. 

L6wo ( — owo), V. n. to be rich, possess money, be wealthy. 

LoYUN (ni-oyun), v. n. to be pregnant, conceive. 
193 2 c 


Loso, V. n. to squat like a clog. 

Lo, V. n. to go, depart, leave, be away. 

Lo, adv. more than, most. 

Lo, Le, v. a. to transplant, to engraft. 

Lo, adj. contrary, deviating; twisted, not direct; to be 
moderately warm, lukewarm. — Omi na 16 wowo, 
" The water is lukewarm." 

Lo, V. a. to grind ; institute an inquiry ; cry out for lost 

Lo-DURU, V. n. to play the fiddle. See Luduru, 

Logan (ni-ogan), adv. instantly, immediately. 

LoHUN, LoiiuNYi (ni-ohun), adv. there, yonder. 

LoDDO (ni-oddo), prep, from, with, by, at (applied to 

LoDODUN (ni-odun-odun), adv. yearly, year by'year. 

LoKKo (ni-okko), adv. on board, aboard. 

LoLLA (ni-9lla), s. to-morrow. 

LoLLA, v.n. to be honoured, be in authority. 

LoLo, Lowo-Lowo, adj. lukewarm, fetid, adv. lately, 

Lopoiio, V. n. to increase in growth as the ear of Indian 
corn before it becomes full. — Agbado wonyi lopoho 
gbogbo, " The ear of corn increases in bulk." 

LoRA (lo-ara), v. n. to be slow, linger, delay. 

LoRo (ni-or9), v.n. to be rich. 

LossAN (ni-ossa), adv. by day, during the day. 

LossELossE, LossossE (ui-osse), adv. weekly. 

Lososu (ni-osu), adv. monthly. 

Lowo (ni-9wo), prep, from, in, at, under the influence of. 

LowoLowo, adv. lately. See Lolo. 

Lmvowo, adj. lukewarm. 

Lu, V. a. to bore, perforate, v. n. to be perforated, be 
discovered; appear. 

Lu, V. a. to beat, strike, knock. 

Lu, V. a. to mingle, put several things together ; adulte- 


LuDURu, V. a. to play the fiddle by beating the string 

with a stick. 
LuHA (lu-iha), verbal adj. not easily solved, difficult, 

Luju, LuREKOJA, V. a. to beat excessively or severely. 
Lu-KORO, V. n. to hint or speak evil against another in 

order to provoke him. 
LuLLE (lu-ille), V. n. to strike on the ground. 
Lulu, adv. entirely (qualifying son, " to burn"). — Awa 

son iggi na lulu, " We burnt the wood to ashes." 
LuMo, .V n. to hide oneself, hide ; be hidden. 
LuRu, s. the dried and pulverized leaves of the trees 

Okitipo, Egungun, and Ose, used for sauce. 
LuwE, V. n. to bathe. 


Ma, defect, v. to be doing, be in the practice of (con- 
veying the idea of a continued action). — Ma lo, " Be 
going." — Behe ni inia ise lojojumo, " So he does 
daily." — Ma k9Jirsi ise re gidigidi, " Be very atten- 
tive to your work." 

Ma, adv. (a negative particle used only in imperative 
sentences, and frequently with se added), not. — Ma 
rufin mo, " Do not break the law any more." — Mase 
pania, " You must not kill." (When ma alone is 
used, SE is understood.) 

Ma, adv. indeed, truly, very. — I wo ma seun jogo, " You 
are indeed very kind." — Ma ma se yaju si mi, ^' In- 
deed you must not be insolent to me." — Ma ma se 
ma ba won lo si igbe ole, " Pray do not go with 
them kidnapping into the bush." 

Madekoso, s. a beggar who goes from house to house to 
tell news, by which he gains his livelihood. 

Madimilorun (ma-di-mi-ni-orun), s. a dropsical person 
(so called from his desire to enjoy the heat of the 
sun). See Asonkon. 


Madofun, s. a kind of white, well-dressed leather. 
Magaji, s. heir, the first-born. 
Maiiurumaiiuru, s. cry of a beast of prey. 
Majala, s. soot ; burnt grass ; flake. — Bi ina ba jo oko 
majala afo wa ille, " When fire burns in the fields, 
the flakes fly to the town." 
Majemu, s. covenant, agreement between persons as to 

certain specified particulars. 
Majew E, Majere, s. girth, saddle-band. 
Malu, s. bull, cow, ox. 
Mama, adv. not indeed. 

Mam9ja (mo-amo-ja), v. n. to guess, conjecture. 
Malaju, 5. a kind of water rat remarkable for stupidity. 

See Ago. 
Mana, s. name of a bird ; kind of white fowl. 
Manamana, s. lightning. 
Manamana, s. a kind of snake. 
Maranmaran, adv. dazzlingly, glisteringly. — Awojiji 

ndan maranmaran, " The glass glisters brightly. 
Mararun, adj. the W'hole of the five, all five. 
Marimaje, s. one who makes no choice of food. 
Mariv/6, *. slips of palm leaves. 
Massa, s. a kind of pancake. 
Masso, adv. only, even. 
Mate, 6-. a snare for birds and beasts. 
Mato, adj. not to be touched, respected, sacred. 
Mayafi, s. sash, belt. See Law^ani. 
Mayami, s. small bag used by hunters, containing ammu- 
Maraduro (mu-ara-duro), v. n. to contain, endure. 
Masai (ma-se-ai), adv. (two negatives equivalent to an 
emphatic affirmative). — Masai wa, " You must surely 
come." — Masai wi, "You must tell (me)." 
Masegbin, 5. a species of deer. 
Mbe, v.subst. to be, exist, live. 

Mbe-nibigbogbo (mbe-ni-ibi-gbo-gbo), s. omnipresence. 
" 196 


Meffa, adj. six. 

Mej-eji, adj. both, the two together. 
Mejejila, aJ/'. the whole of the twelve, the twelve. 
Meji-la, adj. twelve. 

Meji-meji, adj. two and two, a couple, pair. 
Melo, adv. how many. 
Melo-melo, adv. how much more. 
Melo-kan, adj. a few. — Ijo melokan, " A few days." 
Medogbon (marun-di-ogbon), adj. twenty-five. 
Megbe (mu-egbe), adj. mealy, void of moisture, well 
seasoned. — Isu megbe fiiru, "The yam is very 
Mejan-mejan, adv. (expressing the idea of elasticity.) 
Merin, adj.huY. 
Mererin, adj. the four together. 

Merin-merin, adv. fourfold. 

Meseri (mu-eseri), v. n. to taste rancid, deteriorate. 

Metta, adj. three. 

Mettametta, adj. three at a time, by three. 

Mettala, adj. thirteen. 

INIettalokan, adj. three in one. 

Metteta, adj. all three. 

Mewa-mewa, adv. in groups of ten, by tens. 

Mewewa, adj. the whole of the ten. 

Mi, pron. object, case (contr.from Emi), me. 

Ml, V. a. to shake, swallow. 

Mi, V. n. to breathe, take breath. 

MiKANLE (mi-kan-ille), v. n. to sigh, breathe heavily or 
mournfully ; breathe freely, take a full breath. 

MiMO, adj. holy, clean, pure. 

MiMo-BVA, s. holiness of life, purity. 

MiMo, s. that which is to be known. 

MiMO, s. that which is to be drunk ; that which is to be 

MiMu, s. that which is to be caught or taken ; sharpness, 
keenness ; burning heat. — Mimu orun ko jo mimu 


abbe; " The burning heat of the sun is not like the 
keenness of a razor." 
MiNA, s. (Gr.) pound. 
MiRAN, M7, adj. another, something else. {Contracted 

from Omiran.) 
Mo, pers.proti. I. 

Moju-KURO (ms-oju-kuro), v. n. to take off one's attention. 
More (m9-ore), v. n. to be grateful, know and acknow- 
ledge kindness done to one. 
MoRu (mu-oru), adj. sultry, close, warm. 
Mo YE (mo-oye), v. ?i. to have power of perception ; be 

prudent, discreet. 
Mo, pers.pron. {for Mo before short vowels.) I. 
Mq,v.n. to be clean, clear, light as the day. v. a. to 

stick on, adhere, cleave to. 
Mo, Mu, -y. n. to drink, suck. 
Mo, V. a. to build. 

Mo, V. a. to know, perceive, recognise ; understand. 

Mo, adv. again, any more ; {frequently preceded hy Ma or 

Mase). — Mase lo mo, " Do not go again." — Ma duro 

mo, "Do not stay any longer." — Ma wa mo, "Do 

not come again." 

Mo, prep, against. — Okonri na se illekun mo mi, " The 

man shut the door against me." 
Modi, v\ n. to fortify with walls. 

MoDU-MODUN, MoNUMONu, s. braiu ; marrow. — Modu- 
m9du babba ejje, " Marrow is the father of blood." 
Modumodun-Egungun, s. marrow and fatness of the 

MoiiuNGBOGBO (mo-ohuu-gbo-gbo), adj. knowing all 

things, omniscient. 
Moi-Moi", s. a kind of cake. 

MojE (mo-aje), v. n. to undergo the ordeal by water. 
MojuMo (mo-oju-mo), v. n. to dawn, be light. 
MoKANLA, adj. eleven. 
Mokokanla, adj. the whole of the eleven. 


MoKOKO (ino-iko-ko), v.n. to make country pots; smoke 

a pipe. 
MoKUN (mi-ikun), v. n. to halt, walk lame. 
MoLLE (mp-ille), v. n. to conspire, bargain secretly ; 

shine, give light. 
MoLLE (mo-ille), adv. close to the ground, adhering to 

the ground. 
Mora (mo-ara), adv. closely, near to. — Fa ommo mora, 

" Take the child near (you)." 
MoTi-MOTi, adv. closely, hard to, hard by, near to. 
/ MoTTi-MOTTi, Omotti, s. drunkard. — Mottimotti ko mo 

agbe ji, 9motti gbagbe ise ijaba, "The drunkard 

cannot drink a hole in a calabash, though he may 

drink so as to forget his trouble." 
MoTTiYo, (mo-otti-yo), v. 7i. to be drunken; to have 

drunk to the full. 
Mu, V. a. to take, bring, hold, seize, catch. 
Mis/ollowed hy Kuro, v. a. to take away. 

Pada, v. a. to return any thing, bring 

back, restore. 

Wa, v. a. to fetch, bring. 

Jena, v. a. to heal a wound or sore. 

Mu, adj, sharp, acute, keen. 

Mu, V, n. to sink, disappear, be immersed in water or 

among a crowd. 
Mu, s. {Haussa, Sinkafa), rice. 
MuLLE, V. n. to strike firmly on the ground. 
MuNu, V. n. to be active, warm, fiery. 
MuRA, V. a. to prepare, make oneself ready ; {Imp. mood, 

" make ready "). — Emi ti mura tan, " I have been 

Muse, v. a. to bring to pass, make effectual, perform. 

N, sign o{ present part. 

Na, adv. already, so soon ; in the first place, first. — I wo 


te de na ? " Are you come already ?" — Tete se eyi na, 
" Do this first." 

Na, pron. the same, that. — Okonri na ni, " That is the 
same man." 

Na, Ne, v. a. to spend, trade. — Ovvo ti mo na lonl po 
jojo, " I have spent much money to-day." — Oja ti 
m9 na ko san mi, " My trade does not pay me." 

Na, v. a. to flog, whip. — Balle na esin re ni pa san me- 
rin, " The master of the house flogged his horse with 
four stripes." 

Na, Ne, v. n. to spread, extend. — M9 na owo si'o, "I 
stretched out my hand to you." — Na as9 ni sa fun 
mi, "Spread out that cloth to dry for me." 

Naga, Nega (na-iga), v.n. to stretch oneself so as to 
reach an object. 

Nagudu, s. very full trowsers confined round the foot. 
\J Naja (na-oja), v. n. to employ oneself in trading ; to trade. 
— Enniti a mba inaja li awo aid iwo ariwo oja, " You 
must attend to your business with the vendor in the 
market, and not to the noise of the market." 

Namai, s. a ring used by archers for drawing their bow. 

Naro (na-iro), v. n. to stand upright. 

Nani, v. a. to care for, be concerned about, make much of. 

Na-tantan, v. a. to stretch with violence, throw into con- 
vulsion or spasm. 

Nawo (na-owo), v. n. to spend money. 

Nawo, v. n. to stretch the hand ; pass from one hand to 

Nawo-nawo, s. a profligate, spendthrift. 

Nan, Ndan, adv. (used at the end of a question to give it 
emphasis). — IW9 le ise iru ohun behe ndan, "Are 
you able to do such things then ?" 

Ndawo, adv. no, never. 

Nega, v. See Naga. 

Ng, Ing, jjers. pron. I {frequently used instead of Emi and 


Ni, dem. jDrow.'that {referring to somethinq previously under- 
stood). — Kinni ni nko, " Where is that thing ?" {Com- 
pounded with Bi it assumes the sense o/* though.) — Bi 
emi ko ti le ilo ni, sugbon mo mo ohun gbogbo ti 
enyin se, *' Though I could not go, yet 1 know all 
that you did." 

Ni, pron. contraction of Enni, one, some one, (used inde- 
finitely.) — Babba ba 'ni wi, "(My) father rebuked 
one." — O wi fun 'ni pe on yio I9, " He told us that he 
would go." 

Ni, i\ a. to have, possess, get, put in possession, load (as 
a ship or canoe). — Mo ni fiUa meji daradara, "I 
have two good caps." — Awa niko, " We have loaded 
the canoe." See Li, L'. 

Ni, V. n. to say. — Mo ni ki o wa, " I say that he will 

Ni, v. subs, to be, is, it is, being. ( Used in opposition to 
Ko, "Not.")— Emi ni, "It is I."— Emi ko, "It is 
not I." 
^i followed hy Lara (ni-ara), v. n. to be hard, uneasy, 

to be uncomfortable, be inconvenient. 
— Ise na ni mi lara, " The work is 
not easy for me." 
NiRAN, v. a. to remind, put in remem- 
brance. — Mo ni o niran oro iio ni, 
"I remind (you) of that day's word." 

Ni, prep, at, by, from, in, on, to. (Ni is changed, for euphony, 

ifito Li or L' — which see — before all the vowels except i); 

e.g. Babba wa mbe li oko, " (My) father is in the farm ;'' 

instead of Ni oko. Ni, Lr, and more commonly l, 

expressing a condition or state, are very much used in 

composition : the word to which it is joined modifies or 

determines the signification; e.g. Loke (li-oke), "on 

top." — NisALLE (ni-isalle), " at the bottom." — Gba 

aso wa lowo (li-owo) re, "Fetch cloth from his 

hand." — O mbe loddo re, " It is by him." 
201 • • . ^-^ 


NiBAYi, adv. there, yonder. 

NiBi, prep, in at a place, 

NiBi-KAN, adv. somewhere ; in one place or locality. 

NiBi-KiBi (ni-ibi-ki-ibi), adv. anywhere, whithersoever, 

NiBiTi ( — ti), adv. at the place which, where. 

NiBE ( — be), adv. there, thence. 

NiBO (ni-ibo), interr. adv. Where ? 

NiBo, adj. wide, broad, v. n. to be broad. 

NiBOMiRAN, NiBOMr (ni-ibi-omi-ran), adv. elsewhere, in 
another place. 

NiBu, NiBUBU (ni-ibu), s. a cross. 

Nidi, prep, concerning about. 

N IDA- Y ED AYE, adv. now and then. 

NiGBA (ni-igba), adv. while, when, at a particular time. 

Nigbarugb' ( — ku-igba), adv. oft, often, always, often- 

NiGBA-MiRAN, NiGBA-T\iT, adv. sometimcs, at times. 

Ni-gbangba, adv. publicly, openly. 

NiGBAWo ( — ewo) ? adv. inter, adv. when ? at what 
time ? 

NiGBosE ( — igba-ti-o-se), adv. by and by. 

NiGBATi ( — ti), adv. when, while, at the time 

NiGBA-GBOGBo, adv. always, at all times. 

NiGBANi (ni-igba-ni), ado. in time of old, in ancient 

NiGBAYi (ni-igba-eyi), ado. now, at this time. 

NiGBEiiiN adv. hereafter, afterwards. 

NiiiA ( — iha), I? /•<?/>. about a place, on the side of. 

NiiiiN, NiiiiNYi (ni-ihin-eyi), adv. hence, here. 

NiiiiNYiBAYi (bi-eyi), adv. here in this place. 

NiJETTA (ni-ijo-etta), s. the day before yesterday. 

NiJOKANLOGBON ( — okan-le-9gbon), adv. seldom. 

NiJOKETTA (kon-etta), s. the third day. 

Nijo-GBOGRO, adv. daily, every day. 

Ni-KAN, adj. alone, single. 


NiKAN-soso, adv. solely, singly. 

NiKEiiiN (ni-iko-ehin), adv. afterward, finally. 

NiKo, Nko, adv. (used at ike end of a question), then, 
how then. — lya re nko, " How is your mother then ?" 
— Eyi ha nko, " How is this then ?" 

NiKOKo (ni-ikoko), adv. in secret, secretly. 

Ni-LAi-LAi, adv. of old, in time past. 

Ni-LOLO, adv. lately, of late. 

NiLA, adj. large, big. — Illugi nila, " This town is 

Nina (ni-ina), v. n. to have length, to be long. 

Ni-ni, s. owner ; property. 

NiNi, adv. very, exceedingly {qiiaUfying v. tutu, to be cold). 
— O mi tutu nini, '' This water is very cold." 

NiNi, s. hailstone. 

NiN6,j9?'ep. among, from, inside, from within. 

NiNo-NiNo, adj. inmost. 

NiPA, NiPASsE, prep, by, through, in, according. 

NipEKUN, V. n. to have an end, terminate. 

Nipo (ni-ipo), prep, instead, in the room of. 

NiPON, V. n. to be thick at the edge (as a plank). 

NiRAN (ni-iran), v. n. to remember, call to mind, have a 
recollection of. 

NiRiN, s. a kind of rat. 

NisALLE (ni-isalle), prep, underneath, beneath, below. 

Nisi, V. n. to care, be concerned about a thing — Emi 
ko nisi, " I have no care about it." 

Ni-si-si-Yi, adv. soon, now, just now, directly. 

NiSAJu (ni-isa-ju), adc. before, formerly. 

NiTi, adv. in that, because that. 

NiTORi, NiTORiNA, Ntori, Latori (ui-itori), conj. be- 
cause, on account of, wherefore, for the sake of. — 
Nitori mi li o se wa, " He came on account of me." 
— Nitori ki ni ? " On account of what ?" 

NiTosi, s. neighbourhood. 

Nitoto (ni-ti-oti-to), adv. in truth, truly. 


NiWA, V.71. to have a good disposition, be affable, be 
kind ; have a good quality. See Ireke. 
y NiWAJu (ni-iwa-oju), pre}), (iised before a place or per- 
son'^ forward ; before, beyond, in, from. — Nwon koja 
niwaju ille wa, " They passed before our house." — 
Niwaju li ati ijogun ehin li ati ise agba, " A man 
may be born to a (large) inheritance ; but wisdom 
only comes with length of days." 
Niw^oYi (ni-iwo-eyi), adv. now, about this time, 
NnvoNBi, adv. inasmuch as. 
NiYENiNO (ni-iye-ni-ino), v. n. to have a good memory, 

be understanding. 
NiyIn ( — iyin), adj. grand, famous, (lit. having fame). 
Njebi, Nje, adv. if then, if so, therefore. 
Nkan, (contracted from Oiiun Okan), s. a certain thing, 

a thing, something ; goods. 
Nkan-ki-nkan, 'pron. any thing, whatsoever, whatever. 
Nko (on-ko), adv. not, (lit. it is not that). 
Nla, adj. great, large. 
Nla-nla, adj. very great, very large. 
Nn, adv. not, (frequently used in exclamations) No ! 

'^0 followed by No, v. a. to wipe off, erase. 
No, v.n. to be lost. — Ommo ki ino bi eranko, " A child 

cannot be lost like a beast." 
No, adv. off, away. — Gbe e ju no, " Cast it away." — -Ko 

o da no, " Gather them and throw them away." 
Nso, NsoKALO, V. n. {imp. mood) proceed, go on, let 

us go. 
NwoN, AwoNG, pers. pron. they. 
'NYiN,|;e?*5. jjron. (contr. of lEtNYi^), you. 

O, j^ron. 2d yers. sing, (used frequently instead of Iwo be- 
fore long vowels i, e, o), thou — O ri mi, /or, Iwo rimi, 



" Thou seest me." — O se won mo, " Thou shuttest 
them up." — O ro won ka, " Thou surroundest them." 
(By euphonic attraction before the short vowels a^ e, o, 
O is changed into 'O — a contraction of Iwo — e. g. 'O 
ko mi ni \^e,for, Iwokomi ni ise, " Thou taughtest me 
a work." When used as the subject of the verb 
it precedes it as above, but when as an object it 
follows ; e. g. Emi ti wi fun 'O telle, " I have told 
you beforehand.") 

O, On, jyron. 3d pers. sing, (usually preceding verbs con-" 
taining the vowels i,e, and o,) he, she, it. — 6 de, " It 
is shut." — O le mi, '' He drove me." — On ko won, 
*^ He gathered them." 

O, U, pron. 3d pers. sing. ohj. case (generally governed by 
a verb containing the vowel o\ him, her, it. — Mo ko 
6, " I gathered it." — Iw9 ko 6, " You met him." 

O, aux V. {contracted from Yio, used in composition as a 
sign of the future), shall, will ; defect, v. must. — 
Babba ode li oUa, " My father will come to-morrow." 
— Emi olo li oni, " I will go to-day." — IW9 ojade 
" You must go out." (Before words commencing with 
the short vowels «, e, 0, the long by euphonic attrac- 
tion becomes 0. — Iwo 9Jade,/or, IW9 ojade. — On 9ke 
mi, /or. On oke mi, "He will indulge me." — Awa 
9ka a, " We will count it.") 

O, aua\ V. /nay, {when preceded hy Ki). — Ki emi ki le 
il9, " That I may be able to go." — Wi fun u ki ole 
iduro, " Tell him that he may stay, or simply to stay." 

O, adv. (of assent), yes ; very well. 

Obi, s. the female of cattle. 

Obi, 5. the kola nut, otherwise called the gura nut. 
See KoKORo. 
Obi-Aya, s. the monkey-kola nut. 

Obi , s. parent. 

Obiri, or Obinri, s. woman, wife, female. 

Obo, s. womb. (Ino shoidd always he used in translations.) 


Obo, 5. hint, private information. 

Obo, s. nurse, foster-parent. 

Obo, s. an instrument used for cleansing cotton seed. 

Obotuje (bo-tu-ejje) Olobotuje, s. the fignut plant. 

Obu, adj. having no principle of life, unsavoury, insipid, 
J flat. s. a stale egg ; a kind of saltish rock. — Obu ko 

to iyo, " Obu is not to be compared to real salt." 

Ode, s. out-of-doors, street. 
(/ Ode s. a kind of small bat. — Bi ako ri adan afi ode sebo, 
" Ifyou cannot obtain a large bat for sacrifice, a small one 
will do instead;" ^.e. one must takethewill for the deed, 
t/ Odi, s. malice.— Bi ino ko li odi, odi ani ino, " If a man 
(lit. the mind) is not malicious, some one will be 
malicious against him." 

Odi, s. a walled fortification round the town, fort; a 
dumb person, one who has lost the power of speech. 

^Odi, s. contrariety, perverseness. 

Odidi, 5. bunch, cluster, the whole of any thing. 
Odidi-Ogedde, s. cluster of banana-fruit. 

Odino, 5. a passionate person. 
1/ ODd,s. brook, river. — Odo, gbe ma gbe oruko, "The 
stream may dry up, but the water-course retains its 
name."— Enniti o W9 odo li onno nko aiya ko fo odo, 
" He who enters a river may fear, but the river itself 
fears not." 

Odo, 5. district, party, a division. 
/ Odo, s. a mortar. — lya odo on ommo re ko ni ija, agbe 
li o dija sille fun won ; ommo odo ki ina iya re 
lassan, " The pestle and the mortar had no quarrel 
between them ; it was the farmer that caused the 
quarrel (by supplying the yam for pounding) ; 
the pestle (lit the child of the mortar) does not beat 
its mother for nothing." — Bi iwo oku iwo a la odo 
ya'na ? " If you are about to die, need you split up 
the (wooden) mortar for fire-wood (instead of leaving 
it for the use of the survivors) ? " 


Ododo, s. scarlet. 

Ododo, s. truth, fact, justice, equality ; right, righteous- 

Odoui, Odorodi, adv. never, not in the least. 

"Odu, s. boiler, caldron. 

Odu, s. companion of Ifa, the god of palm nuts. 

Odu, s. name of an herb. — Odu ki ise aimo oloko, " Odu 
is not unknown to a farmer." 

'Odua, Odudua, s. a goddess from Ife, said to be the su- 
preme goddess in the world. Heaven and earth are 
also called Odudua. — Odudua igba nla meji ade isi, 
" Heaven and earth are two large calabashes, which 
being shut can never be opened ;" referring to the 
apparent concavity cf the sky, which seems to touch 
the earth at the horizon. 

Ofe, 5. parrot ; clever person. — Agbede bi ofe, amo ara ire 
bi odide. Adeb9 fun ofe, ofe ko ru aganran gbe ebo 
o rubo, asinwa asinb9 ofe di ara Oyo aganran di ara 
oko; nwon se bi ofe ko gbon, "Sacrifice being pre- 
*^ scribed to the parrot, he refused to offer it ; but the 
green parrot took the sacrifice and offered it ; after 
all the parrot is a citizen of the capital, and the 
green parrot an inhabitant of the province : (and yet 
people) thought that the parrot was not wise." The 
green parrot is counted a clean bird and offered in 
sacrifice, while the parrot is unclean, and never 

Ofere, Ofe, s. Venus, as the morning star ; the hour of 

cockcrowing, before the rising of the sun. 
Ofi, s. the loom ; that which swings. 

'Ofiji, s. that which is forgiven, forgiveness. 

Ofin, s. law, prohibition, commandment. 

Ofo, s. emptiness. 

""Ofo, s. loss, calamity, damage. 

Ofofo, 5. busybody, talebearer, traitor. — Ase ofofo ko 
gba egba ni ibi ope li o mo ; ofofo li egbon ororo li 


aburo, "A talebearer receives no payment (Jit. not 
2000 cowries) ; thanks are all his reward. Talebear- 
ing is the elder brother, bitterness the younger." 

'Oforo, s. squirrel. — Ennu oforo ni ipa oforo, oforo bi 
omm9 meji 6 ko W9n wa eti onna oni, Ommo mi ye 
korokoro, korokoro, korokoro, "It was the squirrel's 
own mouth that betrayed her ; for when she had 
brought forth two young ones, she carried them to 
the road-side and said, ' My children are very sound, 
very sound, very sound :' " (the word ^ korokoro ' 
resembles the cry of the squirrel). 

Ofua, s. a kind of kola nut ; name of a tree used medi- 
cinally for ablution. 
1/ Ofurufu, 5. emptiness ; the firmament. — Ofurufu ko se 
ifiehin ti, " One cannot lean upon emptiness." 

^Ogbigbi, s. a species of owl. 

Ogbo, 5. old age ; a kind of sword with two edges. — 
/ Ogbo ko li ogun, " There is no medicine against old 


Ogbo, s. a small animal of the cat kind, remarkable for 
its sharp teeth, which are said to be able to cut iron. 

Ogbodo, s. new yams. See Elubo. 

Ogbogbo, s. name of a tree, whose leaf is very useful . 

Ogbogbo, Olugbogbo, 5. club, mallet. 

Ogboju (gbo-oju), s. bold daring person, 

Ogbologbo (gbo-ni-ogbo), rt^'. very old, of longstanding. 
y Ogbova, s. a beast about the size of a cat. — Bi ogboya ba 
fi iru na ille li erimnetta ni illu, illu na atii, " When 
the Ogboya strikes its tail thrice on the ground in 
any town, that town will be deserted," (a super- 

Ogbugbu, s. wild duck; kind of grass; cotton dyed be- 
fore spinning. 

Oge, s. coxcomb, fop. 

Ogede, adv. only. 
\y/ Ogedegbe, Ogedemgbe, adv. headlong, precipitately. — 


Ogedemgbe iro ki ida ni si lyewu gbangba ni ida 
ni si, " The headlong fall of a liar is not concealed, 
but is exposed to view." 

" Ogi, s. starch of Indian corn. 
1/Ogi, s. an old dog, mastiff; an old bachelor. — -Apon di 
ogi o saro, " When a man has become an old bachelor 
he makes his own fireplace ; i. e. has to cook his 
own food." 

Ogidigbo, s. a kind of drum. — Ogidigbo pari ilu gbo- 
gbo. Bi owe bi owe li alii ogidigbo, enniti o ye ni 
ijo o. Gbc5, Ajagbo, gbo, obba gbo, ki emi ki osi 
\/ gbo, " The ogidigbo is the best of all drums ; the 
ogidigbo has a meaning in its sound ; he who un- 
derstands the sound can dance to it — ^ May you be 
old, King Ajagbo, may you be old, may the king be 
old, may I also be old.' " 

Ogiri, s wall (of mud, stone, or brick). 

Ogiri, s. gallop, simultaneous rush. — Esin dogiri, " The 
horse galloped." 

^Ogiri,5. preparation made from Yonmoti seed to flavour 
1/ Ogo, s. glory, praise ; wonder ; a valiant man. — Ileri ille 
ko mo ajagun, kufekufe ko mo ija, ijo ti ari ogun li 
amo ogo, ^' Boasting at home is not valour ; parade 
is not battle : when war is seen the valiant will be 

^Ogo, c<f. one placed at the debtor's house to compel pay- 
ment of a debt ; bailiff. 

Ogodo, s. calf; colt ; the young of beasts in general. 

"Ogodo, s. name of a disease. 

Ogodo, s. name^of a district of Yoruba famous for cala- 

Ogoji (ogun-eji), «r//". forty. 

'Ogongo, s. ostrich. — ^"Ogongo babba eiye, '' The ostrich 
is the father of birds." 

Ogudugbe, s. dropsy. 

209 2 E 


Ogufe, s. a wether. 

Ogumo, s. an esculent herb. 

Ogun, s. that which is obtained by inheritance, bequest ; 

adj. twenty. See Iwaju. 
^ Ogun, -v. the god supposed to preside over iron, imple- 
ments of war, and hunting. 
Ogun, 6'. medicine ; poison. 
Ogun, s. sweat, perspiration. 
Ogun, s. a round stick, bamboo. 
i/ Ogun, s. army, war, battle. — Ija ni ipa onitiju ogun ni 
ipa alagbara, ''(As) a street-quarrel will prove fatal 
to a man afraid of being thought a coward (lit bash- 
ful man), so will war kill a man renowned for 
Ogungun, s. name of a tree. 
Ogurodo, s. the name of a bird, whose nest the natives 

have a superstitious dread of touching. 
Ogurodo, s. standing posture. 
^Oguro, s. wine made from the sap of the bamboo. 
Oguso, s. pipe. 

Oiio-o ! interj. a word of exclamation. 
OiiuN, s. voice, sound, note, cry. 

Ohunrere, s. lamentation, bitter weeping, loud cry. 
OiiuN, s. a thing, something. — Afi ohun we ohun, afi oran 
we oran, fi oran ji ki a niyino, " Compare things wath 
things and words with words, and then forgive that 
you may be praised." 
OnuN-'^lLO, s. utensils, articles for use. 
Ohunkoiiun (ohun-ki-ohun), j^^'on. whatsoever, what- 
OiiuN - Onna, s. tools (Jit. working implements). 
Ohun-^Osin, s. domestic creature, herd, cattle. 
OiBo, Oyibo, 5. one who comes from the country beyond 

the sea. 
Oje, s. sap of trees. 
Oje, s. lead. 

^Oji, adj. forty. 

Oji, s. fine imposed for the guilt of adultery. 

Ojia, 5. gum of trees. — Iggi iya ni ison ojia, " The iya 
tree produces gums." 

Ojigbese, Ajigbese (je-gbese), s. a debtor. 

"Ojigbon, s. corner of a house, gable. 

Ojiji, adv. suddenly, without previous notice. 

Ojiji, s. On, shadow, shade. 

Ojiji, s. an electrical fish, electrical eel, 

^Ojiya (je-iya), s. an innocent sufferer, an oppressed 

Ojiyan (ja-iyan), s. a denier, reasoner, one who contra- 
/^*Ojo, 3. rain. — Gegele li o bi gegele koto li o bi koto, 
djo ro si koto gegele nroju, " Bank rises after bank, 
and ditch foUow'S after ditch ; when the rain falls 
into the ditch, the banks are envious ;" said of 
those who are not satisfied w'ith their position in life. 

Ojo, s. cowardice, fear ; a coward. 

Ojogun (je-ogun), s. heir. 

^Ojojo, s. ague-fit. 

Ojojulle (oju-oju-ille), adv. (from) house to house. 

Ojojumo ( — mo), adv. daily, every day. 
. Ojoro, s. one who cheats at play. 
'^ Ojowu (je-owu), s. a jealous person. — Ojowu ko li eran 
li aiya iba jowu ko yo, " A jealous woman is always 
thin {lit. has no flesh upon her breast) ; for however 
much she may feed upon jealousy, she will never 
have enough." 

Ojove ( — oye), 5. a ruler, a man of title. 

Ojo, adj. daily ; lasting for the day, ephemeral. 
[/Oju, s. eye; aperture (as the eye of a needle); appear- 
ance, face, look, front ; edge of a knife or sword. — 
Ojii babba ara, awon bi oju, asoro ida bi agba, " The 
eye is the father of the body ; as the eye is too dear 
to be purchased, so it is hard to act wellan elder'spart." 


Oju, s. sore, scar. 

Oju-aganju, s. a place in front of the palace in Oyo 

where the god called Aganju was worshipped. 
Oju-Aiye, s. sky, firmament. 

Oju-Agbara, s. gutter; wide road leadingfrom the palace. 
Ojugba, s. equal, companion. 

Ojugon (oju-igon), s. fore part of the leg, shin. — Ojugon 
^ mu odo fohiin, "The leg causes the brook to resound 

(when wading through it)." 
Ojukanna (oju-okan-na), ad'\ instantly, immediately. 
Oju-ko-bire ( — ba-ire), s. bird called the cricket-catcher, 
i/ Oju-kokoro, s. covetousness. — Ojukokoro babba okanjua, 
" Covetousness is the father of unsatisfied desire." 
Ojulafeni ( — ni-fe-enni), s. time-server. 
. Ojulumo ( — ni-"imo), s. acquaintance. 
// Ojumo, s. dawn, daylight. — Ojumo mo o nyo ojo iku ndi? 
*' When the day dawns you rejoice : do you not know 
that the day of death is so much the nearer?" 
Oju-nla, s. envy, {lit. big eye ; i.e. an eye which is 

never satisfied). 
Oju-Oui, s. grave. 

0ju-0w6, s. principal on which interest is paid. 
Oju-^Onna, s. way, gate, road. 
[^ Oju-Orun, s. sky, firmament. — Oju-9run ko huko, illepa 
ko je ki oku ki o be onna wo, " As the grass cannot 
grow in the sky, so the dead cannot look out of the 
grave into the road." 
Ojupo ( — ipo), s. a place in the palace where the king 

sits to take the air. 
Oju-pon, v. n. to suffer trouble, get into difficulties. 
Ojuran ( — iran), s. dream, vision. 
Ojusaju (oju-isa-oju), s. respect, honour, regard. 
Oju-sika, s. keyhole. 
Ojuson ( — ison), s. aperture from which water springs, 

spring, fountain. 
Ojuwa ( — iwa), s-. sharer, divider. 


Oka, Oruka, s. ring. 

Oka-Eti, s. ear-ring. 

Okan, Owo-kan, s. one cowry ; one piece of money ; 

Okan-Aiya, s. chest, breast. 

^Oke, s. top, hill, mountain ; adv. up hill, 
v/ 'Okele, s. morsel, sop. — ■''Okele gbomgbo fe ommo li oju, 
" A large morsel (is sure to) choke a child." 

Okele, s. a small package of salt, 

Okelenje, Kekelenje, s. a small kind of lizard. 

^Okere, 5. a distance. 

Okerekere, s. part of a loom. 
^/Okete, s. bale of goods ; wallet, luggage. — Okete babba 
ogun, bi asigun olukuluku ni idi okete lowo, " A store 
of food is the best equipment for war ; when war is 
proclaimed, every man takes up his wallet." 

Okete, s. a kind of large rat. This animal is remark- 
able for eating palm-nuts, and is therefore dedicated to 
Ifa. — Okete ni ojo gbogbo lion mo, on ko mo 9J0 miran 
" The Okete says, ' I understand (what you mean by), 
a specified day, (but, the indefinite expression) another 
day, I do not understand.' " — Gbogbo wa li ajumo fi 
okete san ogofFa, nigbati okete ofi di ogoje, oju gbo- 
gbo wa ni yio si se, " We all agreed to value the okete 
^ at one hundred and forty cowries (its general price) : 
w^hen twenty cowries are to be added to its price it 
must be by common consent." 

Oki, s. flattery, complimentary appellation. 

Oki, s. the act of missing fire (as a gun) ; failure in cut- 
ting from bluntness of the instrument, or the hard- 
ness of the substance cut. 

Okiki, s. fame, rumour, report. — Okiki oi'bo kan ka gbo- 
gbo aiye, " The fame of oibo spreads throughout the 

Okikiri, s. hardness, difficulty, knot. — O kan okikiri, " It 
comes to the knot, (or difficult point)." 


OkFpa-aja, .S-. mastiff, an old dog. 

Okiribiti, s. circle, encompassed space. 

^Okiti, Okiti-ogan, s. hill made by the white ant. 

'Okiti, s. summerset, headlong fall ; hillock, such as may 
be seen where roads divide. 

^Okiti-Alapini, s. the name of a place in Oyo the capital. 

'OKiTi-AROyV. false-bottomed vessel used in strainingpotash. 

Okiti-Ebe, s. yam or corn beds ; hillock for planta- 

Okitipo, s. the name of a tree, whose leaf is dried and 
pulverized for palaver sauce. 

Okiyan, s. an animal which lodges under rocks. 

Oko, s. farm, plantation ; province ; dependent districts, 

or towns. 
Oko, s. the glans ; foreskin ; lock of a gun. 
'Oko, s. stone to be thrown or cast; name of a disease; 

breeding three young ones at a birth. 
Oko-Alle, s. afternoon's work. 
Oko-Ibon, s. lock of a gun or musket. 
Oko-Euu, s. bondage, slavery. 
Okobo, s. eunuch. 
Okobo, s. lie, falsehood ; liar. 
Oko, Oruko, s. name. 
Okoto, s. snail, a small land shell. 

Okoto-Okun, s. sea shell. 
Oku, s. corpse, carcase, adj. useless, insipid, savourless. 
Okuku, s. the woof (folded up and laid upon a stand of 
the same name which the weaver draws to himself 
as he goes on weaving). 
Okuku, s. name of tree valuable for healing sores. 
Okun, s. strength, ability, power. 
Okun, s. cord, rope, string. 

Okun-erewe, s. running plant, whose fibres are \ibed 

for making cord. 
Okun-ole, -v. name of a running plant. 
Okun-Tinrin, -s. twine. 


'Okun, 'Okunkun, s. darkness. 

Okun, s. sea, salt water. 

Okuna (oku-onna), s. old path ; forsaken road 

Okunfa (okiin-ifa),5. an attraction; that which encourages. 

Okunjanu ( — ija-ennu), s. the reins. 

Okunko, s. hemp or flax plant (?). 

^Okunron, s. illness. 

Okura (okii-ira), s. any thing rotten. 

Oku-ruro, s. an austere, hard, ill-tempered person. 

Okusa, s. liquor brewed from guinea corn. 

Okiisalle (ku-sa-ille), s. exhausted and unproductive 

Oku-su, s. refuse from dying vats ; name of an animal. 

Okuta, s. stone (in general). 

Okuta-Ako, s. quartz, granite ; any hard stone. 
Okuta-wewe, s. gravel, loose stones. 

Okuye (ku-iye), s. person of dull memory, dunce. 

Ola, s. the moth which frets garments. 

Ola, 5. that which saves, salvation, the cause of salvation. 

Ole, s. thief, robber ; robbery, theft. 

Ole, Orule, 5. roof of a house. 

Olo-fere, s. name of a bird. 

Olofofo, ( — ofofo), 5. traitor ; busy body. 

'Olobirt, 5. a married person. 

Olobinri-meji, s. a bigamist. 

Olobo (enni-obo), s. one who cautions another, an in- 
formant. — Olobo so mi, " A hint has been given 
{lit. thrown) to me." 

Olododo, s. a true, just, righteous person. 

Olodumare, Olodumaye, s. God, the Almighty, Self- 
existing Being. 
J^— Ologbo, 5. a title of one of the king's private counsellors, 
who also acts the part of chronicler or narrator of 
ancient traditions. — Ologbo babba arokin, "Ologbo 
is the father of the chroniclers." 

Ologini, s. cat. 


/ OlogTri, s. a species of palm bird (also called 'Enu). — 
Owo ologiri eliin ti li ogiin, " A multitude of warriors 
behind their leader is like a flock of palm birds." 
Ologo (enni-ogo), s. dun. 

Ologo, 5. an honourable man, one had in honour. 
Ologose, Ologonse, s. sparrow. 
Ologun, Onisegun (ni-ogun), s. doctor, physician. 
Ologuxsese, s. name of a tree dedicated to the god of 

Ologuro (ni-oguro), s. dealer in bamboo-wine. 
Olo-guru, s. kind of small bird generally found in flocks. 
Oloiiun ( — ohun), s. a man of influence. 
Olojo, Alejo, (enni-ajo), s. stranger. See Awon. 
Oloju (enni-oju)^ s. oneself; the owner of a thing. 
Olojukan (ni-oju-kan), 5. one-eyed person. 
Oloju-kokoro, s. miser. 
Olo-kiti-Ar6, s. false-bottomed vessel in which potash 

is strained. 
Olokun (ni-okun), s. rope-maker. 
Olokunron ( — okunron), s. a patient ; one suffering 

from illness. 
Olola ( — ila), s. one who makes tattooing his trade. 
Olopir"!, s. a kind of small bird. 
Olore ( — ore), s. benefactor. 
Olori (enni-ori), s. oflicer, headman, chief. 

Olori-Ille-Iwe, Olori-Ille-Kewu, s. schoolmaster. 
Olori-Ogun, s. war-officer. 
()lori-Okk6, s. captain of a ship. 
Olori-Eso ( — ori), s. captain of a guard. 
Olori-Egbe, Oloriko ( — ori), fern. s. head of a company. 
OlorI ( — on), s. wife of a great person (not to be ap- 
proached by any man). 
Olorison (ni-ori-ison), s. owner of a fountain or spring. 
Oloro ( — oro), s. a venomous animal. 
Olorisa (ni-orisa), s. idolater, worshipper of idols. 

Oloruko( — oruko),.5.afamous person (//^.he who has name). 


Oloto (ni-otito), s. a true, just, faithful person. 

Olowo (ni-owo), 5, a rich person. 

Oloye (enni-oye), s. person of honour or title. 

Oloye, Amoye (m9-oye), 5. a wise prudent person ; a 
man of forethought. 

Oloyo, s. the yellow monkey (also called Tolo, Awere, 
Gbege^ and Alegba) : there are many superstitions 
concerning this monkey. 

Olo, s. powder ; that on which any thing is pounded or 
ground ; one who grinds ; a moth. 

Olu, s. carpenter or smith's hammer, mallet, any thing 
used for hammering. 

Olu, s. the chief of any thing ; queen of the white ants ; 

Olubukon (enni-ibukon), s. one who adds to ; one who 

OlubojuW'O, Olubojuto ( — be-oju-wo), s. inspector. 

Olubo ( — bo), s. a maintainor ; supporter ; feeder ; one 
employed to beat a mud floor into a compact and 
solid mass. 

Olubu-si ( — ibu-si), s. one who blesses or adds to. 

Oludande (enni-ida-ni-ide), s. redeemer, one who ran- 

Olufison, Oluson ( — fi-son), s. accuser, one who raises 
a complaint. 

Olufe ( — ife) s. one beloved ; one who loves, lover. 

Olufokkansin ( — fi-okkan-sin), s. one who worships con- 
scientiously, devout w^orshipper. 

Olufuni ( — fu-enni), s. giver, bestower, benefactor. 

Olugbala (enni-igba-la), s. saviour, one who saves. 

Olugbani ( — enni), s. he who delivers, liberator. 

Olu-gbo-ngbo, s. round piece of wood used by the na- 
tives to smoothe their clothes after washing, by beat- 
ing them with it upon a large wooden block. 

Olu-gboro, s. small piece of stick by which a blow is 
217 2 F 


Olugik) (enni-igbo), .9. a believer. 

Olu-kolo, Ani-Ku, s. an evil spirit, believed to be always 
wandering about. See Ariku. 

Olukojoyele ( — ko-je-oye-le), s. a title of the king of 

Olukoni (enni-iko-enni), s. teacher, instructor. 

Oluku-luku, adj. every, each. adv. individually. 

Olumoran (enni-imo-nran), s. an understanding person. 

Olupa, Olupani ( — ipa-enni), s. murderer ; man- 

Olupamo ( — pa-mo), s. preserver. 

OnTpiLLESE ( — pa-ille-mo), s. beginner, author. 

Olupin, Ojuwa (ipin-iwa), s. sharer, divider. 

Oluponju (enni-ipon-oju), s. poor person, pauper. 

Oluranse, s. one who sends another. 

Olu-ra-pada, s. redeemer, one who ransoms. 

Olure (enni-ire), 5. comforter. 

Olureron ( — re-iron), s. shearer, hair cutter. 

Olurora ( — ro-ara), one who eases, one who gives 
bodily comfort. 

Olu-sin, s. worshipper, servant. 

Oluse (enni-ise), s. doer, actor. 

Olusoro (so-oro), s. speaker ; talker ; one who prates. 

Olutan, Olottan (enni-itan), s. a relative. 

Oluto ( — 19), s. instructor, master, mistress, governor, a 
raiser up. 

Olutuno ( — tu-ino), s. he who calms the mind ; com- 

Olusette ( — se-otte), s. conqueror, victor. 

Omso ( — so), s. watcher, guard, sentinel. 
Oluso-Agutan, s. shepherd. 

Olusogba (so-ogba), s. a gardener, the watcher of a 

Oluwa (ni-awa), 5. a lord, owner. 

Oluware, 5. an individual, a certain person. 

Oluwoju ( — wo-oju), s. a respecter of persons. 


I/' Omi, s. water. — Bi abii omi siori o nwaesseibo " When 
water is poured upon the head, it will fhid its way 
down to the feet." 

Omidan, s. a young fowl ; young woman. 

Omije, OiMioju, s. tear. 

Omi-kikan, Omikan, s. foul water, 
U^MiRAN, s. a giant, a person unusually stout and tall. — 
Iwo ko lu omiran li oru o nlu u li ossan ? " Do you 
not first strike the giant in the night, before you 
strike him in the day ? " 

Omiran, Omi, adj. another, other. 

OxMiRiN, s. the act of swallowing any thing with facility, 

Omi-toro, s. soup, broth. 

Omnira (oni-ni-ara) s. freeman, one delivered from 

On, 'pers, pron, he, she, it. See O. 
//On, conj. and. — Ije on ore ni imu ommo ise ise, 
" Competition and reward induce a child to work." 

Onde (enni-ide), s. prisoner, one in bond ; charm sown 
in leather and worn about the person. 

Ongbe, 6'. thirst. 

Ongbe-Eije, adj. bloodthirsty. 

Ongo ( — igo), s. stupid person, dunce, blockhead. 

Oni, adv. to-day. — Oni emi nlo, oUa n' nlo ki ije ki ajeji 
ki o gbin ahusa, " Intended removal to-day or 
to-morrow {lit. to-day I am going, to-morrow I 
am going,) gives the stranger no encouragement 
to plant the ahusa, (although it bears fruit very 

Oni-batta, s. shoemaker. 

Oni-bode, s. collector of custom. 

Oni-busi, s, contemner, despiser ; one who blesses. 

Oni-da, s. creator, maker, originator. 

Onidajo ( — da-ejo), s. judge, one who settles disputes. 

Onidalare ( — ni-are), s. justifier. 


Onidamoran ( — mo-oran), s. counsellor, adviser. 

Onidande, Oludande ( — ni-ide), s. redeemer, deliverer 
from bondage. 

Onidanwo ( — dan-wo), s. tempter, trier. 

Onidikan (ni-idi-okan), s. child, one vvhose parents is a 
slave, and the other free. 

Onidodo ( — idodo), s. a person having a large navel. 

Onifarauo ( — fi-ara-ro), s. supporter ; one on whom 
another leans or depends. 

Onifarawe ( — we), s. one who imitates another; emu- 

Oni-fefe, s. vain and boastful person. 

Oni-fo, Alagba-fo, s. washer. 

Onigan, s. a catechumen of Orisa. 

Onigrani, Olugbani ( — gba-enni), s. saviour. 

Oni-gbajamo, s. a barber. 

Onigbagbe-enni-igbagbe, s. a person of bad memory, for- 
getful person. 

Oni-gbagbo, s. one who listens ; one who obeys ; believer. 

Oni-gbese, s. creditor. 

Oni-gbodogi, s. one afflicted with a scorbutic disorder. 

Onigbowo ( — gba-owo) s. prosperous person ; surety. 

Oni-gegge, s. person afflicted with a swelling in the neck. 

Oniiialle, (oni-iha-ille), s. a poor person, one in poor 

Onilaja, Ilaja ( — la-ija), s. peace-maker, mediator. 

Onilera ( — le-ara), s. a strong, healthy person. 

Onikiri, s. wanderer, rover. 

OnIni, s. possessor. 

Onino-didon, s. person of amiable disposition, a good- 
natured man. 

Oninonibini ( — ino-enni-bi-enni), s. persecutor. 

Onino-rere, s. kind, benevolent, gracious person. 

Oni-oloni ( — oni-oni), adv. this very day. 

Onipa (ni-ipa), s. one having a share in any thing. 

Oni-para-mo, s. humble person. 


Onipin ( — ipin), s. the distributor of one's lot; the Su- 
preme Being ; a sharer, a partaker. 

Oniponju, Oluponju (ipon-oju), s. person in distressed 

Oni-re-je, s. a cheat, deceiver, impudent person (the same 
as Arenije). 

Onirelle (re-ille), s. humble person. 

Onirera ( — re-ara), s. proud person. 

Oniruru, adj. various, different, not alike. 

Onisa, Lisa, s. title of honour. 

Onisaju ( — isaju), s. modest bashful person, respecter, 
one who regards. 

Onise, Alase, (oni-ase), cook. 

Onise, Onse ( — ise), s. messenger, herald, ambassador. 

Oni-sekete, s. manufacturer of beer from Indian corn. 

Onisegun (se-ogun) s. doctor, physician. 

Onisi, Onisi, s. author of any thing good or bad. 

Onisiti, s. powerful speaker, one who commands atten- 
tion by his speech. 

Onisonna-Awo (se-onna), s. tanner. 

Onisowo (se-owo), s. trader. 

Oni-toro, s. maker, seller, or possessor of toro. 

Onitiju ( — iti-oju), s. bashful person. 

Oni-tubu, s. jailor. 

Oniwa-bi-olorun, s. godly person. 

Oniwaiwa (ni-iwa), s. persons in various circumstances. 

Oniwe ( — ^iwe), s. washer, swimmer. 

Oniwora (oni-iwo-ara), s. a covetous man. 

Oniyan ( — iyan), s. one who pounds or sells iyan. 

Oniyan, 5. denier, one who contradicts. 

Oni-yan-je, s. one who cheats. 

Oniye ( — iye), s, person of good memory. 

Onje (ohun-jije), s. food, victuals. 
Onje-Alle, s. supper. 

Onje-Ossan, s. dinner ; chief meal of the day. 
Onje-Owuro, breakfast. 


Onka, Olonka, s. a counter, accountant. 

On LA, 6'. that which saves. 

Onna, rejiec. 2)ron.\umse\i, herself, itself. 

On NO, s. fearful expectation, fear as regards the result 
of a thinoj. — Onno nko mi, " T am afraid." 

Oniiouo (oni-iroro), s. an austere, hard, morose 

^Ope, s. puzzle ; simple and ignorant person. — Mo pa 'o 
li ope, " I puzzle you." 

Opepe, s. young person. 

Opere, s. bird noted for sleepiness. — O le isun bi opere, 
" You sleep like the oper^." 

Opin, s. termination, point. — ^"Oran na de opin, " The 
matter is come to a point (lit to the highest 

Opinle (opin-ille), s. termination of the earth, land, or 

Opo, s. the place where the king makes his appearance 
in the palace, bank of earth for sleeping on. 

Opo, s. post, pillar ; widow. 
Opo-okko, s. mast of a ship. 

^Opopo, s. kind of banyan. 

Opopo, s. wide road leading immediately into a town. 

^Oporo, adj. common. 
I / Ora, s. buyer, purchaser. — Ko mo ore ko mo dra, ti igiin 
esin apatta, " Regardless of kindness, regardless of 
the purchaser, (the ungrateful man) rides the horse 
(which has been lent him) over the rocks." 

Ora, s. bitter tree much used in curing sickness. 

Ore, s. kindness, favour, benevolence. 

Orere, s. same signification as Opopo. 

Ore, s. act of watching from a tower or loft. 

Ore, s. porcupine. — Ki ire ore ki o re sinsin idi re, 
I / " Though the porcupine may be weary, yet the (quills 

of its) tail will not be weary." There is a supersti- 
tion that the porcupine always shakes its quills be- 


fore feeding, in order to divine what success it will 
meet with in its excursion. 
Ori, s. kind of wild pigeon. 
Ori, s. kind of black plum. 
Ori, Oyi, s. giddiness. — Ori nkon mi loju, "I am giddy; 

(lit. my eyes are filled with giddiness)." 
Ori, 5. head, faculty, talent ; highest point of any thing, 
Ori folloived hij Si, Ya, v. n. to feel lively, be 


Wu, V. n. to feel sensation of joy at 

some unexpected good words said 
or action done by an inferior per- 
son beloved ; to yearn. 
Ori-Ekun, s. the cap of the knee. 
Ori, s. shea butter. 

Ori-Amo, s. butter, milk butter. 
Orike (ori-ike), s. the joint of any thing. 
Orike-ikka, s. knuckle. 
Ori-^Eya, 5, division, tribe. 
Ori-Oya, s. large hedgehog. 
Orille, Ole, s. family name. 

Orille-ede, 5. people of a different language ; nation. 
Orin, s. pieces of stick or root used by the natives for 
cleaning their teeth by chewing and rubbing them 
with it. 
Orin, s. singing ; song ; tune. 

Orin-mi-mo, s. holy song, psalm, hymn. 
Oriso (ori-iso), s. place where creatures are tied up for 

the night ; stable, stall. 
Orison, s. spring, fountain. 
Orisa, 5. deity, object of worship ; gods, idols. 
Orisala, s. the great goddess Obbatalla. 
Orise-Alufa (ori-ise), s. work of a priest, priesthood. 
'Oro, s. stalk of guinea-corn, used for stirring beer ; 
honey. See Agbon. 


Oro, s. provocation, dilTiculty, hardness, name of a tree. 

Oro, s. custom, fashion, habit ; fierceness, sauciness, pro- 
vocation. — Aja yi roro gidigidi, " This dog is very 

Oro, s. poison, torture, torment. 

'Oro, s. an erect posture. 

Orobo, s. good hick. 

Orofo, 5. kind of wild pigeon. 

Orogbo, s. the bitter kola nut. 

Oromro, s. lime, lemon. 

Oronto, Elewuwu, 5. large striped lizard. 

Orore, s. a kind of small bird ; pimples on the face. 

Ororo, s. busybody ; bitterness, gall. 

Ororo, s. oil. 

Oro, Owuro, s. morning, forenoon. 

Oru, s. heat, steam, vapour. — Oru mu, "It is hot {or 

Oru, s. pitcher. 

Oru, s. night, darkness. — Oru ru iwg ki yio le ilo si ille, 
" The night is dark ; you will not be able to go 

Oru, Orun, s. name of a tree possessing a healing pro- 

Oruganjo, s. midnight. 

Oruka, s. ring. 

Oruko, s. name, discriminative appellation of any thing ; 
he goat. 
Oruko-Ivoruko, 5. proper name (not surname). 

Orukun, Erekun, s. knee. 

Orun, s. sun. — Orim la, "The sun rises. — Orun ran, 
"The sun shines." — Orun mu, "The sun is hot." — 
Orun wo, " The sun sets." 

Orun, s. sleep. — Orun nkon mi, *^ I am drowsy." 
Orun-Ijeka, s. sound sleep. 

Orun, s. scent, smell, stench. 

Orupa, s. name of a tree. 


Oruwo, s. brimstone tree, tlie timber of which is mucli 
used for boards. 

Oruwon, s. name of a tree. 

OsE, OsE, s. hippopotamus. 

OsE, s. paint. 

OsiN, adj. the left. s. a post of honour. 
^OsiN-IwEFFA, s. a eunuch of the third degree. 
^Osin-Iyama, s. the south with the face to the west. 
^Osin-Iyalode, s. a title next to Otton-Iyalode. 

OsE, s. name of a tree. 

OsE, s. club of Sango. 

OsE, s. a sound made by smacking the lips expressive of 
grief. See Abamo. 

OsESE, s. meat of a superior quality. 

'Osi, s. misery. 

OsTsE, Otosi (se-ise), s. poor, miserable person. 

OsipT, s. tree, in the leaf of which snuff is frequently 
wrapped up. 

Oso, s. witch, sorcerer. 

OsoNo, s. sour, passionate, morose man. 

Osu, s. new moon, month. 

Osu, s. a lock of hair shaved around. 

OsuMARE, s. the rainbow. 
1/ OsuPA, s. the moon in advanced age. — Osupa gbe oke o 
mo Oy9 obba gbe ille mp ara oko, "As the moon 
remains stationary above, and yet shines over the 
whole capital {lit. knows Oyo, the capital), so the 
king remains at home and knows (what) his subjects 
(are doing) in the province." 

Osusu, s. cluster, grove. See Asorin. 

Osusu, s. kind of prickly bush. 

OsuwoN, s. measure, weight. 

Ota, 5. seller. 

Otito, s. truth, faithfulness. 

Otonpanyan, s. mean fellow who causes much trouble. 

"Otolo, s. a species of deer. 

225 2 G 




'Otosi, .v. \)()oy, miserable person. — Nwon sebi otosi ko 
gbon bi oloro, nwon ni o gbon iba ilowo ? "Men 
think that the ])()or is not as wise as the ricli, for if 
lie were wise, why is he poor ?" 
6to, Otito, .v. trutli, reality, fact. adj. true, faithful, just. 
Otumo, Otudimo (tu-imp), s. covenant breaker. 
Otutu, Otu, s. cold ; illness, disease. 

Otutu-mu, defect, v. " It is cold, (lit. cold is sharp)." 
Owe, 5. parable, riddle. — Owe li esin nro bi oro ba no 
owe li afi iwa a, owe on oro ni irin, " A proverb 
is tlie horse of conversation ; when the conversation 
flags (lit is lost), a proverb revives it : proverbs and 
conversation follow each other." 
""Owe, s. young leaf of the plant Erewe. 
^OwE-AwoN, s. a kind of running trefoil. 
^Ow^ERE, s. struggle, efTort to recover oneself. 
OwEREjEJE, IwEREJEjE, s. name of a trailing shrub, the 

berries of which are red and black. 
Ow iwi, s. owl. 

6wo, s. boil. — Owo so mi, " I am attacked by boils." 
Ow6, ,s. money, cowTy. 

Owo-NLA, s. large piece of money, dollar. 
OwosE (owo-ise), s. work-money, wages. 
Own, 5. cotton, tliread, wick. 
Own, s. jealousy. 

Owu-Akese, s. a kind of very fine white cotton bearing 

small pods. 
Owu-'Ogodo, s. a kind of cotton bearing large pods. 
OwuYANWuRE, s. a kind of very white cotton used chiefly 
by the Fulahs, with red flowers and small seeds. 
OvvuRo, AwuRo, Oro, 5. morning. See Kutukutu. 
Owusuwusu, s. mist, fog, cloud, gloominess. — Owiisu- 
^ wusu mu oju orun baje gudegude ko je ki oriin ki o 

ran, " The fog spoils the face of the sky ; gloomi- 
ness prevents the sun from shining." 
^OvA, 5. that which divides or separates ; a comb. 



OvE, OvE, s. understanding ; comprehension, inspection, 
look out, providence. — Oye ko ye mi, " I did not 

OvE, 5. title of honour. 

Oyibo, Oyinbo, contracted Oibo, s. people beyond the 
waters, applied mostly to white men, and also to any 
of the natives who have adopted their customs. They 
are thus distinguished — Oyibo-funfun, a white man ; 
OviBo-DUDU, a black man who has adopted European 
customs, or one who came from the white man's 
country. The proper derivation of this word has 
not yet been ascertained. 

OviN, s. bee ; honey. 

Oyin-Alugbe, s. bees domesticated in country pots. 

Oyo, s. species of small owl. 

Oyu, s. salt (?). 

Oyun, s. pregnancy. 

^O, or 'O, pers. pron. 2d pers. sing, (contraction of I wo), 

thou, thee. 
O, pers. pron. 'Mpers. sing, he, she, it ; him, her, it. 
O, defect, v. {used by attraction before short voivels for O), 

shall, will, must. — Emi olo, for Emi old. 
Obaiyeje, s, busybody, talebearer. See Abaiyeje. 
Obangiji, Obangissi, {HausscL)^ s. Lord, master. 
Obba, s. king, monarch. 
Obbakan, s. relative on the father's side. 
Obea-kan-bi-keji, s. the first cousin on the father's side. 
Obba-kuso, s. god of thunder and lightning {lit. the king of 

Kuso, the spot where Sango is said to have descended 

alive into the ground, and whence the worship of 

Sango took its origin). 
Obballe (ba ille), s. prostration, a mark of respect paid to 

superiors by males. 
Obba-Ogo, s. King of glory, God. 


Obbatalla, s. the great goddess of Yoruba, supposed to 
be the fruiiier of the Imman body in the womb. 

Obanije (ba-enia-je), 5. busybody. 

Obaua, s. cord, pack-thread. 

Obbe, s. sauce, palaver sauce. 
i^^Obbe, s. knife, penknife, clasp knife. — Ta li oje fi obbe 
'yi o no je isu, " No one confesses that he has eaten 
yam with a knife that is lost." 
Obbe-Olojumeji, s. dagger, knife with tw^o edges. 

Obbedo (obbe-odo), aclj. green (so called because it re- 
sembles the green matter over stagnant water). 
p/^ Obbo, 5. monkey, ape. — 'Enia bi obbo li obb9 iya li aso, 
" The monkey is sure to tear the cloth of any one who 
is like himself." 

Obbo, s. a kind of white country cloth. 
),/ 'Qbon, .9. a filthy person. — Ohun ti o wu obon ni ifi owo 
re ira, ohun ti o wu afinju ni ifi ow^o re ise, " The 
filthy man lays out his money in whatever pleases 
him ; so also does the gay man with his money." 

Obonbon, s. umbrella, parasol ; beetle, humming insect. 

Oboro, adj. plain, having no mark or engraving. 

Oda, s. dearth, drought, need, necessity ; a castrated goat 
or dog ; old wine, strongly fermented. 

''Oda, s. tar, wax. 

Odaju (da-oju), adj. shameless. 

Odan, Odanko, s. a kind of banyan commonly planted 
in the street to afford shade. 

^Odan, s. plain, grassfield. 

Odan, s. vain empty talker, empty word, inconsistent 

Oddo (luith i^rep. Si, Ni, or L'), adv. about, near ; to ; with. 
— "Emi nl9 si 9ddo babba, "I am going to our father." 

Odi-apassa, s. remnant of cloth in the sley or batten. 

Ode, s. hunter ; also the wasp. 

'Odedde, s. piazza, verandah. See Awon. 

Odo, <v. young of animals (especially sheep, goats, dogs). 


Odo-Agutan, s. lamb. 

Ododun (ocUm-odun), adv. year by year, yearly. 

^Odon, ^ Odun, s. grass cloths made from the fibres of 
bamboo. See Korira. 

Odun, s. year ; age; round of time in which an annual 
festival occurs. 

Ofe, adj. gratis, without payment, s. free favour, grace. 

'Ofe, s. gentle breeze ; morning ; dawn. 

Ofere, adv. nearly, almost. — Mofere ipa eiye na. Aki ije 
ofere li obbe, " ' I almost killed the bird,' (said the 
fowler). ' Almost never made {lit. no one can eat 
almost in) a stew,' (was the reply)." 

Offa, s. arrow ; pawn, pledge. 

'Offa, adj. one hundred and twenty. 

^Ofin, s. a pit prepared to entrap a beast or thief. — Ajin 
ofin ma ta ojii ille, opolo ji ofin ma tajii ati jade, 
"A man who has fallen into a pit need not be in a 
hurry to get home ; a frog who has fallen into a pit 
need not be in a hurry to get out." 

'Of9, s. mourning for the dead. 

Ofo, s. dispute, parlance, quarrel. 
[/Ofon, Ofun, s. throat, speech, power of utterance, persua- 
sion. — Ase ofon bi alakara, " He is as persuasive 
as a seller of cakes." 

Oga, 5. brave person, distinguished performer. 

Oga-Ogo, adv. illustrious, highest ; most glorious (only 
applied to the Supreme Being). 

Oga-Orisa, s. chameleon. 

Ogan, s. a large white ant-hill ; a running prickly plant. 

Ogan, rt^'. immediate, instant. — Owi li ogan, "He spoke 
in an instant." 

"Ogan, s. the largest species of wild boar. — ^"Ogan imado 
ko se iko li oju, " The great wild boar is not easy to 
encounter." Also applied to a boastful person in con- 
tempt : — 'Ogan nse nkan die, " The great one is 
trying to show off a little." 


Oganjo, s. darkness, middle of the night. 
Oganjo-Meje, s. thick darkness (lit. severe darkness) ; 

middle or depth of the night. 
Oganran, adv. straightforward, in a right line. 
Ogba, s. fence, garden ; pawn, the state of being in pawn. 
'Ogba, s. companion, equal, one of the same rank ; snare ; 

equality, balance. — Awa ise egbe tabbi ogba 1 "Am I 

your equal or companion ?" 
Ogbangan, s. hand-bell, so called from the sound. 
Ogbagba, s. pin driven into the ground with a hammer 

or mallet. — Ogbagba wolle o kun ati yo, " The pin 

is driven into the ground ; the question now is, how 

to pull it out." 
Ogbe, s. wound, cut. See Osan. 
Ogbe-Ino, s. bleeding from the bowels. 
Og]j6, s. a trailing plant whose fibres are used for making 

Ogbon, s. a ditch, corner, extreme end, steep, valley. — 
J Agarawu yi si ogbon ko ku, " Though an Agarawu 

(a tribe of the Popo nation) may fall into a ditch, yet 

he will not die." 
Ogbon, adj. thirty. 
Ogbon, s. sense, art, cunning. 
'Ogbon-Oyibo, .9. gauze. — ^"Ogbon-oyibo ti ino okun la 

wa, aso ki li o bori akese, " Thou";h the gauze came 

all the way over the sea, yet what cloth may be 

compared to cloth of akese cotton ?" 
'Ogboxgbon, s. the tender leaves of Egungun boiled. 
Ogbogba, .9. balance, equality. 
Ogbonkogbon (ogbon-ki- ogbon), s. subtilty, craft, double 

''Ogedde, s. the banana. — 'Ogedde sbe odo so sinsin ; eja 

gbe ino omi dara, "As the banana by the water side 

sends forth moisture, so the fish in the water retains 

its beauty." 
Ogegge, s. the cassada. — Ogegge ko li ewasa li o fi ara 
^ ' ' 230 


we isu, " The (poisonous) cassada has no good qua- 
lities ; in vain does it appear like the yam." 
>^Ogero, adj. easy gentle, soft. — Ise 9gero li ole iwa ise 
ko je mu ise agbara, "A lazy man seeks for an easy 
employment: he would never choose a laborious one." 

^Ogevi, s. cold, damp, gloomy weather. 

Oggo, s. a short knotted stick or club for self-defence ; 
believed to be used by the devil, who is therefore 
called Agongo oggo, " The man of the knotted club." 

^Oggo-Ivo, s. a package of salt. 

^ OgoddO, s. pit full of dirty water, 

OG9FFA, adj. one hundred and twenty. 

Ogorin (ogun-erin), adj. eighty. 

Ogorun, Orun ( — orun), adj. one hundred. 

Ogorun-Odun, s, one hundred years, a century. 

Ogotta ( — etta), adj. sixty, the sixtieth. 

^Ohan, adv. yes. 

^Ohe, adv. stupid, dull, ignorant person. 

j3hun, ado. yonder, beyond. 
1/0ja, s. market, trade; goods, merchandise — Bi iwo ko 
ran 'ni si oja, oja ki iran 'ni si ille, " If you send no one 
to the market, the market will send no one to you." 

Oja, s. band, girdle, sash. 

Oja-gari, s. girth. 

Oja-Ikoko, s. species of pine-apple used for healing sores. 

Oja-Ovibo, s. European goods, goods from beyond sea. — 
Oyibo ta oja ta oruko, 'Egan ta aso ta edidi, " The 
European trader sells his goods (to the Popo) with 
the label (Jit. name) attached to them ; the Popo (or 
^Egun) sells them again just as he received them 
(lit. with the string round them) :" i. e. neither of 
them seeks to make gain by petty retail. 

Ojehun, s. eater, glutton. — Ipin ojehun ki ije ina ki o 
ku, " The good genius of every man (lit. eater) does 
not permit fire (with which food is cooked) to depart 
from the earth :" a superstition. 


OjERE, s. plant, whose leaf is used in preparing a beve- 
rage for children. 
Ojo, s. sun, day, date ; weather. 
Ojo-Alle, s. evening, afternoon. 

Ojo, s. place, settlement, lodging. — O so mi li ojo, " He 
appointed me a settlement, or lodged me." 
Ojo-Ibi, s. birth-day. 

Ojo-Ijo, s. day of assembly, day in which some grand 
festival takes place, memorable day. 
, Ojo-'Iwa, s. the day of creation, the beginning of 
creation. — Li ojo alaiye ti de aiye ni iwa ti se, " From 
the time that the owner of the world appeared in the 
world, the world began." 
Ojo-Isi, s. notable day, on which any great event took 

Ojo-Jakuta, 5. the day on which the Jakuta market 

was formerly held. 
Ojo-Ejo, s. com't day. 
Ojo JO, adv. day by day, daily. 
Ojo-jojo, 5. many days ; ancient time ; a long period 

of time past or future. 
Ojo-lailai, s. ancient time, old time. 
Oka, s. Guinea corn ; food made from the flour of pre- 
pared yams. 
Ok AN, adj. one, single. 

Okandilogun (okan-di-ni-ogun), adj. nineteen. 
/^ Okanjua ( — oju-wa), 5. avaricious person ; avarice, cove- 
tousness, insatiableness. — Okanjua babba aron, " Co- 
vetousness is the father of disease." — Iggi okanjua so 
eso pipo, kaka ki ama ka a, o yo ake ti i ike lulle, " A 
tree belonging to an avaricious man bore abundantly, 
but instead of gathering the fruit (by little at a time), 
he took an axe and cut it down (that he might get 
all at once.)" 
Oka'nkan, adv. straightforward, openly. — Okankan li ase 
ibi, \koko li ase imolle, bi atoiu imolle tan, ki atoju 


ibi pellu, bi aba ku ara enni ni isin 'ni, "A man must 
openly practise the duties of relationship, though he 
may privately belong to a secret club : when he has 
attended to the secret club, he must attend to the 
duties of relationship also, because when he dies, it 
is his relatives who must bury him." 

Okankan, j9re/). against, opposite, in front. 

Okanla (okan-le-ewa), adj. eleven. 

Okanla-Odun, s. the eleventh month, November. 

Okan-soso, adv. singly, adj. alone, undivided. 

^Okka, s. a child's disease ; name of a plant used to cure 

the same disease. 
Okka-Iku, s. last struggle between life and death. — O 
npe okka iku, " He is struggling between life and 

Okkan, s. name of a running plant used medicinally. 

Okkan, s. soul, spirit, conscience, heart. 
Okkan-tutu, s. calm soul, meekness. 

Okkin, s. name of a bird, whose white feathers are much 
valued. — Okkin 9bba eiye, okkin elewa alia, " The 
9kkin is a king of birds, and the owner of the 
beautiful white feathers." 

Okkinrin, s. name of a bird that lives on crickets. 

Okke, s. large straw bag. 

Okkere, s. the squirrel. — Okke re gori iggi iroko oju da 
sasa, ^' When the (hunted) squirrel gets on the top 
of the iroko tree, there is an end (of the chase)." 

Okko, s. a shuttle, canoe, boat, ship. 

^Okko, s. spear, dart, harpoon. See Esin. 

Oko, 5. hoe. 

Oko, Okko, s. husband. — Okp kiku m9 li osi obiri, " The 
death of a husband is the widow's anguish." 

Oko-Assa, s. stirrup. 

Oko-Ejika, s. shoulder-blade. 

Okokan, adv. one by one. pron. each. 

Oko-Iyawo, s. bridegroom. 
233 2 H 


« • 

Okoloriri, Okolaya (ok9-ni-obiri), s. a married man. 

Okonri, Okonrtn, s. man, male. 

Okose (ko-ise) s. one who refuses to bear an errand, or 
to work. 

^Okun, s. name of a harmless reptile with many feet, 
supposed to be blind. — Okun mo onna telle ki oju 
re ki o to fo, " The okun must have known the way 
before it was blind." — Enniti bii hu ipa ko hii ipa, 
y] enniti iba hu ele ko hu ele, okun ti oni igba owo ti o 

ni igba esse nhu iwa pelle, " The person who might 
have used his strength, did not use his strength ; 
the person who might have used force, did not use 
force ; the okun, which has 200 hands and 200 feet, 
acts gently." 
^Okun-Enia, s. stupid, dull, harmless person. 

Ola, s. wealth, riches. 

Olara, s. envious person ; freeman. 

^Olaja, s. peace-maker. See Ilaja. 

^Olelle, s. a kind of cake. 

Olla, s. the morrow, to-morrow. 

OllX, s. honour, respect, dignity, authority. 

Ollanla, s. majesty, great honour, dignity. 

Olle, s. embryo. 
/^ Qlle, s. idleness, indolence ; an indolent person. — Olle 
kon are I0W9, iyanjii li agba ijo gbogbo ni ifi ire ni, 
" Laziness lends a helping hand to fatigue : one must 
persevere, because fatigue must be felt every day." 

Ollo, s. a large nether millstone, millstone. 

Ologanran, s. the screaming cricket. 

Ologba ( — 9gba), s. owner of a garden ; a gardener. 

Ologbon ( — 9gb9n), s. prudent person. 

Oloja, s. person of rank ; executioner. 

Olokko (oni-9kk9), s. owner or master of a ship ; spear- 

Ololla, s. nobleman, person in authority. 

Olommu-Eko, 5. a young woman just approaching puberty. 


Olonna, s. artisan, mechanic. 

Olopa (ni-opa), s. a bearer of the king's staff, constable, 

Olopaga-Obba, s. bearer of the staff of royalty. 
Olore (ni-ore), s. giver, donor. 
Olorun (ni-orun), s. God, the Supreme Being. — Olorun 

tobi li obba, " God is the great King." 
Oloro ( — or9), s. possessing heaven ; a man of wealth ; 

name of a plant. 
Olosa ( — osa), s. robber, one who serves his chief by 

Olotan, s. distant relative. 

Olotte (enni-otte), s. a seditious man, a revolutionist. 
Olotti (ni-otti), s. maker or seller of beer or any liquor. 
Olotto, s. a respectable and rich person. 
Oloyumbere, s. small streaked lizard. 
^Omm9, s. broad leaved tree of the banyan kind. 
^^>--Gmm9, s. child, offspring, servant ; kernel. — Bi oju ommp 
ko to oran ato awigbo, " If a child is not old enough 
to be an eye-witness of ancient matters, he must be 
content with hearsay." 
Ommo-Adire, s. chicken. — Angba ommo adire lowo 
/ iku o li ako je ki on ki o re atan lo ije, " A chicken, 

having been delivered from the hawk (lit. death, 
by being shut up), complained that it was not per- 
mitted to feed openly on the dunghill." 
Ommo-Agadagodo, s. key. 
Ommo-Agbo, Ommo-Owo, s. infant. 
Ommo-^Agutan, s. lamb. 
Ommo-Alade, 5. prince, princess. 
Ommo- Alle, s. bastard, child born out of wedlock, 

child of a concubine. 
Ommo-Binrin, Ommobiri, s. girl, daughter. 
Ommodan, s. young woman. 
Ommode, j)l. Majesi, s. child ; state of childhood. 
Ommodin, s. little finger, little toe. 


Ommodo, s. brook, rivulet. 

Ommo-Ewure, s. kid. 

Ommo-Eiiin, s. younger, inferior, follower. 

Ommo-Esin, s. colt. 

Ommogun, (pmmo-ogun), s. a soldier, war-man. 

Ommo-Kewu, s. scholar, learner. 

Ommo-Kinniu, 5. lion's whelp. 

Ommo-konri, s. son, boy, youth, lad, young man, 
mighty man of valour. 

OMM9-LALA, s. great grandchild. 

Ommole (ommon-ille), s. salamander. 

Ommoloju ( — ni-oju), s, grandchild. 

O^niOLOjuBiNRi ( — obinri), s. granddaughter. 

Ommolojukonri ( — okonri), s. grandson. 

Ommo-Malu, s. calf. 

Ommo-Oju, s. pupil of the eye. 

OMM9-OKU, s. orphan. 

Ommo-Ologinni, s. kitten. 

Ommo-Obba, s. prince, princess, child of a king. 

Ommo-Ommo, s. grandchild. 

OMM9-OMM9BINR1, s. granddaughter. 

Ommo-Ommokonri, s. grandson. 

Ommo-Owu, s. blacksmith's hammer. 

0>ni9Ri ( — ori), s. cover, lid, any small part of a ves- 
sel needed to complete it. — Ti ommori ti iye, "A 
vessel with its cover." 

OMM9RIKA (omm9-ori-ika), s. top or tip of the finger. 

Omm9ri-Od6, s. pestle. 

OMM9R1-OLL9, s. smaller or upper millstone. 

OMM9SSE ( — esse), s. toe. 

Ommo-te, v. n. to travail, to labour in child-birth. 

• • • ' 

Ommo-Waiiari, 5. the child of a female slave taken 
for a wife. 
Ommu, Ommo, s. breast, udder, milk ; instrument used 

in weaving to divide the woof. 
Omotti, Omottiyo (m9-9tti-yo), s. drunkard. 
' ' 236 * " 



Omodun, s. the young and tender leaves of a tree. 

Omodun-Ope, s. palm-cabbage. 

Omokoko (mo-ikoko), s. smoker of a pipe ; potter. 

Oni, s. crocodile. 

Onna, s. art, workmanship. 

^Onna, s. road, street, way, path. 

'Onna-gb6ro, 5. narrow road, street, path, or lane, 

'Onnagboro, s. wide road, wide street. 

'Onna-Iweffa, s. the chief eunuch. 

'Onna-Igboro, s. wide street, street. 

'Onna-tere, s. narrow street, lane. 

^Onna-Ode, s, gate leading immediately to the street. 

'Onna-sokun (onna-isokun), 5. the king's patron ; a title 
given to the chief of a council of two-and-twenty 
elders called Isokun. 
Opa, s. stick, staff, pole. 
Opa-Aso, yard measure, three feet. 
Opagun (opa-ogun), s. flag-staff, ensign, banner. 
Opa- Ipo, s. rod, travelling-staff. 
Opako, s. large bamboo pole used to propel canoes. 
Opalaba, s. square bottle with a narrow bottom. 
Opalai, s. dispute, reasoning, quarrelling. 
Ope, s. thanks. — Mo da ope, " I give thanks." — Ope 11 
ope ejika ti ko je ewu kl 6 bo, " Thanks are due to 
the shoulders which keep the shirt from slipping off." 
Ope, s. palm tree. 
'Opelle, s. messenger of Ifa. 
Opere, 5. small boat, or canoe. 
Ope RE, Idoko, 5. pepper bird. 
'Opo, s. plenty, abundance, multitude, flock. 
Opollo, s. frog. 

'Opolopo, adv. plentifully, commonly, manifold. 
Opon, s. bowl. 
Opon-Oyibo, s. pine apple. 
OpoTTo-KiTi, s. kind of flor tree. 
'Opowom, s. innumerable swarm. 


Ora, s fat, tallow, lard. See Aparo. 
Oua-Egungun, s. marrow, 

'Ora, s. purchase ; purchaser. 

'Oran, s. matter, case. 

'Ore, s. friend. 
^y^ORE,s. gift, present. — Ore ije 9re, oraije ora, aki idupe 
motopo, " A gift is a gift, and a purchase is a pur- 
chase ; but no one will thank you for ^ I have sold it 
very cheap.' " 

Ore-Anu, s, alms, charitable gift. 

Orekese, s. a very small straw bag in which cowries are 

'Orere, 5. slisfht fits. 

Ore, s. small whip, whip. 

Oredan (ore-odan), s. the name of a tree (also called 
Ore-Odan) : the bark of this tree pounded and washed 
in water, being viscous, is used as leaven for ferment- 
ing Akara. 

Orere, s. salt. 

Orin, adj. eighty, 

'Orin, 5. dysentery. 

^Oro, s. word, conversation; clay for building; evil 
spirit, ghost, fairy. 

'Oro-Ijinle, 5. profound speech, profundity, mystery. 

Oro, s. riches, wealth. 

Oro-Ille, s. inheritance, possession in lands. 

Oro, s. equivocation, unfairness, deceit. 

Oro, s. the cactus or euphorbia, whose various species 
are named Oro-Agogo, Oro-Ennukopiye, Oro-Sapo 
or Satipo. 

Orun, s. bow. 

Orun, Qron, 5. neck. 

Orun, adj. one hundred. 

Orun, s. heaven, sky, cloud. 

Orun-Apadi (lit. the invisible world of potsherds), s. place 

of punishment, hell. 



Orunla, s. dried okro. 
OsA, s, flight, discomfiture. 

'OsA, s. space of time, time intervening between one 
period and another. — Duro li osa agogo kan, " Wait 
for the space of an hour." 
'OsA, s. act of robbing, robbery. 
OsAN, s. name of a tree and its fruit. 
OsANHAN, adj. straightforward. 
. OsANniN, s. the god of physic ; medicine. 

'OsiN, s. a water-bird. — ^"Osin mo iwe ino mbi eiye oko, 
^ " Because the osin knows how to swim, the other 

birds are envious." 
OsEGGE, s. cloth of great width. 
Oso, s. much speaking, exaggeration. 
OsoN, OsuN, s. species of herb. 
Ososo (son-ino), s. liberal, hospitable person. 
Ososo, s. a kind of worm found in brooks and rivers. 
'OssA, s. name of the lagoon near Badagry. 
OssAN, s, daytime. 

OssAN-GANGAN, s. midday, noon. 
OssE, s. holy day, period intervening from one holy time 
to another ; space of a week. 
U^ OsAN, s. bowstring made of raw hide. — Ale koko bi osan 
9gbe jina ohun ma jina, " (A cutting word is as) 
tough as a bowstring; a cutting word cannot be 
healed, though a wound may." 
Osan-Enia, s. thin, slender person. 
OsE, 5. soap. 
OsE, s. crane. 
, /Osin, s. one who makes a mistake. — Osin ki isin ennu, 

// • • ^ ••••7 

"Though a man may miss other things, he never 

misses his mouth." 
Oso, s. elegance, finery, neatness, furniture. 
^Oso, s. thorns used in pitfalls ; pickaxe. 
Osoro-Adire, s. chicken. 
'OsoRO, s. cascade, cataract ; droppings from the eaves. 

* 239 


• • • 

OsoNSON, OsuNsuN, s. rat-trap ; a bard wood often used 

for staffs. 
Otan, adv. indeed, very well. 
Otta, s. gunshot, bullet, ball. 
Otta, s. enemy, opponent. 
Otti-Oloja, s. executioner. 
Otti, s. rum, beer, ale, any spirituous liquor. 

Otti-Kikan, 5. sour liquor, vinegar. 

Otti-npa, v. n. to be intoxicated (lit. liquor is killing). 

Otti-Oda, s. old fermented liquor. 

Otti-Ojo, s. new sweet liquor. 
Otte, s. revolt, revolution, rebellion. 
Ottesse, s. private informer. 
'Otto, adj. difrerent, alone, separate. 
Otton, adj. right, dexter. 

Otton, Omi-otton, s. holy water used in libations. 
Ottonla, s. the day after to-morrow. 
Otton-' IwEFFA, s. the second chief eunuch. 
Otton-Iyalode, s. a title next to Iyalode. 
Otton-gabaz, s. the north with the face to the west. 
'Ottoto, s. the whole of any thing. 
Owa, s. branch of palm tree. 

'OwARA, s. shower of rain ; any thing thrown or scattered. 
OwARiRi, s. trembling. 

^OwE, s. club or company, summoned to assist in labour. 

Owo, 5. flock of birds, beasts, or cattle ; multitude, class; 

company of travellers, caravan ; herd, assortment. — 

Owo enia gbatii, "A multitude of people followed 


Owo, s. hand; branch; spray. 

Owo-^OsiN, 6'. the left hand. 

Owo-Otton, s. the vm\\i hand. 
OwoDiNDiN, 6". a bird so called from its cry. 
Owo-Ina, s. flame of fire. 
Ow(), s. broom, besom. 
'Owo, *. honour, respect. 


• • 

OwoDowo (9W9-de-owo), adv. (from) hand to hand. 

OvvoLLE ( — ille) s. time, opportunity. — Bu mi li owolle^ 
"Give me time." 

OwoN, 5. vengeance, retaliation, recompense, blame. 

OwoN, s. black snake, which emits spittle upon its op- 

OwoN, s. scarcity, dearth, a wicked person. 

Owowo, s. a bird which generally lodges in holes. 

Oya, s. hire, wages ; hedgehog. 

Ova, 5. the wife of thunder, a goddess to whom the river 
Niger is dedicated, which therefore is called Odo 
Oya — The river of Oya. 

OviVN, s. the name of a small stream running into the 

Oye, s. the harmattan-wind. 

Ovo-GOHO-GOHO, s. bird, so called from its motion. 

OvoMisi, s. an expression of respect to the elders of Oyo, 
e.g. Gbogbo agba mo beru nyin, illu mo beru nyin, 
Oyo misi mo beru nyin, " I present my respects {lit. 
fear) to the elders in general, I present my respects 
to the whole town, I present my respects to all the 
leading elders of Oyo." 


Pa, v. a. {primary idea, to make to feel or suffer ; exten- 
sively used in composition), to kill, murder, put out of 
existence, ruin, slay ; betray ; quench fire, extinguish; 
bruise ; rub ; scrub ; cut (yam seeds) ; cut calabashes 
into halves ; break any hard nut ; peel the bark of 
a tree ; beat at play ; hatch ; tell fables ; cultivate a 
new grassfield ; be drunken. 
Pa yb//ow(?t? ^^^Abemo (tent, shed), v.n. to make a tent 

or tabernacle. 

Adano (loss), V. n. to suffer loss in trade 

or merchandise. 

Agbo (a circle), v. n. to make a circle. . 

241 2i 


V\ followed hi/ Alo (riddle)j v. n. to puzzle with riddles. 
Alo (flame), v. n. to cease burning in a 

Ase (law), V. n. to give law, command, 

make proclamation. 
Da (turn), v. a. to alter, change, convert. — 

Emi ko le ipa ipo mi da, " I cannot 

change my situation." 
De (close), V. a. to shut, close up. — Pa iwe 

re de, " Close up your book." 
Ete (intention), v. n. to be about to do, 

intend to do. 
^Imo (counsel), v. a. to consult, suggest, 

hint (lit. to hatch a counsel). 
Iye, v. n. to go through the farms in search 

of provision in time of war ; forage. 

Lara (ni-ara, body), v. a. to hurt, bruise. 

Lerin ( — erin, laughter), u «. to excite to 

Mo (adhesive), v. a. to keep, reserve, pre- 
Mora (mo-ara, close to the body), v. a. to 

bear patiently. 
NivE (ni-iye, in memory), y. <«. to confuse, 


Niveda ( — da, turn), v. a. to persuade, 

Osu-JE (month), v. n. to miss the month. 

Osusu (a grove), v. n. to stand in a grove, 

form a grove. 

Ojo-je, v. n. to miss a day or days. 

Po ( — plenty), v. a. to join, mingle to- 
Run (to destroy) v. a. to destroy, annilii- 

late, erase. 
Pa, adv. at once, in an instant. — O gbe e pa, " He took it 
. up at once." v. n. to be bald, void of hair, barren. 


Pa, inte'ij. a word of exclamation. 

Pa-da, v. n. to return, come back, change, alter. 

Padaseiiin ( — si-ehin), v. n. to return back, relapse. 

Pade (pa-ide), v. a. to meet with, come together. 

Padegun (pade-ogun), v. n. to meet in battle. 

Pafa, s. butcher's table, board. 

Pafo (pa-afo) v, a. to wallow in the mire. 

Paiiin (pa-ehin), v. n. to sharpen the teeth. 

Pahin-keke, v. n. to chatter with the teeth as when one 

Pajo, Pejo (pe-ijo), v. n. to assemble together. 

Pakaja, v. a. to pass a country cloth from under the arm 
to the shoulder. 

Pako, s. bamboo. 

Pako, s. board. 

Pakunrete, s. kind of dove (also called Orofo). 

Pakuta, s. small stewpan. 

Pala, adv. with much effort, with difficulty. 

Palai, adv. not at all, not near, far from. 

Palaka, s. the division of the fingers ; bough of a tree. 

Palapala, s. rough, rugged crevices of rocks. 

Palo, v. n. to puzzle with enigmas. 

Pa:m6, v. n. to hide ; be out of sight, concealed. 

Pamolle (pa-mo-ille), s. viper. — Pamolle ko oran afojudi, 
" The viper allows no insolence." 

Panhun, adv. at once, in a stroke. 

Pania (pa-enia), v. n. to commit murder. 

Panipani, s. murderer.. 

Pansa, dry calabash uncut, with the seeds in it. 

Pansa-Ille, 5. grave, tomb. 

Pansaga, s. harlot, prostitute ; adultery, fornication. 

Pansuku, s. large calabash with a cover (used for carry- 
ing food, wearing apparel, and other articles when 

Panti, PANxiRi, s. a trailing plant. 

Papa, s. grass-field, plain newly burnt ; pasture land. 


Papa, adv. violently {qualifying v. Wa, to tremble). — On- 

wa papa bi enniti ina jo, " You quiver like one who 

has been burnt." 
Papagori, s. a small bird, superstitiously regarded by the 

worshippers of Sango, who pretend to understand 

the meaning of its cry. 
Papala, adv. flatly, drily {jiaalifying v. Gbe, to parch).* — 

O gbe papala, " It is shrivelled up flat." 
Pape (pa-ape), v. n. to clap hands. 
Pa-po, v. n. to unite, mingle. 
Para, adv. with sudden noise. 
Para (pa-ara), s. the upper part of the plate which rests 

on the posts supporting the piazza. 
Vara folloived hy M9, v. a. to keep oneself close, take 

heed. — Para re mo, '' Keep your- 
self close." 

Da, v. a. to disguise, change, turn 

Parada, v. n. to disguise, change. 
Pari (pa-ori) v.n.anda. to come to an end, finish, be 

over, be superior. 
Pari, v. n. to be bald. 
Par"], s. jaw-bone. 
Paro (pa-aro) v. a. to exchange, barter. — Awa fi ohun 

paro ohun, " We exchange words for words." 
Pa-run, v. n. to extirpate, destroy. 
Pasi, s. a kind of coarse grass for thatching. 
Pasan, s. oyster-shells (also called Papasan). 
Pasan, 5. whip. 
Pasi-paro, s. exchange, barter. 
Pase (pa-ase), v. a. to issue a prohibitive law. 
Pataki, adj. chief, principal, head. 
Patako, s. wooden shoe, clog ; hoof. 
Patapata, adv. with the whole, altogether. 
Pati, afZ/. forcible, violent. 

Patipati, a<^?y. with force, with violence, forcibly, violently. 


Patire, whip, switch. 

Pato, Patoto, v. n. to make a noise. 

Pe, adj. correct, as regards to number ; perfect. 

Pe, v. a. to call, invite. 

Vkfolloived by Afefe, v. n. to take exercise in the air, 

enjoy the breeze. 

Lejo (ni-ejo), v. a. to call to judg- 

. Pada, v. a. to recall. 

Pe, cotij. that ; in order that ; to ; saying that. 

Pena (pe-ena), Pejo (pe-jo), v,a. to call an assembly; 

call a congregation, assemble together. 
Pepele, s. bank of earth raised for a sleeping place. 
Pere, adv. only. — Awa meji pere ni nlo 1 " Are we two 

only going ?" 
Peregun, s. kind of cotton tree. 
Peri, v. n. to mean, allude to, say. 
Pero, s. drill, parade, soldiers' exercise. 
Pese (pa-ese), v. a. to prepare, make provision ready. 
Pesan, s. the shell of palm nuts. 
Petan, v. n. to be perfect, correct, accomplished. 
Pete (pa-ete), v. a. to intend, be about to do. 
Pete, ado. openly, barefacedly. 
Pe, v. n. to be long, stay, tarry, endure, last. 
Pejapeja (pa-eja), s. fisherman. 
Pellebe, Pelebe, adj. flat and thin. 
Pelle, adv. gently, easily, soberly. 
Pellepe, s. w'olf (superstitiously believed to have been 

once a human being). 
Pelle-pelle, adv. very gently. 
Pellu, Pellupellu, adv. besides, also, moreover. 
Pepe, s. shelf; altar ; slip of wood or bamboo. 
Pepe, s. bird snare ; adv. gently. — Olu mi pepe, " He 

stroked me gently." 
Pepekun, s. sea-shell. 
Pepeiye, s. duck. 



Pe re, advi. quietly, without bustle. 

Pesse, adv. gently, easily. 

Perepere, adx). raggedly, [quaUfy'mg v. Ya, to tear). — O 

fa aso ya perepere, " He tears the cloth into 

Perepere, adv. very {qualifying v. Du, to be black). — As9 

yi du perepere, " This cloth is very black." 
Petelle, s. level ground, plain. 
Petepere, adv. comfortably. 
Petepete, s. mud, mire. — Petepete liesa o ta si 'ni lara 

ma won, " If the mud in the ^Ijesa country adheres 

to one, it will not be (easily) washed off." 
Petupetu (pa-etu), 5. fowler, guinea-fowl catcher. 
Pi, adv. entirely, wholly, without exception. 
PiDAN (pa-idan), v. n. to perform sleight of hand. 
PiLLESE, PiLLE (pa-ille-se), v. a. to commence, begin ; 

(used with reference to mechanical work). 
Pin, v. a. to share, divide. 
PiN-FUNi, V. a. to divide, distribute. 
Pin, v. a. to end, terminate. 
PiNLE (pin-ille), v. a. to terminate. 
PiNPiN, adv. fast, tight. 

PiPA, verbal adj. slain, killed, not dying of itself. 
Pipe, avj. long, tedious ; old, ancient. 
PiTAN (pa-itan), v. n. to argue or dispute about one's age 

by adducing old facts. 
PiWADA (pa-ivva-da), v. n. to change one's behaviour and 

conduct, to repent. 
Pi VEDA (pa-iye-da), v, n. to change the mind. 
PiYE ( — iye), V. a. to plunder. 
PoiiuNRERE (pe-ohun-rere), v. n. to cry aloud, to lament, 

bewail, cry out dolefully. 
PopoRo, s. stem of Indian or Guinea corn. 
Polo, s. snare for beasts. 
PoNSE, .s. name of a tree, the shell of whose fruit is used 

for making snufT-boxes. 


PopoLA, s. name of a tree bearing rich scarlet flowers, 

the fruit of which is esculent. 
PopoNDo, s. a kind of bean. 
PoRi, PoRiRi, V. a. to turn round, whirl. 
PoRiN (po-irin), v. n. to smelt iron ore. 
PoROPORo, adv. talkatively. 
Posi, s. coffin. 

PoTUTU (pa-otutu), v.n. to endure cold. 
Po, V. n. and adj. to be plentiful, many, cheap, common ; 

great, mighty ; wealthy ; able, powerful ; increasing. 
Po, v.a. to emit, to throw back. 
Po-ju, adv. much, more than. 
PojuLo, adv. most, above all. 
PoKO, s. a kind of calabash. 
PoN, V. a. to sharpen an iron instrument ; flatter, make 

much of. V. n. to ripen ; get yellow ; be red. 
PoN folloived hy Loju (ni-oju), v. a. to afflict, trouble, 
PoN, V. a. to carry on the back. 
PoNGA, s. pieces of stick placed crosswise over the body 

in the grave to prevent the earth from touching it. 
PoNGA, adv. entirely, clean. 
PoN-Rusu-Rusu, adj. brown, brownish. 
PoNTi (pon-otti), V. n. to make or brew beer (as from 

Indian or Guinea corn). 
PoNso ( — aso), V. n. to ripen (as Indian corn). 
PosiLLE-PosoDE, adj. busy in and out. 
PoTOPOTO, s. mud, bog, mire. 

Pu, adv. precipitately. — O tu pu, " He runs precipitately." 
Pupa, adj. red, scarlet, yellow. 
PuPA-EviN, s. yelk, yolk of an egg. 
Pupo, Pipo, adj. many, much, numerous. 
Pupo-pupo, Pipo-pipo, adv. abundantly, numerously. 
PuRO (pa-iro), v,n. to tell a lie (Jit. to hatch a lie). 
PuTU, adv. well {qual[f(/ing v. Ho, to lather). — Ose nho 

putu, " The soap lathers well." 



Ra, v. a. to buy, purchase ; tie ; furnish with laths. 
Ra followed by Di, v. n. to repay, recompense, retaliate. 
. / 'Eddo, V. w. to feel compassion, or yearn- 
ing of the bowels. 
Ra, v. n. to perish, be lost, go to nothing ; ache slightly, 

(as the head). 
'Rk followed by Niye (ni-iye, in memory),!?, n. to make 
one forgetful, stupefy. 
Ra, v. n. to rot, putrefy ; hover as a bird. 
Ra, v. n. to struggle ; creep, crawl ; rub upon. — Okonri 

na nra pala, " The man struggles with great 

Rabita, AlarT, s. a piece of AlarT. 
Radobo (ra-eddo-bo), v. a. to shelter, defend; gather as 

a hen does her brood. 
Raganbi (ron-agan-bi), .s-. a child born after a long season 

of barrenness. 
Raiiun (ra-ohun), v. n. to murmur, complain, speak un- 
advisedly from much grief 
Rajo (re-ajo), v. n. to go on a journey, sojourn. 
Rako (ra-ako), v. n. to creep, crawl. 
Ram-ram, adv. very {qualifying v. ke, to cry, roar).— 

Kenniu k6 ramram, " The lion roared very loudly." 
Ran, v. a. to send, despatch ; to command, charge ; sew. 

'y. n. to be slow in growing, be hide-bound. 
RLn followed by Leti, v. a. to remind. 
Ran, v. a. to communicate (as fire) ; be infectious (as 

disease) ; cut or wound (as an instrument) ; help, aid 

in business. — Ore mi ran mi lowo, " My friend 

helped me." 
Ran, v. a. to spin, twist cord or line. 
Ra'n- Ipo, v. n. to speak ironically. 
Ranhun-raniiun, v. n. to be perplexed. 
Ranju (ran-oju), v. n. to look sternly or fiercely. 


Ranti (ran-eti), v. n. to remember, call to mind. 

Ranse (ran-onise), v. n. to send a message. 

Rara, adv. loudly, vociferously {qualifying v. ke, to cry 

out). — Nigbati mo soro na fun u, o ke rara, "When 

I told him the word he cried out." 
Ra'ra, s. and adj. none, nothing, none at all. 
Rare, v. n. to linger, suffer a long and tedious sickness 

without care and attention, struggle between life 

and death. 
Rau-rau, adv. entirely, totally. 
Re, v. n. to change feathers as birds, moult, fall off as 

hair or leaves. 
Re, v. n. to go, depart (same sic/nijlcation as ho). 
Re, v. n. to go off", spring as a trap or snare. 
Rebi (re-ebi), v. n. to go on a journey, sojourn. 
Rede-rede, adv. foolishly. 
Red! (re-idi), v. n. to move the tail upward, as a bird when 

it sits upon a tree; wag the tail. — Eiye ba o redi, "The 

bird sits (upon the tree) and moves its tail upward." 
Refix, Rufin (ru-ofin), v. n. to break or transgress the 

Reke, adv. to an eminent degree. 
Re-ko-ja, adv. beyond measure, v. a. to pass over ; omit ; 

cross, traverse, go alone. — Mo rekoja afara, " I crossed 

the bridge." 
Reku (re-iku), v. a. to kill, despatch, kill (as a snare or 

Rera ( — ara), v. n. to be proud. 
Rere, adv. well. adj. good, devout. 
Rere, adj. at a great distance. 
Reri (re-ori), v. n. to be past harvest time, verbal adj. 

having no more fruit on. 
Reru, adv. entirely out of sight, no more to be seen. 
Reti (re-eti), v. a. to hope, expect, wait for ; clean the 

ear with a feather or an ear-pick. 
Re, v. a. to shear, cut short, cut, smear. 
249 2 K 




Ke followed hy Je, v. a. to cheat {l.\t. to cut and eat). 
IVIeyanmeyan, v. a. to crush to atoms. 

Re, v. v. to agree, be friendly, stick to. — Egiin ko ba esse 
re, " Thorns do not agree with the foot." 

Re, pers. pron. reflect, thyself. 

Re, v. a. io dye, steep in water, tinge. 

Re, jiers. jjron. his, himself. 

Re, v. n. to feel fatigued, be tired, weary ; cast leaves (as 
trees in autumn); hush, comfort; fade, wither; in- 
crease, multiply ; be deeply red. 

Regge (re-egge), v. n. to set a snare for ; watch for, wait 
for an opportunity ; find fault. 

Relle (re-ille), v. a. to go down, humble oneself, make 
oneself low. 

Rerin (rin-erin), v. n. to laugh. 

Rerin-wesi, v. n. to smile. 

Rere, adv. very [qualify'mg verbs of pursuing or motion 
towards). — Nw9n le mi rere, "They are pursuing 

Rere-Oju, s. eye-servant, eye-service. — Rere oju, oju li 
afeni suti lehin, " An eye-servant promises friend- 
ship ; but he despises you behind your back." 

Reyin (re-oyin), v. n. to take honey from a hive. 

Ri, v. a. and n. to sink, drown, immerse ; prepare the 
woof for the loom by insertion in the sley. 

Ri, V. a. to see, find, discover, v. n. to be, seem, appear; 
be defiled, 

Ri, adv. never, at no time. — Nwon mu esin na wa, irii 
eyi ti ako ri ri, " They brought the horse ; the like 
was never seen." 
Wi followed hy Sa, v. a. to shun, avoid, run from. 

RiDi (ri-idi), v. a. to ascertain, see the end. 

Ri-GB^ V. a. to receive, obtain. 

RiKisl, 5. conspiracy, plot. — Nw9n di rikisi si mi, "They 
plotted against me." 

RiN, V. n. to laugh. 


RiN, V. n. to be damp, or soaked ; press down to the 

RiN, V. a. and n. to tickle ; sail ; walk, go, move, pro- 
gress. — Bi ati rin li ako 'ni, " As one is walking so 
he is met." 

RiND9 (rin-eddo), v.n. to have a sensitive stomach sub- 
ject to nausea. 

RiNRiN, adv. very (quaJifying v. Wuwo, to be heavy). — 
Okuta na wuwo rinrin, " The stone is very heavy." 

RiRAN (ri-iran), t\ n. to see, see a wonderful sight. 

RiRi, adv. exceedingly {ciualifying v. Wa, to tremble). — 
Nigbati mo gbo orp na, mo vva riri, " When I 
heard the word I trembled greatly." 

RiRi, adv. somewhat tremulously {qualifying v. WX, to 
shake). — Otutu mu ommode na o nwa riri, " The 
child is cold, he shivers a little." 

RiRi, s. the act of seeing. — Ni ti riri mo ti ri i, " Seeing, 
I have seen it." 

RiRO, Iro, s. the act of rushing. 

RiRO, Iro, s. the act of manufacturing iron. 

RiRU, Iru, s. the act of issuing forth from a dry spring ; 
issue of smoke from the fire kindled ; sprout of a 

Riru-Omi, s. swell of the waves. — Riru omi ndide fuke- 
fuke, " The waves are rising very high." 

Rd, V. a. to tell, relate ; conceive, imagine, meditate, 
think deeply ; stir up ; plague, trouble. 

Ro, V. a. to sound ; place in an erect position ; excite, 
render stimulant. 

Ro, V. a. to cultivate, till ; v. n. to drip. * 

Ro, r. a. to cause acute pain (as a sore or wound), to give 
constant pain. 

RoGUN, V. n. to drain into a pond or pit, collect by dis- 

RoHiN, (ro-ihin), v. n. to tell news 

Ro and Loju, v. a, to appear difficult. 


Roju (ro-oju), V. n. to look sad, or displeased. 
RoKi-ROKi, adv. biilliantly {qualifying verbal adj. Pon, 
red). — Aso na pon rokiroki, " The cloth is beauti- 
fully red." 
RoLLE (ro-ille), v. n. to succeed to the deceased head of 

a family; to inherit property (especially houses). 
RoNA (ro-onna), v. a. to stop or block up the road ; 

clear the road. 
RoNo (ro-ino), v. n. to stir the mind, think, meditate ; 

be sorrv. 
RoNo-RONO, s. a thinker. 
RoN9-pi:\VADA, V. n. to change one's conduct, opinion, or 

behaviour, after consideration, repent. 
RoRo, adj. austere, severe, harsh, fierce. 
RoRO, adv. beautifully {qualifying verhal adj Pon, red). 
RoRo, adv. very beautifully {qualifying Pon). 
RoRE, s. pustule, pimple appearing on the face. 
Ro, -y. w. to gush, give way. v. a. push, push forcibly, 
break or bend at the edge, pervert, turn aside ; to 
collect a confused mass of things ; translate, explain. 
Ro, V. n. to wither (as the hand or a limb), be scorched or 
blighted (as green leaves), v. a. weaken, slacken, cool 
the ardour. 
Ro, V. a. to urge, constrain, press upon; v.n. to ease, 
give time, hang upon, suspend ; feel easy, be com- 
fortable, be soft ; rain. 
RpBi, (ro-ibi), v. n. to travail, be in the pains of child-birth. 
Ro-BERE, V. a. to expound by a lengthened narrative. 
RoGUN, V. a. to lay wait for, set a watch for ; produce seed 

(as yams). 
Rojo, V. n. to rain, pour down rain. 
Rojo, V. n. to wither (as a green herb). 
Roju, v.n. to persevere, be patient. 
Roju, adj. tame, mild, soft. 
RoKiN, V. n. to relate traditions, tell old stories, 
RoKON, V. n. to rebel. 


R9LLE, V. n. to be quiet, cease, be still, be tranquil. 

RoMo, V. n. to hang or lean upon. 

Ron, v. n. to be ill. 

Ron, v. a. to dip the sop in sauce, touch. 

Ron, Run, v. a. to masticate, chew. 

RoNDONRONDON, adj. pale. 

RoNGAN, i;. ??. to be barren (commonly considered the 
result of disease). 

RoNGBON, s. beard, whiskers. 

RoNo (ro-ino), v. n. to be abstemious. 

Ropo (r9-ipo), v. n. to take the room of another, supply 
the place of an absent person. 

RoRA ( — ara), v. n. to take care of, deal gently. 

RoRo, 5. ram's mane. 

RoGBAKA ( — ogba-ka), v. a. to surround, encircle, encom- 

RoGBOKu, V. n. to lean with the elbow, recline. 

Ru, V. a. to bear, carry, sustain, support ; be poor or 
meagre, lose flesh, grow lean. 

Ru, V. n. to spring (as a fountain), sprout (as a vegeta- 
ble) ; flourish ; stir up, mingle. 

Ru, V. n. to rise, swell, boil over ; break out, be exposed ; 
be moved with grief. 

RuBUTu (Haussa), s. w-riting, 

RuBO (ru-ebo), v.n. to make sacrifice. 

Run, v. 71. to break in pieces, or chips ; masticate. — 
O run wommom, "It breaks in pieces." 

Run, v. a. to consume, extirpate, destroy, annihilate. 

Run, v. n. to be straight, or direct. 

Run, v. a. to chew a stick, v. n. to send forth a savour, stink. 

Runle (run-ille), v. a. to break into a house by under- 
mining the ground. 

RuDu-RUDU, adj. disordered, in great confusion. 

RuFiN (ru-ofin), v. n. to transgress, break the law. 

RuGupu, adj. small, short. 

RuKE-RUDo, .9. tumult, uproar, confusion. 


RuLLu-uuLLU, s. seditious person, one who disturbs the 

RuRU, adv. confusedly. 
RuwE (ru-ewe), v. n. to shoot forth leaves. 


Sa, s. time. 

Sa, v. a. to expose in the sun to dry. 

Sa, v. n. to flee, run. 

^A followed bj/ Di, v.n. to seek protection. 

Sa, adv. (a particle prefixed to verbs to call immediate 

attention), now, see now. — Sa gbo bi mo ti wi, " Now 

hear what I say." 
Sa, coitj. for. — Yio sa se, " For it shall come to pass." 
Sa, v. a. to make, aim at, point, apply medicine. 
Sa, adv. awhile, for a time. 

Sa foUoived bj/ Lami (ni-ami), v. a. to make a mark or 

make a sign upon. 

LojA, V. a. to slip from memory ; forget. 

Pamo, v. n. to hide, conceal oneself. 

Sabba (siin-abba), v. n. to incubate, set on eggs ; hide 

Sa-di, v. n. to take refuge under the protection of 

Sagadagba (so-agada-gba), v. n. to become a pitched 

Sagati ( — 'aga-ti), v. a. to encamp against. 
Sagun (sa-ogun), v. n. to make charms or greegrees. 
Sakani, s. neighbourhood. 

Sakasaka, s. hay, groundnut leaves dried, provender. 
Sakusa, s. black, long-tailed bird, said to be one of the 

morning songsters. 
Sa-kuro, v. a. to abandon, forsake, run away from. 
Salo, v. 11. to run away. 
Salaiia, Salala, y. a kind of napkin used by men. See 



Salubatta, s. sandals. 

Samisi, v. a. to put a mark on, distinguish. 

San, v. a. to gird, tie round ; split, crack, v. n. thunder. 

San, adv. aloud, straightforward, directly, vividly. — Ma- 
namana ko san, " It lightens vividly." 

San, adj. better. 
/^AN, V. a. to pay, reward, benefit. — Olori li ori isan ki 
^ isan akan loke ode, " (The good genius of the) head 
prospers the owner of the head, and not the crab on 
the bank of the river." A fortunate spirit is sup- 
posed to reside in each man's brain : — The crab is 
used to represent one who has no connection with 
or claim on another. The proverb therefore signi- 
fies that each man has an exclusive right to the pro- 
ducts of his own forethought and industry. 
San followed hy Telle, v. n. to advance money, pay 

Sandie, Sanju, adj. a little better. 

Sanra (san-ara), v. a. to be healthy or well looking. 

Sansan, adv. in small slips {quaUfying v. Be, to split). 

Sanyan, s. raw silk, coarse woven silk, silk cloth. 

Sa-pa-mo, v. n. to hide, abscond. 

SapaUa, Sapadi, v. n. to be barren (applied only to land). 

Sapere, v. n. to make a sign, give direction, token, or 
mark, make a figure. 

Saraha, s. alms, charitable gift. (As used by the Ma- 

hommedans these gifts are very much akin to actual 

^' sacrifice. Ore-anu, meaning unequivocally "alms," 

has been therefore employed in translation). — Saraha 

babba ebo, " Saraha is the father of sacrifice." 

Sare, Sure (sa-ire), v.n. to run. 

Sare, s. square inclosed by buildings. 

Sarepegbe, s. the messenger of a company. 

Sari, s. the early meal of the Mahommedans before day- 
break during their fast-days. — Babba dide ki o mii 
s^ri je, " Father, rise, that you may eat sari." 


Sata, Kusata, s. lioiisehold, group of buildings under 

the inspection of a headman. 
^Sase (se-ase), v. n. to make a feast. 
Sawo-o, int. behold ! lo ! 

Sagbaraka, v. a. to fortify with a wooden fence. 
Se, v. n. to be shut, close, be barren ; miss a mark or 

one's aim. 
^E followed hy Mo, v. a, to enclose, block up. 
Se, v. a. to cook, dress and prepare victuals, to dye 

cloth or leather. 
Sebo (se-ibo), v. a. to wax gross, to overpower with fat. 
Segiri (se-egiri), -y. n. to be chilly. 
Sepon, v. n. to be barren or unfruitful. 
Sese, s. a kind of bean. 
Si, 'G. n. to be, exist. — lya ko si mo, babba ko si mo ta 

ni yio se itoju mi, " (My) mother is no more ; (my) 

father is no more ; who shall take care of me ?" 
Si, prep, against, to, at, into, used always with a verb of 

motion towards. — Emi nlo si ille wa, " I am going 

to our house." — Ogun taiTa si wa, ^' The enemy shot 

arrows against us." 
Si, Sin, co}ij. and, also, likewise. 
Sii, adv. awhile, for some time. — O pe sii, " He stopt 

SiAN, Stox, Suwa, adj. good, fair, pleasant, well. 
SiBE (si-ibe), adv. still, yet. 
SiHA, prep, toward, on the side of 
Sille (si-ille), ad>'. down to the ground. 
SiKsiK, s. hiccough. 

Si MI, V. n. to rest, pause ; hush, interj. hush ! 
Srx, adv. before, first in point of time. — O tete de sin 

mi, " He came before me." 
Six, V. a. to string, fill on a string as beads or cowries. 

V. n. to sneeze. 
SiN, V. a. to accompany, lead on the way ; demand debt 

due ; lord over, domineer ; serve a superior, worship, 


adore ; cease, prevent from doing ; keep domestic 

animals, raise cattle. 
Sin followed hy Je, x>. a. to imitate, mock. 
SiNHU, SiNwiN, V. 71. to be silly, be deranged. 
SiNiKA, s. a white metal sold on the coast. 
SiNisiNi (sin-enia), s. tyrant, lord. 
SiNO,p'ej?. into, among. 

SiN-siN, adv. closely {([ualifi/ing v. pamo, to hide, conceal.) 
SiPA (si-ipa), 2)rep. in the track of. 
SisiN, s. that which is to be served, worshipped, or taken 

care of. 
Siso, s. that which is to be thrown, cast away; word to 

be spoken. 
SiWAJu (si-iwaju), adv. more, forward. — Siwa sehin, 

"Forwards and backwards." 
So, V. a. to tie, hang, suspend, v. n. to bear fruit. 

Sofollovjed hy Mo, v. a. to tie or hang upon. 
So, V. n. to break wind. 

SoBiA, s. the guinea worm, which causes a painful swell- 
SoFiN (so-ofin), V. a. to prohibit. 
Soke (si-oke), adv. to the top, on top. 
SoPANFA (so-ipanpa), s. to agree mutually in valuing 

goods for the market. 
So-Ro, V. 71. to hang so as to swing, suspend. 
Se, v. a. to strain ; deny, negative. 
Se, (adv. denoting earnestness in putting one's resolution 

to practice), now, at any rate, at any hazard, surely, 

now, indeed, truly. 
Se, v. 71. to drop like dew ; put a question to a stranger, 

make inquiry ; quake as the earth. 
So, V. n. to speak, talk, tell, pronounce ; shoot out of the 

stem, join, mend, patch. 
So follotved by Asodon, v. a. to exaggerate. 

AwiYE, V. a. to prove, make certain. 

Di, V. a. to turn to, reduce to. 

257 2 L 


So followed hy Daiioro (di-ahoro), v. a. to desolate, turn 
to ruins. 

Dassan ( — assan), v. a. to annihilate. 

Di-RANiiuN-RANiiuN, V. a. to pcrplex. 

No, V. a. to lose, throw away. 

LiLi orDm'i, t;. 7^. toplay a game. 

LoFiN (ni-ofin), v. a. to charge, com- 
mand, prohibit. 

Lojo (ni-ojo) V. a. to lodge, assign to a 

Telle (te-ille),v. a. to foretell, prognos- 
So, V. n. to descend ; put a load down from the head. 
» /So, v.a, to heave, throw, cast at, turn, make to come. — 
Ohun ti aso siwaju li aba, ohun ti asi gbln, li awa ; 
nigbati ako so siwaju, ti ako gbin sille ki li abba, " A 
thing thrown forward will surely be overtaken, a 
thing planted in the ground will be there to be dug 
up ; but if nothing has been thrown forward, what 
shall be overtaken ? and if nothing has been planted, 
what shall be dug up ?" 
So, V. n. to quarrel, scold, complain. 
SoDi (so-idi), V. a. to explain, prove, declare. 
S9FFA, V. n. to pawn, pledge. 

SoLLE (so-ille), v.a. to place or lay the foundation. 
SoMiDOLOTTO, s. the solitary yellow monkey (also called 

Son, v.a. to broil by placing immediately on the fire. 
Son, v. a. to shove, move. 
SoNMO, V. n. to move close to. 
Son, v. a. to accuse, sue ; aim at. 

SoNAsr, SuNAsi (s9n-ina-si), s. irritation, excitement. — 
Nwon nse sonasi si mi, ^' They are rousing an excite- 
ment against me," 
S9NIDI (so-enia-di), v. n. to make or constitute. 
SoNo, V. n. to lose, be lost. 


SoNKi, SuNKi, shrink, contract, shrivel, shun. 
SoKALLE, V. n. to descend, come down, go down, disem- 
y bark. 
Y SoKUN, SoNKUN, V. 71. to cry, weep, bewail. — Elekun 
sonkun o ba ti re lo arokan iba sokun ko dake, " A 
weeper (who comes to condole with her friend) 
weeps and goes her way ; but one who dwells on 
painful recollections weeps and never ceases." 
SoRO, V. n. to hold conversation, talk, speak. 

S9R0-JEJE (so-oro), V. 71. to whisper. 

S9ROLEHIN (so-oro-ni-ehin), v. a. to backbite, calumniate 
in one's absence. 

SoRo-WEREWERE, V. «. to chatter, talk without much mean- 

SoTELLE (so-te-ille), v. a. to tell beforehand, foretell, 

Su, V. a. to sow, retail oil or liquor ; take a thing out of 
the socket, stand, or handle ; tire, weary ; walk lame 
from pain of the foot; sow, gild. — Nwon fi omi 
wura su u, " It is gilded, {lit. washed with gold 

Su, v.n. to break forth (as any eruption on the skin), to 
appear in numbers on the surface. 

Su, V. n. to fail of making an impression from the blunt 
edge of the instrument ; fail in cutting or wound- 

Sua, adj. universal, extensive, comprehending a very 
wide range. 

SuB9, V. a. to gild ; overlay with a thin coat of gold or 

SuFE (su-ofe), V. a. to whistle. 

Sun, v. n. to sleep ; congeal as oil. 

Sun, Son, v. a. to sue, accuse, complain of. 

Sun, adv. strangely, with surprise {qualifying v. Wo, to 
v look at). — Aditi wo 'ni li ennu sun, " The deaf look 
with surprise at the mouth (of the speaker)." 


SuNMO, SoNMO, V. a. to approach, draw near. — Nigbati 
mo sonm9 ille sa, awa pade, " When we drew near 
to the house we met (one another)." 

SuNYE, V. n. to doze, take a short nap. 

Sure, Sare (sa-ire), v. n. to run, make haste. 

Sure (so-ire), v. a. to wish a blessing upon. 

SuRU, Suuru, s. patience, perseverance under vexation. 

SuwoN, SuwA (san-iwa), adj. good, well, nice. 

SuTi, s. a contemptuous pouting of the lips. 


Sa, v. a. to cut, wound, snap (a gun). 

Sa, v. n. to fade (as the colour of cloth). 

Sa, v. a. to pick up one by one, choose. 

Sa, adv. in any wise, at any rate, only, merely, but. — 

Babba ni ki ase e sa bi o ti wu ki ori, " My father 

said we must do it at any rate." 
Saffa-pupa, s. the red wattle tree ; the colour yellow. 
Saffa, s. iron ring worn on the wrist by hunters. — Saffa 

ni ike ode, " The saffa is a hunter's ring." 
Safin or Saba, s. chain worn on the wrist by hunters. 
Safojudi, v. n. to be saucy, insolent, impudent. 
Safowora (se-fi-owo-ra), steal, pilfer. 
Sagalamasa ( — agala-mo-asa), v. n. to play tricks, be 

guilty of double dealing. 
Sagbe, (se-agbe), v. a. to beg, borrow. 
Sagbe-sagbe, s. a beggar, borrower. 
Saho ( — aho), V. n. to despise, contemn. 
Sajo ( — ajo), v. n. to be anxious. 
Saju ( — iwaju), v.a. to go before, precede. 
Sa-jo, ^AfoUoived hy Jo, v. a. to gather together. 
Sai ! interj. (a word of defiance). 
Saka, Sasa, adv. clearly, entirely, thoroughly. — Ara mi 

da saka, "I am clear (of any harm or blame)." 
Saka, s. name of a kind of trousers. 
V Sakata, s. fen, bog, morass, miry ground. — Sakata ni ida 



won won ni Bese, " The morass is an obstruction to 
the people of the town of Bese." 
Saki, v. n. to miss fire, fail, fail in cutting or wounding. 
Sakisaki, adv. roughly, unevenly, in a confused manner, 
badly. — Nwon sa a li ogbe sakisaki, " They wounded 
him very badly." 
Sakoko, chance,happen seasonably,or in good time. 
Sakoso (se-ako-so), v. n. to have a hold of, have the 

reins, govern. 
Salabapade (se-enni-ba-pade), v.n. to chance, as above. 
Saluga, s. title of Aje, the god of money. 
San, v. a. to eat without sauce; daub, plaster; strike 

violently against any thing hard, cut down bushes. 
San, v. n. to flow or run (as a brook or river) ; be loose, 

not tight, compact or consistent. 
San, adv. glisteringly, twinklingly {qualifymg v. tan). — 
Iraw9 ntan san loju orun, " The stars twinkle in the 
Sana (sa-ina), v. n. to produce fire by striking flint and 

San-san-san, adv. twinkling twinkling. 
San or Sansan, adv. uprightly. — lUe na naro san, " The 
house stands upright." — Omu ara re duro sansan, 
"He stands straight upright." 
Sanfani (se-anfani), v. n. to be advantageous, be pro- 
Sango, s. the god of thunder and lightning. 
Saniyan (se-aniyan), v. n. to be anxious for others. 
Sanku (san-iku), v. n. to die in the prime of life or pre- 
Sankuta (san-okuta), v. n. to dash against a stone. 
Sanle (san-ille), v. a. to dash on the ground. 
Sanse, v. n. to strike one foot against another in walkino-. 
Sanu (se-anu), v. a. to pity, be sorry for ; be liberal. 
Sanwo (san-owo), v. n. to go empty-handed, swing the 
hand much in walking. 


Sangbo ( — igbo), V. n. to cut a forest for cultivation. 
Sanpanna, 5. cow-pox, small-pox. 
Sapo, s. name of a tree used for making quivers. 
Sape (sa-ape) v. a. to clap hands. 

Sapere (se-apere), v. a. to give direction, token, or sign. 
Sapa-sapa, adv. not decently or neatly, roughly, abruptly. 
Sapejure (se-p^-jure), v. n. to give a direction. 
Saran (se-aran), v. n. to speak unconnectedly (as an aged 
person from weakness of memory or loss of mental 
Saroye (se-ro-ye), v. n. to dispute, quarrel, talk much, 

complain, argue, reason. 
Sare (se-are), v. n. to be older than. 
Sata, Sata, 5. mud, mire, morass. 
Satipo (se-atipo), v. n. to remove from one country to 

another, sojourn. 
Sawada (— awada), v. n. to jest. 

Sawo ( — awo), V. n. to.make a secret bargain, conspire, plot. 
Saworo, s. small brass bells with narrow openings. 
Sawotan (se-wo-tan), v. a. to heal, cure. 
Sasa, s. scars made by the small-pox. — Sasa se mi li oju, 

" I am pitted on the face with the small pox." 
SXsA, adv. only a few, here and there, scantily. 
Sasa, s. worn-out palm-broom, broom. 
Sasabaku, s. coffee plant. 

Se, v. a. to do, act, cause, make, execute, manage. 
Se, v.n. to give way. — Se fun mi, " Give me way." 
Se, v. n. to be, answer to. — Temi ni ise, " It is mine." 
^E followed by Iregun, v. n. to reprove an ungrateful 

person by reminding him of kindness 
done to him. 

Afojudi, v. a. to insult, affront, be 

saucy to. 

Lalejo, v. a. to entertain strangers. 

Lewa (ni-ewa), v. a. to adorn, beautify, 



^Y. followed by Loso (ni-oso), v. a, to adorn, furnish. 
NiBUBURU, injure, hurt, evil en- 

RuBUTU, v.n. to write. 

SuNASi, V. n. to provoke, urge to provo- 
cation, excite to anger. 

Tamahan, V, n. to think, consider. 

Sebaibai, v.n. to grow dim, be dim. 

Sebe, s. a black snake which emits saliva. 

Sebi, v. n. to suppose. 

Sefefe, v. n. to brag, boast. 

Se-gafara, v. a. to excuse, have respect for. 

Segbe (se-egbe), v.n. to be lost, perish, 

Segbedegbeyo ( — gbo-ede-gbo-eyo), v. n. to act the part 

of an interpreter, interpret. 
Se-Irona, v. n. to go in search of. 
Seke (se-eke), v. n. to tell a lie. 
Sent ( — enia), v. n. to trouble or annoy. 
Seni ( — eni), v. n. to give something over the purchase- 
Senewo (se-na-owo), s. name of a bird (also called 

Seriju ( — ri-oju), v. n. to serve as steward or trust- 
worthy servant. 
Se-pansaga, v. a. to prostitute. 
Se-pasi-paro, v. n. to barter, make exchange. 
Sepe (se-epe), v. n. to swear, take oath. 
Sepe, aux. V. had it been. — Iba sepe behe li o ri, " Had 

it been so." 
Sesin (se-esin), v. n. to ridicule, mock. 
Se-tan, v. n. to be ready, be completed. 
Setan, adv. after all. 

Seun (se-ohun), v. n. to be kind, be benevolent. 
Se, v. n. to be fulfilled, come to pass ; happen. 
Se, v. a. to break a stick; break, conquer, subdue. 
^'k followed hy Keke, v, a. to reckon, number. 


^E followed bi/ Loju, Lekanna, v. a. to wink at by way 

of hint, hint, beckon. 

NiFON, V. a. to suit, rub, scratch the 

body of another to indulge him in 

NisE, r. a. to punish. 

Se, v. a. to commence, begin ; sin, ofTend, commit a 

trespass, transgress. 
Se, adv. greatly, very much {qualifying v. Yo, to rejoice). 

— Gbogbo wa nyo se, " We all greatly rejoice." 
Sebo, Sebbo (se-ebo), v. a. to sacrifice, propitiate. 
Sedda, s. silk. 

Sedda- YoRiYORi, s. white silk. 
Sedda-Elefin (ni-efin), s. purple-shaded silk. 
Seffe (se-eire), v. n. to jest, joke. 

Segge, s. high grass bending over the road towards the 

. dry season. — Segge ko mo enni obba, ojo ko mo 

enni owo, " As the grass segge does not regard the 

king's messenger, so the rain does not respect great 


Segun (se-ogun), v. a. (lit. to break war), to overcome, 

have the victory. 
Seive (se-eiye), v. n. to rebel against, revolt from. 
Seju (se-oju), V. n. to wink the eye. 
Se-keke, v. a. to give account, reckon by tickets ; cast 

Seke-seke, s. fetters. 

Sekere, s. calabash covered with cowries plaited in net- 
work, and used as a drum. 
Sekete, s. beer made from Indian corn. 
Sembe, adv. (characterising a blaze of light). See Imun- 


Seno, v. n. to miscarry. 
Senifinran, Etutupuye, s. a thorny shrub. 
Seri (se-ori), v. n. to divert the course, take another 


• • 

Se-Orun, s. the setting of the sun when it appears as a 

Sepolohun (se-pa-oni-ohun), s. name of a prickly shrub 

or tree. 
Sete ( — otte), V. n. to subdue, conquer. 
SI, V. a. to miss, mistake, fail. 

S\ followed by Fisi, v. a. to misplace. 

No, v. a. to rinse, cleanse. 

Si, Sin, v. a. to open, expose to sight ; remove, change 
place ; be guilty ; borrow, lend ; run with precipi- 
^i followed by l^xiYKy v. n. to discover the mind; 

Laje, v. a. to condemn. 

NivE, V. a. to remind. 

Se, v. a. to do wrong, misbehave. 


5. spoon. 

SiBO, s. the pawpaw tree and fruit. 

SiGBo, SiGBON, SuGBON, conj. but, yet. 

SiGiDi, adj. moderately short and bulky. 

SiGiDi, SuGUDU, s. earthenware image. 

SiGUN (si-ogun), V. n. to set out for war. 

SiGUN, s. the fig-nut plant. 

Siji ( — iji), V. a. to shade, cast a shade, screen. 

SiJiBO ( — iji-bo), V. a. to overshadow. 

Siju ( — oju), V. n. to open the eye ; be daring. 

Siju-w^o, V. a. to look upon, behold. 

Si-KUN, V. n. to remain. 

SiKKo ( — okkp), V. n. to get under weigh. 

Sillekun ( — illekun), v. n. to open a door, grant admit- 

SiMORAN (se-mo-9ran), v. a. to consider ; counsel. 

SFn, adv. very firmly, piercingly. — Egun gun mi li esse 
sin, " The thorn pierced my foot very deeply." 

Sin, Sinsin, adv. upright, firmly, steadily, fast, stead- 
265 2 m 


SiNiKA, s. pewter ; composition of silver. 
SiNsiN-OBBE, s. sweetmeat ; palaver sauce. 
SixA, V. n. to err, miss the road, stray. 
Sio ! intoj. (a word expressing contempt). 
SiPAVA, v.n. to lay open, expose to view 
SiPE (se-"ipe), v. n. to beg pardon for. 
Sire( — ire) v.n. to play. 

SiREGUN ( — iregun), v. n. to rebuke or remind an un- 
grateful person of kindness done. 
SiRO ( — iro), V. a. to reckon, calculate. 
SiRO, s. name of a bird. 
SiRi, -s. a single stock of guinea corn or rice with the 

grain in the ear. 
SissE (si-esse), v. n. to move the foot ; make haste, or 

SisE, v.n. to mistake ; act wrongly; do amiss. 
SisE (se-ise), v. n. to work, labour. 
SisESiSE, s. workman, labourer. 
SiSEPA, V. n. to labour, do hard work. 
SisE (se-ise), v. w. to suffer trouble, labour under some 

SisiNiGUN, s. a bird. 
SisoRO, adj. difficult. 
Sisu, s. the act of being darkened. 
SiwERE (se-were), v.n. to be silly, be a fool. 
Si wo ! intcrj. (an expression of defiance). 
SiYEMEJi (si-iye-meji), v. n. to doubt, hesitate ; (lit to 

make two minds). — O nsiyemeji, " You are doubting." 
So, V. a. to be rough, passionate, peevish, sour. 
So, V. a. to be slackened, or loosened. 
So, adv. just a touch, a mere touch {qualifying verbs of 

touching, or dipping). — O fi bo o so, " He just dipped 

So, V. n. to look stern, surly, or harsh, 
SoFO (se-ofo), V. n. to suffer loss of property. 
SoFOFO ( — fo), V. n. to reveal secrets, tell tales. 


SoGO (se-ogo), V. n. to perform worthy actions ; glory. 

SojoRO, V. n. to cheat in play. 

SojuKOKORo ( — oju-kokoro), v. n. to covet, be covetous. 

SoKOTo, s. trousers. 

S6koto,K6to,«^'. very narrow, confined space or room, as 
a room. — Ille sokoto, or Ille koto kiki ekan,"A small 
confined room, consisting of (almost) nothing but pins ;" 
(a riddle, meaning the mouth with its many teeth). 

Solo, s. small brook or spring. 

SoLORi (se-olori), v. a. to command, head. 

SoNO (so-ino), V. n. to be froward, surly, cross, passionate, 

SoNso, s, a point ; the highest point or tip of any thing. 

Sore (se-ore), v. n. to do good, act kindly. 

SoRO, verbal adj. hard, difficult. 

SoRO ( — oro), v. n. to be furious, be severe, act from 
indignation or irritation. 

Soso, adj. only, single, — On nikan soso li o mbe ni ille, 
" He is the only one in the house." 

Sowo ( — owo;, V. n. to trade. 

So, V. a. to guard, watch. 

SoFFO ( — ofr9), V. n. to mourn for the dead. 

SoFFON-DiN, s. name of an herb used for sauce. 

SoHOMBiA, SoROMBiA, s. pair of boots. 

SoKAN ( — okan), v. n. to be one, unite, agree. 

Son, v. a. to take by small quantities, little at a time. 

Son, adv. precipitately, with a plunge {qualifying v. Wo, 
to enter). — O wo ino re son, " It plunged into it alto- 

Son, adv. coolly, calmly. — O wo mi son, " He looks upon 
me calmly." 

S9RE ( — ore), V. n. to associate, be friends. 

Soso ( — oso), V. n. to adorn oneself. 

SoTTE ( — 9tte), V. n. to rebel, revolt. 

Sowo, V. a. to hand over ; send over. 

SowoN, V. n. to be rare, scarce, dear. 


Su, V. n. to make into balls, knead. 

Su, V. n. to gather together in a great multitude (as 

locusts or grasshoppers). 
Su, V. n. to gather blackness as rainy clouds, darken. 
Su, V. a. to speak, hold a speech ; intrust. 
Su, v.n. to evacuate, throw out. 

Svfol/oivedbi/ Lohun (ni-ohun), v. a. to censure severely, 

Si, D. rt. to answer ; be concerned about, 

Su-Bo, V. a. to come upon in a crowd. 
SuBu (se-ibu), v. n. to fall down. 
SuGBON, co})j. but, yet. 

SuGUDU, SiGiDi, s. image for worship made of clay. 
Su-jo, V. n. to come together in a dense crowd. 
SuKU, s. a kind of basket. 

SuKURA, s. a name of the partridge. {See Aparo.) 
Su-MO, V. a. to come upon in a crowd. 
SuNo (su-ino), v.a. to be suffering from diarrhoea. 
Supo ( — ipo), V. n. to marry a widow. 
SuRi^, adj. small (applied to heaps). — Ebe suru, " A small 

Sltru, adj. large (applied to the tail of a peacock, cock, 

turkey, or a bunch of any thing). 
Susu, adv. to a great degree, greatly, utterly, {qualifying 

V. Run, to destroy), — Ino ru mi susu, " My passion 

was greatly excited." — Nwon run illu nasusu, "They 

utterly destroyed the town." 


T \, inter. jpr on. W hot — Ta ni nse behe ? "Who is doing so?" 
Ta, v. a. to kick ; burn smartly (as pepper) ; shoot at ; 
sting ; open a boil ; spill, shed ; shine upon. 
T x followed by Ire, v. a. to imprecate evil upon. 

Laiya (ni-aiya), v. a. to strike the breast, 

oppose, be contrary to. — Afefe ta okko 


laiya, " The wind was contrary to the 
li A followed hy Ore, v. a. to give a present. 

Ta, v. n. to produce (as yams or any vegetable from the 
root) ; sound aloud (as a cry) ; shoot out length- 
wise; pass from one place to another. — Ta atare 
atayo, " He is always roving here and there," — Igbe 
ta, " A cry was raised." 

Ta, v. a. to sell, expose for sale ; fine. 

Tabba, s. tobacco. 

Tabbi, conj, neitlier, nor, or, whether. — Tabbi iwo ko 
ngb9 ? " Do you not hear ?" (an expression used in 
conversation to call attention.) 

TabbI ! i7iterj. what else ? what more ? indeed ! 

Tabili, s. {Eng.) table. 

Tafa (ta-ofFa), v. a. to shoot arrows. 

Tafa-tafa, 5. archer, bowman. 

Tagbokun (ta-igba-okun), v. n. to spread or make sail. 

Tagbongbon, v. n. to stagger. 

Taitai, Tai, «Ji;. indifferently, insolently, with no earnest- 

Taje (ta-ejje), v.n. to shed blood. 

Ta-ji, v. n. to awake, start on a sudden from sleep; awake 
suddenly (as from dozing). 

Taju ( — oju), V. n. to be in haste, be too anxious, be in a 

Takarada, s. {Hanssd) book, paper. 

Ta-kete, v. n. to stand aloof or at a distance from. 

Ta-k6ko, v. a. to knot. 

Takun ( — okun), v. n. to suspend a rope. 

Takotabo (ti-ak9-ti-abo), s. a pair of animals, male and 

Talaka, s. a poor indigent person. 

Talla (to-alla), s. white muslin, bleached calico. 

Talubo, s. young unripe fruit (especially of theShea tree). 

Tampa, s. the side bone next the rib. 


Tan, v. a. and n. to light a lamp or torch, shine ; entice, 
deceive, decoy ; spread, scatter. 

Tan, v. n. to be done, cease, be at an end. 

Tan, v. n. to be related to. — Emi ko ba iwo tan, emi ko 
ba iwo re, " I am neither related to, nor in friend- 
ship with you." 

Tangala, s. name of a bird. 

Tangiri, Tagiri, s. a running plant, whose fruit is used 

in tanning hides.' 

Tani ? m^^r.p'ow. who ? whom? 

Tan-je, v. a. to deceive, entice. 

Tanju (tan-oju), v. a. to look sternly at. 

Tantan, adv. violently {qiiaUfying v. Na, to stretch). — 
Emi na esse mi tantan, '^ I stretched my legs to their 
full extent." 

Tantasi, s. yam not pulled up, but left to grow and bear 
in the same hole, 

Tapa (ta-ipa), v. a. to kick. 

Tape ( — ipe), v. n. to appear (as the ear of Indian corn 
on the stalk). 

Tara ( — ara), v. n. to be hasty, be too anxiously con- 

Tar A, s. gravel clay, used in giving solidity to mud 

"^1 ARA, adv. straightforward. 

Tari (ta-ori), v. a. to push violently or headlong. 

Tase ( — ase), v. n. to fail, miss the mark, miss one ano- 

Tase ( — ase), v. n. to imprecate evil upon, curse. 

Taso ( — aso), V. a. to arrange (the woof on pins from the 

Tassa, s. pan, pewter plate. 

Tasse ( — esse), v. a. to kick, kick with the foot. 

Tayo, Taw^o ( — ayo), v. n. to play the game called the 

Te, adv. on the very top {qualifying verbs signifying to 



put or rest upon). — Eiye ba le ori iggi t^, "The 
bird sits right on the top of the tree." 

Te, v. a. to worship, adore ; rear ; indulge, fondle, re- 
spect. — -'Orisa ti akeke ti ko gb'ike, orisa ti atete ti 
ko gbite, oju popo ni igbe, " The god who would 
not be pleased, when they tried to please it, the god 
who would not be propitiated, when they tried to 
propitiate it, must take up his abode in the high- 

Teatre, s. (Gi'.) theatre. 

Tede, s. a kind of parrot very destructive to Indian 
corn. . 

Tefe-tefe, adv. the whole, entirely. 

Teju, Toju (to-oju), V. a. to take care of, mind, have the 
oversight of. 

Temi (ti-emi), ^;?•o>^. of me, mine. 

Tete, adv. soon, quickly, first, in the first place. — Ise 
temi ni ki atete kose, " My w"ork is to be done first." 

Tete, adv. fast, with a quick pace. — Ommode nsure tete 
li oju opopo, " The child is running fast on the high- 

Tete, 5, leg (of a goat or other inferior animal) ; kick 
from such an animal : (that of a man or a horse is 
called Ipa). — Ewure yan mi ni tete, "A goat kicked 

Te, adj. and v. n. to come to disgrace ; be level, be flat ; 
be tasteless, be insipid. 

Te, v. a. to beat, outdo ; lay, place gently on. 

Te followed hy L0R9N (ni-oron), v. a. to make level ; 
be satisfied with, satisfy. 

Te v. a. to trample, tread ; bend ; castrate. 

Te followed hi/ Balle (ba-ille), v. a. to bend down. 

Id6, Tedo, v. n. to encamp ; form an 


Lesse (esse), v. a. to inform privately, 

give a hint. 


T\folloived hi) Molle (mo-iile), t>. a. to trample under 

foot, tread upon. 

Na, adv. already. — Iwo te de na, " Are 

you come already ?" 
Ri, V. a. to suppress, put under, hide. 

Tebere, \\ a. to make level, make low. 

Tegun, -y.w. to set in battle array, lay wait. 

TEI11NB9RUN, s. name of a tree. 

Teiiinghesa, s. crust. 

Teju (te-oju), n. a. to be flat, level. 

Tejumo ( — mo), V. a. to fasten the eye upon, look ear- 
nestly, attend to. 

Tele, v. a. to follow. — Mase saju, sugbon tele won, " Do 
not go before, but follow them." 

Telle (te-ille), v.n. to tread on the ground ; adv. before- 
hand, previously. — Awa ti mo telle, pe behe ni yio 
ri, " We knew beforehand that so it would be." 

Tennumo (te-ennu-mo), v. a. to affirm. 

Tentere, s. name of a carnivorous bird. 

Tenyin (ti-enyin), poss. pron. yours. 

Teriba (te-ori-ba), v. n. to stoop, bow the head to the 

Teruteru (ta-eru), s. slave-dealer, seller of slaves. 

Tete, s. game of chance. 

Tete, s. herb. 

Tete-Egun, s. a species of cane (used as cough-medicine). 

Tetere, adv. carelessly. — Aki imu ibon tetere, " A gun 
is not to be held carelessly." 

Tetu, s. executioner. 

TEW9GBA (te-9wo-gba), adj. acceptable, approved, re- 
ceived. V. a. to take in hand. 

Ti, V. a. to thump, strike with a heavy substance ; fade, 
lose colour. 

Ti, r el, pron. who, whom, which, the one which. — Okon- 
ri ti mo wi ti pada de, " The man whom I men- 
tioned has returned." 


Ti, conj. yet. — Emi ko ti ib, " I do not go yet." 

Ti, V. a. to prop, support, cast, push, shine ; fasten, lock, 
— Ti illekiin ki o to jade, " Lock the door before 
you go out." — Ma se ti ommode subu, " Do not push 
the child down (lit. to fall)." 
Ti followed by Saju, v. a. to put forward, place be- 

Ti, 'prej). against, at, to, with, by, near. — Ma se duro ti 
mi, " Do not stand by me." 

Ti, adv. not ; (denoting failure, inability). — Babba k9 
ille ti, " My father is not able to finish the house, or 
fails in building." 

Ti, adv. heavily, vehemently, with great force. — Orun 
na bi lu mi i\, "The smell overpowers me." 

Ti, aux. v. have, have been. v. n. to gnaw. — Awa ti lo, 
" We have gone." — Eyi ti pari, " This has been ac- 

Ti, prep, sign of the possessive case, of, belonging to. — Ille 
ti 'wa wo, " Our house fell." — Iwe ti emi ko 'yi, 
" This is not my book." 

T\,prep. from. — Bi iwo ti ti ibe de m, "You have just 
come from the place." 

Ti, adv. how ?— Eyi ti ri? " How is this ?" 

TiA, TiRA, s. Mahommedan charm ; book, letter. 

TiAN, TiANTiAN, adj. distant, long. — Oniye ni iranti ojo 
tian tian, " Long as the time is, it is within the com- 
pass of memory (Jit. has number in remembrance)." 

TiAN-TiAN, adv. abundantly, profusely, plentifully 
{qualifying v. fo, to fly). — Eiye fo soke tiantian, 
"The bird flew up to a very great height." 

Tiantian, s. bird so called from its cry. 

TiBAYi, dem. pron. the one yonder. 

Tiju (ti-oju), V. n. to blush, be ashamed. 

TiKARARE (ti-ika-ara-re), reflect, pron. thyself, belonging 
to thyself 

TiKARARE, reflect, p'on. himself, belonging to himself. 
273 2 N 


TiKO, adv. heavily, unwillingly, reluctantly. 

TiLLE, couj. even, though, although. — Bi awa ko tille lo 
ki ni yio se wa, " Though we should not go, what 
could he do to us?" 

TiM0-TiM9, adv. closely, adhesively. 

TiMTiM, s. pillow, cushion. 

TiNABo (te-ina-bo), v. a. to kindle, set on fire. 

Ting, Tinotino (ti-ino), adv. with the heart, from the 
heart, heartily, p-ep. within. 

Tiui, V. n. to stoop, to look downwards. 

Ti HI-SI, ^r<?;9. once against, opposite to. 

TiRiNMOLLE (ti-irin-mo-ille), v. n. to stand firm. 

Tiro (ti-iro), v. n. to stand on tiptoe, so as to reach a 
high object. 

TiROTiRo, adv. with consideration, advisedly. 

TiSA ju (ti-isaju), adj. foremost, former, v. a. to put for- 
ward or foremost. 

TiTANi ? 2)ro)i. whose ? 

TiTE, s. and adj. that which is to be trampled upon or 
castrated ; trampled, castrated. 

TiTi, conj. until, till. adv. continually, ever. 

TiTi, adv. tremulously, {qiialifymg verbs of shaking or 
quaking of the earth). — lUe mi titi, "The earth 
quaked violently." 

TiTi-LAi, adv. until ever ; never. 

Tito, adj. straight, direct, s. that which is to be straight- 

T1T9N, TiTTON, adj. young, fresh, new. 

Tiwa, Taw a, poss. pron. ours. 

TiwoN, 2^oss. pron. theirs. 

TiwoNwoN, s. wart ; name of a bird. 

To, ToTo, ToTOHUN, adv. never ; (emphatical, used only 
wdien a transgressor promises amendment). — Toto- 
hun emi ko se behe mo, " Never ! never will I do so 

To, V. u. to be enough, be sufficient, be capacious, reach at. 
274 1 


To, adv. (expressing the manner or sound of dropping). — 

Omi nkan to, to, to, "The water goes drop, drop, drop." 
To, V. n. to stand in a line, muster, place in rows ; be 

restored (as a broken limb). 
To, adv. well (expressive of satisfaction, used mostly by 

Mahommedans) . 
ToBEHE, adv. to such a degree, insomuch, in such wise. 
ToBi, adj. and v. n. to be big, great, supreme. 
ToBiJu, adj. and v.n. to be bigger than, larger than. 
ToBiJULo, adj. biggest, largest. 
ToBi, s. napkin, wrapper. 
Tobi-Inowo, s. towel. 
Togbe, v. n. to slumber, doze. 
ToGBo, s. name of a forest bird. 
ToLOTOLO, s. turkey. 

Tojubo, v. n. to plunge the eye into, look into, view. 
ToNiTONi, adv. cleanly. 
ToNiTONi, Teniteni, couj . until now. 
ToNTORo, a^. {used respecting liquids) ; a very little, a 

very small drop. — Bu omi tontoro si obbe, " Pour a 

small drop of water into the sauce." 
Tori (to-ori), v. n. to fall to one's share. 
Tori-Oju, v. n. to satisfy, satiate. 
ToRO, s. name of a kind of rat, noted for fatness ; kind of 

country coat, used as an upper garment. 
ToRo, V. n. to settle (as dirty water) ; be still, be at rest, 

be at peace, be tranquil. — Ule toro, or Aiye toro, 

*'The country is at peace." 
To-si, s. neighbourhood, nearness, proximity. 
ToTO, adv. clearly, serenely. 
ToTO ! ToTOiiuN ! adv. a word of humiliation before the 

gods or a superior power, denoting submission and 

repentance, and a promise never to do so more. 
ToTo, adv. {qualifying Fe, to distort the face), very. — 

Gbogbo won fe oju toto, " They all distort their 

faces ;" a phrase describing the expression of coun- 


tenance assumed by those who have a laborious task 
imposed upon them. See Fe. 
ToTo (ti-oti-to), adv. of a truth, in truth, truly. 
ToYE (to-iye), v. w. to be of equal value, ac^. meritorious. 
TovETovE (ti-oye), adj. with observation, considerately, 

To, V. a. to correct, bring up, educate ; direct ; straighten ; 

annoy, trouble ; touch ; enrage. 
To, adj. andv. n. to be straight, right, true ; be long ; be 
durable ; split into small slips (as straw for hats or 
To folloived hy EJ9, v. a. to settle, trace a matter. 

Wo, V. a. to taste. 

To, V. n. to make water. 

To, V. a. to follow, go to, resort to. 

Toiio, adv. expression of praise to a younger person. — 

O seun toho, " Well done, lad." 
To.iu, Teju (to-oju), v.a. to take care of, watch, see after. 
ToKKANTOKKAN (ti-okkau), adv. with the soul, heartily. 
Tokko, (to-9kko), v.a. to steer, guide a ship, canoe, or boat. 
Ton, adv. again, once more (used in composition to ex- 
press repetition). 
1l Cm followed hy Gbe, v. a. to take again, resume. 

Ka, v.a. to count again, repeat. 

Mu, V. a. to hold again. 

So, Wi, V. a. to say over again. 

Wo, V. a. to look again, review. 

ToNNA (to-onna), v. n. to take the lead, go on the road ; 

follow, trace the path. 
T9PA, ToPAssE (t9-ipa), v. a. to trace, follow a track or 

Tore (ta-9re), v. See ¥\ followed hy Tore. 
ToRo, V. a. to borrow, beg of, petition, ask a loan. 
ToRDN (ti-orun), adj. of or from heaven, heavenly. 
TossE, V. a. to trace out. 
T9TT9, adj. whole, complete. 


TowoTowo (ti-owo), adv. with respect, reverently. 
Tu, V. a. and n. to loose, loosen, untie ; pour out ; 
break (as a boil) ; gush ; break up (as a market or 
congregation) ; scatter ; unfold. 
TvfoUoived hy Ka, vi. a. to scatter, disperse. 

^Offo, V. «. to bring tidings of a deceased 

person ; tell mournful news. 
Tu, v.a. to spit; throw out; pluck up; fail. 

T\] followed hy Laso (ni-aso), v. a. to strip off cloth, 

'. NiHORiHO, V. a. to strip naked. 

Tu, -y. n. to cease from paining; navigate; make easy, 
propitiate, reconcile ; collect, gather together. 
Tb followed by Lara (ni-ara), v. a. to refresh, enliven. 

Loju ( — oju), i;. 6?. to tame, reconcile. 

Nino ( — -ino), v. a. to pacify, appease. 

Tuba, v. a. and n. to surrender, repent. 

TuBO, v.a. to attempt, try once more. — Tubo se die 

si i, " Try to do a little more to it." 
TuBu, s. prison, gaol. 
Tujuka (tu-oju-ka), v. n. to be cheerful. 
TuKA, Tukakirt, v. n. to scatter about. 
TuKKo (tu-okko), V. a. to navigate a vessel. 
TuKU, s. wild hog. 
TuLASsiN, s. misfortune, evil. 
TuMO, V. n. to disclose a secret bargain ; baffle a secret 

Tupu, v.n. to run with precipitation. 
TuRARi (Ilaussa) (called in Arabic Tibi), s. aromatic 

drug ; any sweet-scented thing. 
TuTo (tu-ito), V. n. to spit, emit spittle of one's own 

TuTTU, ac?i;. very light, not heavy (applied to Fere, light) ; 
gloomily, sadly. — Iggi yi fere tuttu, " This wood is 
very light." 
Tutu, adv. entirely. — Ogun fo won tutu, " War dispersed 
them entirely." 


Tutu, adj. green ; raw, wet, damp, cold ; cool ; meek, 
quiet; fresh (opposed to salt). 


U, 'pers. ])7'on. 3d pets. sing, ohjec. case, him, her, it (iised 
eiqyJtonicallij after verbs commencing tvith the vowel u. 
See O).— Okko mi tobi, emi ko le itu u, "My 
canoe is large ; I am unable to navigate it." 


Wa, v. a. to seek for, search ; divide, share. 

WkfoUoived hy Idi, Wadi, v. a. to make close exami- 

KiRi, V. a. to seek about, search for. 

Wa, v. n. to be, exist ; dig ; pull a boat. 

V^XfoUoived hy Laiya, v. a. to strengthen, encourage, 
Wa, ' Wa, 2?row. contr.from Awa ; us. 
Wa, v. n. to come, move towards ; shake, tremble. 
Wad! (wa-idi), v. 7i. to examine into, scrutinize. 
Waduwadu, adv. hurriedly, taking no time. 
Waga, s. a parcel of Kaniiun (rock salt) ; soda. 
Wagi, s. butter. 

Wagun (wa-ogun), v. n. to set in battle array. 
Waiialla, s. trouble, affliction. 
Waiiari, s. female slave taken for a wife. 
Wai or Wayi, adv. now, at this time. 
Wain {Eng.), s. wine. 

Waji, s. blue dye, blue stain from dyed cloth. 
Waju, Iwaju, s. face, front, forehead. 
Wajo, v. a. to settle a matter, search into a matter 

Wakasi, Warakasi, s. sour milk, cream, cheese. 
Wakati, s. time, hour, period of time. 
Wala, s. a board used for writing on by the Mahomme- 


WoiiiN (vvo-ehin), v.n, to be crooked on the back, have a 

hunch back. 
Wallami, s. oar, paddle. 
Walle (wa-ille), v. n. to be sober, recover oneself (as 

from drunkenness). — Oju re walle wai, "You are 

now sober." 
Walle, v. a. to dig the ground. 
Wanran-wanran, adv. foolishly, irregularly. 
Wapa, Warapa, s. epilepsy. 

Wapakan (w^o-apa-kan), i?. n. to blink, look sidelong. 
Wara, s. cream, cheese. 
Wara-^Ojo, s. shower. 
Wari, Hari, v. a. to share, divide ; do homage to a 

king, worship. 
Wa-riri, v. n. to tremble greatly. 
Waronki (wa-oron-ki), v. n. to stiffen the neck. — Agidi 

enia ni iwaron ki le kakaraka, " A haughty person 

stiffens his neck." 
Wawa, Haha, s, the leaf of Indian or Guinea corn. 
Wawo (wa-owo), V. n. to cease raining, cease, abate. 
Wayi, Wai, adv. now, at this time. 
Waya-'Ija, v.n. to come to a close contest; struggle. 
We, v.n. to twist, curl ; wean a child. 

WifoIIoived hy Po, v. n. to twist or curl round. 
Wele, adv. lively, with lively motion (expressive of the 

motion of leaves and grass at a gentle breeze). — 

Afefe se oko wele, " The wind makes the grass rustle." 
Were, adj. silly, foolish. 
Were, adv. with a quick lively motion. 
Werew^ere, adv. nimbly, quickly. 
Werepe, Wepe, s. running plant like a bean, bearing a 

hairy pod which stings the hand when touched. 
We, adj. and v. n. to be fine (applied to grains or fibre). — 

Owu, ti mo ra o we, " The cotton which I purchased is 


We, v. n. to sport (as wife and husband)- 


We, v. a. to criisli grain (either by mills or by mastica- 
tion) ; to grind, masticate, smash. — O le bi oju eja ti 
ehin ko le iwe, " It is as hard as the eye of a (smoked) 
fish, which the teeth cannot break." 

We, v. a. and n. to swim ; wash the body ; dress, deco- 
rate, adorn ; cleanse. 
We followed bi/ No, v. a. to wash off, purify, cleanse. 
Lewa (ni-ewa), v. a. to castrate. 

Weno, v. a. to wash, cleanse. 

We-no-mo, v. a. to purify, cleanse thoroughly ; sanctify. 

Werewere, Wewe, aclj. small, dwarf. 

Were, adj. small-sized. 

Wi, V. n. to say, speak, tell. — ^Wi kan fun mi ki nri wi 
nigbati mo ba de ille, "Tell me one thing that I 
may repeat it when I reach home." 
Wifolloived hy Fu, v. a. to tell to. 

Wi, V. a. to burn the hair slightly, singe. 

Wijo (wi-eJ9), V. n. to complain. 

WiKiRi, V. a. to publish about. 

WiLTKi, Sr leather worn by males. 

Win, V, n. to lend to ; borrow from. — Awin isan ko ri 
ow6 win, " The borrower who does not pay gets no 
^ more money lent him." 

WIndi, s. inner coat worn next the body. 

WiNHiN, adj. near, approximate. — Ille vva ko winrin, 
" Our house is not near." 

WiRnviRi,«6/i5. hastily, hurriedly. — Ju u vvirivviri, "Take 
it up quickly." 

WiRiw iri-Alle, s. evening, dusk. 

WiwA, s. the act of coming. See Iwa. 

WiwE, adj. w^ashed. See We. 

Wiwo, adj. crooked. See Wo. 

Wiwo, adj. putting on, entering in. 

Wiwu, s. abscess, swelling. 

Wo, V. a. to fell a tree, break down walls or any upright 
structure, v. n. to fall down (as a tree) ; fall (as a 


horse or any large animal). — Esin babba wo, " My 
father's horse fell ;" (i. e. is dead). 
W6 folloived hy Balle, Lulle, Palle, v. a. to break 
Wo, V. a. to behold, visit, see ; take care of, attend 
a sick person, v. n. to look, appear. — Wohin wohun, 
" To look here and there." 
Wo folloived bi/ Firi, v. a. to look with a glance. 

JiNA, V. n. to heal a wound or sore. 

Wo, V. n. to doze. — Li oru anna emi ko sun emi ko wo, 

" Last night I neither slept nor dozed." 
WoDU, V. n. to grow dark, blacken, assume a dark ap- 
WoL?, s. {Haussa) prophet. 
Wolle (wo-ille), v, n. to fall with the face to the ground 

(through fear or reverence) ; worship. 
WoLUHA, s. family prayer (expression borrowed from 

the Mahommedans). 
WoRAN (wo-iran), v. n. to see, sight ; indulge the sense 

of seeing. 
WoRO, 5. grain. 

Wove (wo-oye), look out, observe, take notice, perceive. 
Wo, X). a. to drag, pull along. 
Wo, v.n. to be crooked, be bent. 
Iwo, s. crookedness. 
Wiwo, adj. crooked. 
Wo, V. n. to set (as the sun) ; disappear (as pimples 
from the skin) ; roost (as fowls) ; go in, enter ; put on 
clothes ; hollow ; be suitable, be convenient. 
Wh followed hy Loron (ni-oron), v. a. to press down (as 
a heavy burden). 
WoBFA, s. greediness, lasciviousness. — Wobia yo tan o 
pe egbe re wa, " The glutton having eaten to the full 
(in the house of a friend), calls his companions also 
to come (to the same house," instead of being satisfied 
with the hospitality he has received). 
281 ^ 2o 


WoKKo (wo-okko), V. n. to embark, enter into a ship. 
WoLLE (wo-ille), V. w. to enter into the ground, sink 

down into the ground. 
Won, adj. and v. n. to be dear, be scarce, not common. 
Won, v. a. to catch a thing thrown from a distance; wean; 

Won, weave, knit; blame, retaliate. — Owon 

adire bi iti won kolokolo ni mo fi won o, "The 

vengeance which the fowls imprecate on the fox, do I 

imprecate on you." 
Wgs, pers. pron. obj. case, them {contr. from Awon, they). 
Won, v. a. to measure, weigh ; prune, pick olF, aim at. 
Wonni, dem.pron. those. 
WoNo (w9-ino), v. n. to enter in. 
W0NS9 (won-aso), v. a. to weave clothes. 
Wo'SY I, dem.pron. these. 
WoRiN, V. a. to make nails. 
W0R9WORO, Wowo, adv. {qualifying v. Lo). — Omi lo wor9- 

W9ro, " The water is only lukewarm." 
W9S0 (w9-aso), V. n. to put on clothes. 
Woso-woso, 5. name of a bird. 

• • • • • • / 

W9-T1, V. n. to draw aside, sit by. 
W9W9, s. copious. 

Wu, WuNi, V. a. to please, give pleasure. — ^"Iwa re wu 
mi gidigidi, '' Your conduct pleases me exceed- 


Wu, V. n. to swell ; look gloomy ; increase, multiply ; stir 
up the sediment. 

WuNDiA, Ommodan, s. virgin, maid. 

WuRA, s. gold. — Enniti o m9 wura li a ita a fun, " Gold 
should be sold to him who knows the value of it." 

WuRE (wu-ire), v. n. to wish a blessing upon from the 
gods, implore blessings ; censure. 

WuRu-wuRu, Wuwu, adv. higgledy-piggledy, in a con- 
fused mass. 

Wuwo, adj. heavy, dull. 



Ya, a^. andv. w. to be in haste, be quick, soon, early. 
Ya, v. a. to hold in pawn ; purchase an image to worship. 
— Mo ri ere meji ti iwo ya l9ddo gbenagbena, " I saw 
the two images you purchased from the image maker." 
Y k followed by Ere, v. a. to make an image. 

Ibeji, Yabeji, v. n. to purchase images 

of the god of twins. 
NiHA, V. a. to annoy or vex by incon- 
sistent conduct. 
Ya, v. n. to warm oneself (at the fire, or in the rays of 

the sun). 
YkyV-ti. to give way. — Ya fun mi kuro li onna, "Give 
way out of the road." 
Ykfollowed hy Ahanna, Yahanna, v.aAo become wild 
and obstinate. 
\k,v.a. to separate; comb; adjust; divide. 
Ya, i;. a. to tear, rend, pluck Indian corn, break off. See 

Yabode (ya-ibi-ode), v. n. to smuggle goods, avoid 

entering through the custom house. 
Yagan (ya-agan), ■y. n, to be childless, barren. 
Yagbe (ya-igbe), v. n. to evacuate. 
Yaju (ya-oju), adj. officious, overforward. 
Yalla, cory. whether. 

Yamyam, s. musquito, sandfly. — Yamyam se fiija li aili 

apa, '* The musquito makes a bold attempt, without 

(/ power (/iV. arms) to accomplish it." The buzzing of 

the musquito is supposed to resemble the word Gbe, 

" To carry away." 

Yan, i;. n. to gape, yawn, neigh, kick. 

Ykn, followed hy Nitete, v. a. to kick. 
Yan, v. a. to choose, select , take any thing from a larger 
number without choice. — Eru po, yan die sille nino 
re, " The load is heavy ; put some on the ground." 


Yan, adv. brilliantly. — Orun boju yan, " The sun shines 
Ya^ followed &y Niposi (ni-ipo-si), v. a. to contemn, 


Owe, Yanwe (yan-iwe), v. n. to be 

protuberant (like a young bird). 

Yan, v.n. to walk proudly, walk leisurely, make oneself 
of great importance. 

Yan, v. a. to bake, fry, parch. 

Yana (ya-ina), v. n. to warm oneself at the fire. 

Yangan, 5. Indian corn. 

Yangi, s. red soft stone (commonly used for building in 
Sierra Leone). 

Yangidj, s. package of money. 

Yaniiun, s. cat ; v. n. to threaten, promise hostility. 

Yanju, adj. fair, beautiful. 

Yankoto, s. an esculent herb. 

Yanna (ya-onna), v. a. to give way, avoid. 

Yanuan, v. n. to be tenacious, not easily corrected or ad- 

Yanranyanran, adv. brilliantly. — Orun nran yanran- 
yanran, " The sun is shining brilliantly." 

Yanrin, s. a disease in fowls, generally affecting their 

Yanr\n, s. sand. 

Yanrin-Mimi, Yanrin-Yiyinrin, s. quicksand ; {lit. yield- 
ing sand). 

Yanrin, s. name of a herb similar to cabbage. 

Yanyan, adv. entirely, completely, to atoms. — Ogun fo 
illu na yanyan, "War destroys the town en- 

Yanyan, adv. roughly, unevenly, not smoothly. 

Ya-odi-yadi, v. n. to be deaf and dumb. 

Yapa (ya-ipa), v. divide, be different, turn to ano- 
ther path, err, stray. 

Yara, s. trench behind a fortification. 


Yara, s. the part of the room which receives light 
through the door. 

Yara (ya-ara), v. n. to be quick, nimble, active, make 
haste, hasten. 

Yara-Ijeun, s. dining-room, guest chamber. 

Yara-^Oke, s. upper room, upper chamber. 

Yatto (ya-9tto), adj. and v. n. to be diverse, different. 

Yaya, Sasa, adv. lively, strongly, briskly. — Ara da mi 
yaya, " I am in vigorous health." 

Yayo (yp-ayo), v.n. to rejoice. 

Ye, v. a. to understand, be comprehensible, intelli- 

Ye, v. n. to lay eggs ; be pleased. 

Ye, adj. and v. n. to be alive, sound (in health or quality), 
having no flaws; adv. {qualifying Ho), with simulta- 
neous noise. 

Ye! interj. a word of exclamation. 

Yemeja, s. goddess of brooks. t 

Yeye, Iya, s. mother. 

Ye, adj. and v. n. to be fit, lawful, becoming ; decent, 
suitable, worthy. 

Ye, v. a. to make much of; praise; indulge. 

Ye, adv. slightly (qualifying words of sleeping). — Mo sun 
ye, " I took a slight sleep." 

Ye, Yera, v. a. to change, move out of place, put off; 
slip one off; go aside. — Awon ero ye ojo atibo W9n, 
"The caravan changed the day of their return." — 
Nwon ye mi sille nino egbe won, " They slipped me 
out of their company." 

Yenna, v. a. to clean a road. 

Yetuyetu, s. flower, blossom. 

Yewu, s. the dark part of a room. 

Yi, V. n. to turn, revolve, move. 

Yi, demons, pron. this ; {contr.from Eyi, before a vowel). 

Yi, V. n. to be tough, fibrous, tenacious. 

YiFFO (yi-effo), v. n. to dress the vegetable Effo. 


YigbI, adj. and v. n. to be dull, slow, heavy, (applied to 

hearing or believing). 
YiGi, IvjGi, s. marriage, (a word adopted from the Ma- 

YiKA (yi-ika), v. n. to make a mark of respect (such as is 

adopted by females) ; surround, encompass, encircle. 
Yin, v. n. to move, shake slightly ; lay eggs. 
Yin, v. a. to attract attention, attract covetous desires. — 

Aso na yin mi loju, "The cloth attracts my atten- 

Yin, v. a. to praise, admire ; fire a gun. 

YiTSi foUoived bi/ Loco (ni-ogo), v. a. to praise, glorify. 

. . . NiBON (ni-ibon), v. a. to fire at, 

YiNBpN (yin-ibon), v. n. to fire a gun. 
YiNFiN ( — ofin), v.n. to break the law, transgress. 
YiNYiN, s. hailstone. 

Yio, aux. future, shall, will; defect, must. 
Yi-PADA, v. a. to turn ; be converted from one thing to 

another; incline towards. 
Yi-po, Yi followed hy Po, v. n. to pervert, turn to the 

YiVAN, adj. and s. that which is chosen, picked out. 
YiYAN, adj. fried, parched. 
YivE, s. that causes a let or hindrance, failure in point of 

Yivo, adj. and. s. that which is to be melted, melted. 
Y6, V. n. to be full, be satisfied with food. 
Yo, adv. deeply red. — Aso na be yo, " The cloth is deeply 

Yo, adv. {Haiissa) well, very good (a word of approba- 
Yo, v.n. to melt; slip off; walk gently; go by stealth. 

Yo followed by Se, Yose, v.n. to do by stealth. 
Yo, v.n. to rejoice, be glad, be merry; slip, slide, glide ; 

be slippery, be viscous. 


Y9, V. a. to j)ull out ; deliver from ; discharge from duty. 
V. n. to slip out ; appear (as the new moon) ; draw 
out (as a knife or sword from the sheath). 
Yo followed by Lohun (ni-ohun), v. a. to seek to ensnare 
in conversation. 

Lennu, (ni-ennu), v. a. to harass, annoy, 

SuTi, v.w. to express contempt by draw- 
ing out the lips ; deride. 
Yoju (y9-oju), v.n. to show the face; be prominent or 

Yoju-Opollo, s. Indian corn in flower. 
YoN, Hon, v. a. to itch, be irritable (as any cutaneous 

Yon, adv. precipitately (describing the noise caused 
by a fall). — Okuta b9 si ino ogbon yon, " The stone 
fell precipitately into the deep." 
YoN, adv. in a swarm. — ^"Qpo enia nto 9 yon, " A multi- 
tude is following you in a swarm." 
YoN, V. a. to cut, saw right off. 
Y9NM9TTI, s. a kind of oily plant. 

Y9NNU (y9-ennu), v. a. to wash the mouth; v. n. to be 
troublesome. — Mo bu omi yonnu li odo, " I took 
(some) water and washed my mouth in the brook." 
Y9NY9N, Akeri, s. plant used for washing horses. 
YoRi (yo-ori), v. n. to rise high, show the head, be pro- 
YoRi, s. name of a bird. 
YoRO, Iyoro, s. louse found on fowls. 
Y9Y9, 5. group. — Adire ol9mmo y9yo, " A hen which has 
many chickens." The milky way is called 01omm9 

^ y9y9- 

YuN, V. n. to go ; be pregnant. — Emi ko yun, " I do not 








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